Journal Of Alloys And Compounds Template

This Authorea document template can be used to prepare documents according to a desired citation style and authoring guidelines. Abstracts are not always required, but most academic papers have one and writers should know how to produce a useful abstract. An abstract should be a very short, clear and concise summation of the entire paper. An abstract should provide enough of a preview that a typical reader will know whether or not they wish to read the paper. It should reveal both the purpose and conclusions of the paper.
Since the discovery of piezoelectricity in quartz crystals by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1857, researchers all over the world focussed their attention in inventing new piezoelectric materials that can be used for energy harvesting, sensor and actuator applications based on piezoelectric and converse piezoelectric effects. Lead based material systems like PZT, PMN-PT, PLZT exhibited excellent properties (1) and continued to be work-horse materials for sensor and actuator applications. However keeping in mind the toxicity of such lead based materials, there is an increase in environmental restrictions on the usage of these materials, hence attention was focussed to develop lead-free piezoelectric materials. Recently Ca, Zr substituted BaTiO3 materials exhibited comparable properties to lead based soft PZT materials (2). Zr doped BaTiO3 has potential applications especially in microwave technology, due to their high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and large tunability compared with Sr doped BaTiO3. The Zr4+ ion (0.087 nm) is chemically more stable than the Ti4+ ion (0.068 nm) and has a larger ionic size to expand the lattice (3). Substitution of the Zr4+ ion with Ti4+ decreases the phase transition temperature. The weaker Ti–O bonds (672.4 kJ/mol) compared to Zr–O bonds (776.1 kJ/mol), reduces distortion of octahedron and substitution of Zr might induce a ‘break’ in cooperative vibration of Ti-O chain and thus reduces the Curie point (4) (5). Polarization and strain data are important in evaluating ferroelectric & piezoelectric properties. The electric field dependent polarization and strain data are largely dependent on a variety of hysteresis parameters such as voltage, frequency and temperature. A proper understanding of effects of such parameters on ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in such piezoelectric material systems is extremely beneficial in understanding how to enhance the desired properties. This paper provides experimental evidence in understanding the effect of each of these parameters on ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties.


This section is only included in papers that rely on primary research. This section catalogues the results of the experiment. The results should be presented in a clear and unbiased way. Most results sections will contain links as well as citations Einstein 2006 and equations such as \(e^{i\pi}+1=0\)


The conclusion should reinforce the major claims or interpretation in a way that is not mere summary. The writer should try to indicate the significance of the major claim/interpretation beyond the scope of the paper but within the parameters of the field. The writer might also present complications the study illustrates or suggest further research the study indicates is necessary.


  1. A. Einstein. Näherungsweise Integration der Feldgleichungen der Gravitation. 99–108 In Albert Einstein: Akademie-Vorträge. Wiley-Blackwell, 1916. Link

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