Plant factory: mitigating the effect of global warming on bean production
Abstract: Common bean varieties produce only viable pollen on cool nights, that is, on nights whose temperatures are below 18 degrees Celsius, the temperature in half of the areas where the bean is grown has increased significantly, which threatens dangerously their production. We developed an experiment under conditions of plant factory where we planted beans of the variety XXX .. This article shows promising results within this experiment, specifically a significant increase in production, as well as a production of bean without pesticides. The production and the conditions show that it is viable the production of beans under plant factory, the costs are not increased and on the contrary a clean and ecologically friendly production is achieved.
"Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris
L.) is the most important grain legume in human diets. It provides protein, complex carbohydrates, and valuable micronutrients for more than 400 million people in the tropics. In many areas, common bean is the second most important source of calories after maize". (http://www.cgiar.org/our-strategy/crop-factsheets/beans/
). Annual consumption can reach 66 kg per person. Globally, about 12 million metric tons of common beans are produced annually. Latin America is the largest producer, with some 5.5 million metric tons.
Traditionally the agronomic management of beans comprises: Soil preparation, soil correction and fertilization, planting system, plant density, weed control, water requirements, pest and disease control, harvest and benefit. Selection of the soil is important for good germination, better root development, better nutrient absorption and greater weed control. Weeds compete with bean planting for water consumption, nutrient extraction and damage the process of photosynthesis as they are an obstacle to the passage of light .The control of weeds in beans is usually done with chemical control, so in the pre-plant glyphosate is used and during the development of the plant selective chemical compounds such as Fusilade, Flex, Basagran, Roundup and Finale. In this way the production of the plant is permanently subjected to toxic chemical agents. (http://ciat-library.ciat.cgiar.org/Articulos_Ciat/biblioteca/MANEJO_AGRONOMICO_DE_FRIJOL-CARTILLA_1-004.pdf
The bean is among the main crops of the world, is underperforming and is one of the most susceptible to diseases (more than 200) and the attack of insects (200-450 pests). Low yields in bean cultivation are due to poor quality of soils grown, adverse climatic conditions in any of the growing stages, use of poor quality seeds, low planting densities in order to reduce the pressure of diseases in cultivation, weed competition, inadequate crop management practices, poor access to inputs to control the crop. In order to improve bean production, a reduction of crop costs, reduction of risks, higher crop yields, reduction of the negative impact of pesticides on the environment or, better yet, non-use of pesticides should be established. Drought, disease pressure and low soil fertility are some of the most limiting problems in bean production.
How can convergence of these aspects be achieved in new production systems?
High production costs and extreme weather events generate large economic losses
Methods and Procedure
Description of the greenhouse:
Second stage: Flowering
Pest and disease:
Measure Potential evapotranspiration: (ET_Pot) was calculated based on daily data temperature, radiation and precipitation, as an indicator of the loss of water within the complex soil plant, atmosphere ET_Pot is essential for the planning and programming of irrigation management of crops -