The prediction of how ice crystals form represents one of the great conundrums in the atmospheric sciences with important implications for the hydrological cycle and climate. Ice-nucleating particles (INPs), typically consisting of sub-and supermicrometer-sized aerosol particles which can be inorganic, organic, biogenic, or biological, initiate heterogeneous ice nucleation processes leading to ice crystal formation. Heterogeneous ice nucleation commences on the nanoscale at the substrate surface and depends on ambient temperature and humidity. Microanalysis techniques are uniquely suited to examine the physicochemical features of the INPs under relevant atmospheric conditions thereby advancing our understanding of the principal processes that promote ice nucleation. In the atmosphere ice crystals experience growth and sublimation resulting in complex microscopic morphologies which, in turn, impact the ice crystal's properties. This chapter provides an overview of microanalysis techniques employed in either a multimodal or in situ manner, which shed light on the atmospheric heterogeneous ice nucleation process and how these techniques are applied to explore the complex morphologies of ice crystals. The first section introduces the various atmospheric ice nucleation pathways, provides a brief outline of the underlying nucleation theory demonstrating that nucleation proceeds on the nanoscale, and describes the different ice crystal habits of growth. Section two provides an overview of the microanalysis techniques and experiments to study INPs or ice-nucleating substrates including multimodal instrument approaches followed by in situ ice nucleation studies. Examples of techniques include Raman, atomic force, electron, and X-ray microscopy with discussion of the techniques’ unique capabilities to examine the physical and chemical properties of the ice-nucleating substrate. The third section presents electron microscopy studies of ice crystals during growth and sublimation displaying the morphological complexities of ice crystals. Lastly, section four discusses typical experimental requirements including sample sizes, radiation effects, and the role of standard INPs.
This introductory chapter discusses the atmospheric subgrid processes ─ collectively called "fast 11 physics" or "fast processes", and their parameterizations in large scale atmospheric models. It 12 presents a brief historical progression of the parameterization of fast processes in numerical 13 models. Despite great efforts and notable advances in understanding, progress in improving fast 14 physics parameterizations has been frustratingly slow, the underlying reasons for which are 15 explored. To guide readers, this chapter describes the main objectives and scope of this book and 16 summarizes each chapter.
Water quality in rivers is influenced by natural factors and human activities that interact in complex and nonlinear ways, which make water quality modelling a challenging task. The concepts of complex networks (CN), a recent development in network theory, seem to provide new avenues to unravel the connections and dynamics of water quality phenomenon, including clandestine teleconnections. This study aims to explore the spatial patterns of water quality using the CN concepts, at both catchment scale and larger national scale. Three major water quality parameters, i.e. dissolved oxygen (DO), permanganate index (COD Mn), and ammonia nitrogen (NH 3-N) are considered for analysis. Weekly data over a period of 12 years (since 2006) from 91 monitoring stations across China are analysed. Degree centrality and clustering coefficient methods are employed. The results show that the degree centrality and clustering coefficients values for water quality indicators is DO > NH 3-N > COD Mn at both basin scale and national scale. Since COD Mn is more sensitive to the upstream point source pollution, as it depends upon the locality and human activities, it leads to a higher heterogeneity of CN indexes even among spatially closer stations. NH 3-N comes next due to the identical pollution level and degradation process in a certain spatial extension. Meanwhile, DO shows good regional connectivity in line with the strong diffusivity. However, the CN characteristic is relatively inconspicuous in large basins and nationwide scale, which indicates the regional impact on water quality fluctuation and CN analysis. These original findings boost a comprehensive understanding of water quality dynamics and enlighten novel methods for environment system analysis and watershed management.
Tethyan evolution is characterized by cyclical continent-transfer from Gondwana to the continents in the Northern Hemisphere, similar to a “one-way” train. Subduction has been viewed as the primary driver of transference. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the tectonic evolution of all past subduction zones that occurred along Eurasia’s southern margin. We studied the earliest known eclogite located at the Neo-Tethyan suture in the Iranian segment. A prograde-E-MORB-like eclogite reached a peak metamorphic condition of 2.2 GPa and 560°C, at 190 ± 11 Ma (1 rutile U-Pb ages), which constrains the youngest age for subduction initiation of the Neo-Tethyan slab. Combined with regional magmatic and structural data, the oldest age for Neo-Tethys subduction initiation is 210–192 Ma, which is younger than the Paleo-Tethyan closure time of 228–209 Ma. These data, used with previous numerical modeling, supports collision-induced subduction initiation. The collision-induced force, together with the Paleo-Tethyan subduction driven-mantle flow, is likely to have exploited weak inherited structures from earlier Neo-Tethyan rifting, resulting in a northward directed subduction zone along the southern margin of Central Iran Block.
Compressional and contractional tectonics are of interest to various researchers, from rock mechanics and engineering to those studying the hazards, dynamics, and evolution of plate boundaries. We summarize here the terminology regarding deformation associated with compressional and contractional tectonics. We describe the now largely discarded geosyncline theory, which has its roots in contraction. Today, plate tectonics is the primary theory for explaining the processes shaping the Earth, including earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain ranges. We emphasize the importance of subduction zones, the most extensive recycling system on the planet, and suture zones, complex boundaries marking the collision zone between two plates. The effects and hazards associated with convergent and collisional plate boundaries are felt far afield and for long distances.
Preface Many physical processes that influence Earth's climate and weather occur on spatial (temporal) scales smaller (shorter) than typical grid sizes (time steps) of general circulation models, and thus must be parameterized. Computer models are essential tools for understanding atmospheric phenomena and for making accurate predictions of any changes in the Earth's climate, weather, and resources of renewable energy resulting from anthropogenic activities that generate greenhouse gases and particulates into the atmosphere. This book focuses on the atmospheric subgrid processes ─ collectively called fast physics ─by reviewing and synthesizing relevant physical understanding, parameterization developments, various measurement technologies, and model evaluation framework. The publication is divided into three parts, containing seventeen chapters (Chapters 2-17) to reflect and synthesize the multiple aspects involved. The first chapter briefly introduces the historical development of fast physics parameterizations and the involved complexities; the last chapter summarizes emerging challenges, new opportunities and future research directions. Part I deals with major subgrid processes, with eight chapters (Chapters 2-9) each covering different processes more or less in the conventional compartmentalized format with an emphasis on individual processes, including but, not limited to radiative transfer, aerosols, and aerosol direct & indirect effects, entrainment-mixing processes, their microphysical influences, convection & convective clouds, stratiform clouds such as stratus and stratocumulus clouds, planetary boundary layer processes, land surface and interactions with atmosphere, and gravity waves. On top of the conventional treatments, some promising ideas/approaches have recently emerged to unify the treatment of individual processes and thus allows for consideration of process interactions. Part II is devoted to such unifying efforts, with four chapters (Chapters 10-13) covering four different endeavors: the unifying parameterizations based on assumed probability density functions; the EDMF approach that combines the Eddy Diffusivity and Mass Flux approaches to unify turbulence and convection; application of machine learning techniques; and innovative top-down attempts that consider the involved totality by borrowing ideas from systems theory, statistical physics, and non-linear sciences. Part III (Chapters 14-17) is devoted to assessments, model evaluation, and model-measurement integration, with four chapters that focus on satellite and airborne remote sensing measurements, surface-based remote sensing measurements, in-situ and laboratory measurements, and model evaluation, and model-measurement integration, respectively.
Biomass burning has shaped many of the ecosystems of the planet and for millennia humans have used it as a tool to manage the environment. When widespread fires occur, the health and daily lives of millions of people can be affected by the smoke, often at unhealthy to hazardous levels leading to a range of short-term and long-term health consequences such as respiratory issues, cardiovascular issues, and mortality. It is critical to adequately represent and include smoke and its consequences in atmospheric modeling systems to meet needs such as addressing the global climate carbon budget and informing and protecting the public during smoke episodes. Many scientific and technical challenges are associated with modeling the complex phenomenon of smoke. Variability in fire emissions estimates has an order of magnitude level of uncertainty, depending upon vegetation type, natural fuel heterogeneity, and fuel combustion processes. Quantifying fire emissions also vary from ground/vegetation-based methods to those based on remotely sensed fire radiative power data. These emission estimates are input into dispersion and air quality modeling systems, where their vertical allocation associated with plume rise, and temporal release parameterizations influence transport patterns, and, in turn affect chemical transformation and interaction with other sources. These processes lend another order of magnitude of variability to the downwind estimates of trace gases and aerosol concentrations. This chapter profiles many of the global and regional smoke prediction systems currently operational or quasi-operational in real time or near-real time. It is not an exhaustive list of systems, but rather is a profile of many of the systems in use to give examples of the creativity and complexity needed to simulate the phenomenon of smoke. This chapter, and the systems described, reflect the needs of different agencies and regions, where the various systems are tailored to the best available science to address challenges of a region. Smoke forecasting requirements range from warning and informing the public about potential smoke impacts to planning burn activities for hazard reduction or resource benefit. Different agencies also have different mandates, and the lines blur between the missions of quasi-operational organizations (e.g. research institutions) and agencies with operational mandates. The global smoke prediction systems are advanced, and many are self-organizing into a powerful ensemble, as discussed in section 2. Regional and national systems are being developed independently and are discussed in sections 3-5 for Europe (11 systems), North America (7 systems), and Australia (3 systems). Finally, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) effort (section 6) is bringing together global and regional systems and building the Vegetation Fire and Smoke Pollution Advisory and Assessment Systems (VFSP-WAS) to support countries with smoke issues and who lack resources.
Convergent orogens are typically linear with laterally continuous, orogen-parallel folds and thrusts. Over the years, geoscience research has revealed evidence for important orthogonal/cross structures as well as lateral heterogeneity in deformation style, igneous activity, metamorphic grade, geomorphology, and seismic activity. To assess the occurrence, causal mechanisms, and implications of these lateral heterogeneities, a selection of convergent orogens, with different tectonic settings and history are reviewed. The Appalachians, the North American Cordillera, the Alps, the Himalayas, the Zagros, the Andes, and several other belts all exhibit a degree of lateral heterogeneity. Major factors driving the lateral heterogeneity and/or cross structures include the pre-existing deformational history of the cratonic blocks involved, lateral change in lithology of crustal rocks, variations in crustal/lithospheric rheologic properties, or changes in plate kinematics. The Appalachian orogenic front mimics the Iapetan rift margin. Pre-existing basement structures have control on pre- and syn-orogenic sedimentation, which subsequently impacts how an orogenic wedge evolves. A thicker sedimentary column generally evolves into a salient (as opposed to a recess), which is further enhanced by the presence of weak horizons as seen in the Zagros and the Cordillera. Lateral variation in sedimentary facies also creates changes in thrust-ramp geometry. During orogenic contraction, inherited basement structures can be preferentially reactivated based on their orientation. Several cross faults in the Himalayas spatially coincide with orogen-perpendicular, lower plate, basement structures. In a similar way, oceanic subducting plate physiography can also influence deformation in the overriding plate. Along-strike variations in subduction dynamics have been reflected in the Andean deformation. Orogenic extension in the Alps has been accompanied by a system of orogen-parallel strike slip faults and extensional cross faults. It is evident that lateral heterogeneities can form crucial control on the evolution of orogenic belts and can influence seismic rupture patterns, resource occurrence, and landslide-related natural hazards.
A thermodynamic model to calculate the “Sulfide Content at Sulfide Saturation” or SCSS of basaltic and intermediate composition silicate melts has been built from four independently measurable thermodynamic entities, namely the standard state Gibbs free energy of the saturation reaction, the “sulfide capacity”, and the activities of FeO in the silicate melt and of FeS in the coexisting sulfide: ln [S2-]SCSS = ∆G(FeO-FeS)/RT + ln C(S2- )- ln a(FeO)(sil melt) + ln a(FeS)sulf The model was calibrated for silicate melts of basic and intermediate composition from published experimental results as a function of temperature, silicate melt composition, and sulfide matte composition in the system Fe-Ni-Cu-S-O at 1 bar. The likely effects of pressure and H2O content on SCSS were included in an exploratory way. The model was tuned against the large dataset of S contents in OFB glasses of Jenner and O’Neill (2012), giving it a precision comparable to that of the S analyses themselves, which is ~ 5%. All but 3% the OFB glasses were found to be sulfide saturated within uncertainty; these 3% have lost S by devolatization, revealed by their low S/Se. Applying the model to other OFB datasets suggests sulfide saturation is ubiquitous, including olivine-hosted melt inclusions proposed previously to be sulfide undersaturated. The sulfur fugacity (fS2) of undegassed Ocean Floor Basalts varies proportionally to fO2, with log10fS2 typically within the range -0.6 to +0.4.
In its three-dimensional (3-D) characterization, drought is approached as an event whose spatial extent changes over time. Each drought event has an onset and end time, a location, a magnitude, and a spatial trajectory. These characteristics help to analyze and describe how drought develops in space and time, i.e., drought dynamics. Methodologies for 3-D characterization of drought include a 3-D clustering technique to extract the drought events from the hydrometeorological data. The application of the clustering method yields small ‘artifact’ droughts. These small clusters are removed from the analysis with the use of a cluster size filter. However, according to the literature, the filter parameters are usually set arbitrarily, so this study concentrated on a method to calculate the optimal cluster size filter for the 3-D characterization of drought. The effect of different drought indicator thresholds to calculate drought is also analyzed. The approach was tested in South America with data from the Latin American Flood and Drought Monitor (LAFDM) for 1950–2017. Analysis of the spatial trajectories and characteristics of the most extreme droughts is also included. Calculated droughts are compared with information reported at a country scale and a reasonably good match is found.
Conceptual hydrological models imply a simplification of the complexity of the hydrological system; however, it lacks the flexibility in reproducing a wide range of the catchment responses. Usually, a trade-off is done to sacrifice the accuracy of a specific aspect of the system behavior in favor of the accuracy of other aspects. This study evaluates the benefit of using a modular approach, “The fuzzy committee model” of building specialized models (same structure associated with different parameter realization) to reproduce specific responses (high and low flow response) of the catchment. The study also assesses the applicability of using predicted runoff from both specialized models with certain weights based on a fuzzy membership function to form a fuzzy committee model. This research continues to explore the fuzzy committee models first presented by [Solomatine, 2006] and further developed by [Fenicia et al., 2007; Kayastha et al., 2013]. In this paper, weighting schemes with power parameter values are investigated. A thorough study is conducted on the relation between the fuzzy committee variables (the membership functions and the weighting schemes), and their effect on the model performance. Furthermore, the Fuzzy committee concept is applied on a conceptual distributed model with two cases, the first with lumped catchment parameters and the latter with distributed parameters. A comparison between different combinations of the fuzzy committee variables showed the superiority of all Fuzzy Committee models over single models. Fuzzy committee of distributed models performed well, especially in capturing the highest peak in the calibration data set; however, it needs further study of the effect of model parameterization on the model performance and uncertainty.
Cumulate rocks record the magmatic and cooling processes during formation of Earth’s igneous crust. Extracting the information of these two processes from mineral records, however, is often convoluted by various extents of diffusive resetting during cooling subsequent to main stages of crystallization. Accordingly, for cumulate rocks at diffusive closure, the apparent “equilibrium” temperatures derived from geothermometers are generally lower than the crystallization temperatures. Using analytical or numerical models, geospeedometers can extract cooling rates from the closure temperatures (or profiles) but only if the initial temperatures are determined independently. Here I summarize the general framework of geothermometry and geospeedometry from a trace element perspective. The Mg and REE-based exchange geothermometers for mafic cumulate rocks are reviewed as examples of the geothermometer design. Based on the observed differential diffusive closures of Mg and REE in oceanic gabbros, I outline a general resolution to uniquely determine the initial crystallization temperature and cooling rate of a cumulate rock. The basic idea is further demonstrated using the recently developed Mg-REE coupled geospeedometer for mafic cumulate rocks. Finally, I use the Hess Deep gabbros as a case study to show that this two-element coupled geospeedometer is particularly useful to delineate the igneous accretion and cooling styles during crust formation. This two-element (or multi-element) coupled approach outlined here can also be readily extended for decoding comprehensive thermal histories of other petrological systems at various geological settings or other rocky planetary bodies.
The mixing and mingling of magmas of different compositions are important geological processes. They produce various distinctive textures and geochemical signals in both plutonic and volcanic rocks and have implications for eruption triggering. Both processes are widely studied, with prior work focusing on field and textural observations, geochemical analysis of samples, theoretical and numerical modelling, and experiments. However, despite the vast amount of existing literature, there remain numerous unresolved questions. In particular, how does the presence of crystals and exsolved volatiles control the dynamics of mixing and mingling? Furthermore, to what extent can this dependence be parameterised through the effect of crystallinity and vesicularity on bulk magma properties such as viscosity and density? In this contribution, we review the state of the art for models of mixing and mingling processes and how they have been informed by field, analytical, experimental and numerical investigations. We then show how analytical observations of mixed and mingled lavas from four volcanoes (Chaos Crags, Lassen Peak, Mt. Unzen and Soufrière Hills) have been used to infer a conceptual model for mixing and mingling dynamics in magma storage regions. Finally, we review recent advances in incorporating multi-phase effects in numerical modelling of mixing and mingling, and highlight the challenges associated with bringing together empirical conceptual models and theoretically-based numerical simulations.
Experiment and observation have established the centrality of oxygen fugacity (fO2) to determining the course of igneous differentiation, and so the development and application of oxybarometers have proliferated for more than half a century. The compositions of mineral, melt, and vapor phases determine the fO2 that rocks record, and the activity models that underpin calculation of fO2 from phase compositions have evolved with time. Likewise, analytical method development has made new sample categories available to oxybarometric interrogation. Here we compile published analytical data from lithologies that constrain fO2 (n=860 volcanic rocks - lavas and tephras and n=326 mantle lithologies- the majority peridotites) from ridges, back-arc basins, forearcs, arcs, and plumes. Because calculated fO2 varies with choice of activity model, we re-calculate fO2 for each dataset from compositional data, applying the same set of activity models and methodologies for each data type. Additionally, we compile trace element concentrations (e.g. vanadium) which serve as an additional fO2-proxy. The compiled data show that, on average, volcanic rocks and mantle rocks from the same tectonic setting yield similar fO2s, but mantle lithologies span a much larger range in fO2 than volcanics. Multiple Fe-based oxybarometric methods and vanadium partitioning vary with statistical significance as a function of tectonic setting, with fO2 ridges < back arcs < arcs. Plume lithologies are more nuanced to interpret, but indicate fO2s ridges. We discuss the processes that may shift fO2 after melts and mantle lithologies physically separate from one another. We show that the effects of crystal fractionation and degassing on the fO2 of volcanics are smaller than the differences in fO2 between tectonic settings and that effects of subsolidus metamorphism on the fO2 values recorded by mantle lithologies remain poorly understood. Finally, we lay out challenges and opportunities for future inquiry.
Magmas readily react with their surroundings, which may be other magmas or solid rocks. Such reactions are important in the chemical and physical evolution of magmatic systems and the crust, for example, in inducing volcanic eruptions and in the formation of ore deposits. In this contribution, we conceptually distinguish assimilation from other modes of magmatic interaction and discuss and review a range of geochemical (+/- thermodynamical) models used to model assimilation. We define assimilation in its simplest form as an end-member mode of magmatic interaction in which an initial state (t0) that includes a system of melt and solid wallrock evolves to a later state (tn) where the two entities have been homogenized. In complex natural systems, assimilation can refer more broadly to a process where a mass of magma wholly or partially homogenizes with materials derived from wallrock that initially behaves as a solid. The first geochemical models of assimilation used binary mixing equations and then evolved to incorporate mass balance between a constant-composition assimilant and magma undergoing simultaneous fractional crystallization. More recent tools incorporate energy and mass conservation in order to simulate changing magma composition as wallrock undergoes partial melting. For example, the Magma Chamber Simulator utilizes thermodynamic constraints to document the phase equilibria and major element, trace element, and isotopic evolution of an assimilating and crystallizing magma body. Such thermodynamic considerations are prerequisite for understanding the importance and thermochemical consequences of assimilation in nature, and confirm that bulk assimilation of large amounts of solid wallrock is limited by the enthalpy available from the crystallizing resident magma. Nevertheless, the geochemical signatures of magmatic systems-although dominated for some elements (particularly major elements) by crystallization processes-may be influenced by simultaneous assimilation of partial melts of compositionally distinct wallrock.
Changes in precipitation extremes remain a key uncertainty as the climate warms. Improved understanding of their evolution is crucial for effective water management. A number of studies have demonstrated various scaling relationships between precipitation extremes and several different environmental variables. In this chapter, we review recent important advances in two of these relationships primarily based on observations: The scaling of precipitation extremes with surface temperature (both air temperature and dew point temperature) and convective available potential energy (CAPE). Two up-to-date global daily datasets are also used to provide a further check on the generality of earlier findings. Known scaling relationships are used to quantify the impacts of these two factors on precipitation extremes. Results show that both of them play important roles, but their impacts vary over different regions on various time scales, highlighting the challenges of constructing global relationships to explain the changing nature of precipitation extremes.
Health outcomes attributable to wildfire smoke pollution exposure are an increasingly important global health issue especially as wildfires are increasing in frequency and intensity with climate change. In this chapter, we present an up-to-date overview of the literature regarding the health consequences of wildfire smoke pollution exposure experienced by adults, identify research gaps, and propose possible areas for future epidemiological studies. We also discuss existing interventions to reduce the negative health outcomes associated with wildfire smoke pollution exposure.
Xenoliths of plutonic rocks sporadically torn off by erupting magmas are known to carry valuable information about volcano plumbing systems and the lithosphere in which they emplace. One of the main steps to interpret such information is to quantify the pressure and temperature conditions at which the xenolith mineral assemblages last equilibrated. This chapter discusses some aspects of geothermobarometry of mafic and ultramafic rocks using the xenolith populations of Hualalai and Mauna Kea volcanoes, Hawaii, as case studies. Multiple- reaction geobarometry, recently revisited for olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase spinel assemblages, provides the most precise pressure estimates (uncertainties as low as 1.0 kbar). An example is shown that integrates these estimates with calculated seismic velocities of the xenoliths and the available data from seismic tomography. The results allow to better constrain some km-scale horizontal and vertical heterogeneities in the magmatic system beneath Hawaii. Ultramafic xenoliths at Hualalai are the residuals of magma crystallization at 16–21 km depth, below the pre-Hawaiian oceanic crust. Few available gabbronorites and diorites record instead lower pressures and likely represent conduits or small magma reservoir crystallized at 0–8 km depth. At Mauna Kea, on the other hand, a significant portion of the xenolith record is composed by olivine-gabbros, which crystallized almost over the entire crustal thickness (3– 18 km). Ultramafic xenoliths are less abundant and might represent the bottom of the same magma reservoirs that crystallized in the deeper portion of the magmatic systems (11–18 km). Some unresolved issues remain in geothermometry of mafic and ultramafic rocks representing portions of magma reservoirs that cooled and recrystallized under subsolidus conditions. This suggests that further experimental and theoretical work is needed to better constrain the thermodynamics and kinetics of peridotitic and basaltic systems at low (< 1000 ̵̊C) temperatures.