The investigation of the fundamental laws of the universe, in particular the physics of the microcosm, always requires the use of an energy reservoir. Contemporary researches in particle physics make use of powerful particle accelerators; this approach led to great successes with the building of the Standard Model of particle physics. The latest achievement in that field is the discovery of the Higgs boson that witnesses the breaking of the electroweak symmetry and most likely describes how elementary particles acquire inertial mass. As we shall see, the Standard Model, although it perfectly reproduces hundreds of high-precision measurements, suffers from internal inconsistencies and lacks a microscopic description of phenomena observed on very large scales: dark matter, dark energy, inflation. Another flaw of the model is its inability to offer a quantum description of gravitation. Challenging the Standard Model, with the idea of discovering what lies beyond it, is a task that requires either very high-precision measurements or to have access to an even more powerful energy reservoir, or both.
A possible alternative to particle colliders is to use natural environments to conduct particle physics experiments. Among other possibilities one can to use of stars or neutron stars to search for axions –those light particles that could explain the conserv