INTRODUCTION There are at least 10 million diagrams published in the scientific literature each year and many of them represent factual information. AMI-Diagram is a flexible tool which can mine facts from diagrams and convert the graphics primitives into XML. The targets include X-Y plots, barcharts, chemical structure diagrams and phylogenetic trees. AMI can ingest born-digital diagrams either as latent vectors (converted from Postscript), pixel diagrams (PNGs and JPEgs) or scanned documents. For high-quality/resolution diagrams the process is automatic; commandline parameters can be used for noisy or complex diagrams. AMI is part of the ContentMine framework (contentmine.org) for automatically extracting science from the published literature.
ABSTRACT A recreational transform is investigated. It involves taking a vector of binary numbers, extrapolating the vector into a binary matrix, transposing the matrix and repacking the into a different vector which can have a different number of elements for non-square matrices. This allows for sets of transformations from higher to lower dimensional spaces to be noted.
ABSTRACT We introduce the novel concept of a split number line, in which the positive part is as usual and the negative part undergoes an either symmetric or asymmetric bifurcation at zero. An algrbra is made between the two kinds of negative components and positive compoments in the form of a stable triplex. The implications of this create a further abstraction on the concept of rings over number fields, such as to narrow the application of the Frobenius Theorem. TRIPLEXES AND CONCEPT According to [Source: Ben] a stable simplex on a number field cannot be created, implications of Frobenius Theorem leading any real division algebra isomorphic to either ℝ, ℂ or ℍ where, the set of quaternions ℍ are the only non-Abelian algebra. Exclusion of hypercomplex, and therefore non-associative alegbras as we stick to real division algebra only. We form an abstraction on the signality of a number n ∈ N, where N is a ring over real numbers. Instead of the binary +,- number precursors indicating greater or less than zero we allow, +,-,| where + indicated greater than zero and - and | both indicate a number less than zero. There is a component form to these negative numbers, the “full” value is defined to be -n \to a} + b} with a,b positive constants, and $}, }$ basis elements that transform according to some algebraic rule along with the basis element $}$
ABSTRACT 13/04/2014 I present a very simple algorithm (visual sieve) for testing if a number is prime. The algorithm was first developed visually in a cellular automation manner. A data map is created from a simple recursive function or an equivalent criterion, from this map it is easy to find if a number is prime from the structure of it’s divisors. By checking from the dense end of the factor list the runtime is minimised. All primes up to 14983 were generated in a few seconds on a laptop.
ABSTRACT By introducing a new form of metric tensor the same derivation for the electromanetic tensor Fμν from potentials Aμ leads to the dual space (Hodge Dual) of the regular Fμν tensor. There are additional components in the i, j, k planes, however if after the derivation only the real part is considered a physically consistent electromagnetic theory is recovered with a relabelling of $$ fields to $$ fields and vice versa.
Gaia is a European Space Agency (ESA) astrometry space mission, and a successor to the ESA Hipparcos mission. The main goal of the Gaia mission is to collect high-precision astrometric data (i.e. positions, parallaxes, and proper motions) for the brightest one billion objects in the sky. This data, complemented with G band, multi-epoch photometric and low resolution (lowers) spectroscopic data collected from the same observing platform, will allow astronomers to reconstruct the formation history, structure, and evolution of the Galaxy. In addition, the Gaia satellite is an excellent transient discovery instrument, covering the whole sky (including the Galactic plane) for the next 5 years, at high spatial resolution (50 to 100 mas, similar to the Hubble space telescope (HST)) with precise photometry (1% at G=19) and milliarcsecond astrometry (down to ∼20mag). Thus, Gaia provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of large numbers of transient and anomalous events, e.g. supernovae, black hole binaries and tidal disruption events. We discuss the validation of the alerts stream for the first six months of the Gaia observations, in particular noting how a significant ground based campaign involving photometric and spectroscopic followup of early Gaia alerts is now in place. We discuss the validation approach, and highlight in more detail the specific case of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) to be discovered by Gaia. The intense initial ground based validation campaign will ensure that the Gaia alerts stream for the remainder of the Gaia mission, are well classified.
ABSTRACT Improvements in short-read sequencing technology combined with rapidly decreasing prices have enabled the use of RNA-seq to assay the transcriptome of species whose genome has not been sequenced. _De-novo_ transcriptome assembly attempts to reconstruct the original transcript sequences from short reads. Such transcriptome assemblies are relied upon for gene expression studies, phylogenetic analyses, and molecular tooling. It is therefore important to ensure that assemblies are as accurate as possible, but to date there are no tools for deep quality assessment of assemblies. We present TRANSRATE, an open source command-line program and library implemented in the Ruby and C languages that automates deep analysis of transcriptome assembly quality. Transrate evaluates assemblies based on inspecting contigs, read mapping, and comparison to reference species with an extensive suite of established and novel metrics. In addition we introduce the TRANSRATE SCORE: a novel summary statistic based on an explicit, intuitive statistical model of the transcriptome, that captures many aspects of assembly quality. We demonstrate using both published and simulated data that using Transrate identifies the strengths and weaknesses of different assembly strategies and enables informed optimisation of assembly pipelines.