In order to build UHV AC transmission lines at high altitudes, it is necessary to analyze the audible noise characteristics of the existing EHV transmission lines at high altitude areas to guide the design. The typical test data of audible noise for 750 kV single circuit transmission lines measured at the Guanting long-term observation station, located at an altitude of 1854 m, were collected. Two methods of sorting the test data of audible noise and extracting valid data were given. Then the levels of audible noise under different weather conditions were analyzed, which showed that audible noise was raised with the increase of instantaneous rainfall and snowfall. Typical frequency spectrums of audible noise under different weather were also obtained, the pure tone at 100 Hz was more prominent under rainy and snowy weather, and the pure tone oscillation attenuated at different positions. Audible noise at different locations presented the better attenuation characteristics with the increase of distance during rainy days. The statistical results and calculated difference of audible noise over 5.5 hours with continuous rainfall were obtained. For the quiet plateau areas, the calculated difference between audible noise during rainy days and fair weather can be taken as 25 dB.
Power systems around the world are rapidly transitioning to much higher shares of inverter-based resources (IBRs) with few synchronous generators remaining online. IBRs and synchronous generators have fundamentally different dynamic performance characteristics resulting in a difference in the overall power system dynamic performance. IBRs are generally more flexible and controllable than synchronous generators, however at the same time exhibit significantly more complex control systems. Furthermore, new and emerging capabilities are being developed progressively and in particular the so-called grid-forming inverters. Grid-forming inverters (GFM) offer several new capabilities not previously possible with conventional grid-following inverters (GFL). However, they are not well understood currently when applied in a mega scale and moving forward when they will likely take over the role synchronous generators have been performing for several decades as the workhorse of system security support. Key questions currently in the technical community include the extent to which GFM shall be similar or different to each of the synchronous machines and conventional GFL, and how various control strategies can assist in maximising the grid support capabilities sought and minimise or ideally eliminate any adverse impacts. The objective of this special issue is to provide insights into some of these unknowns.
Integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in power systems exacerbates the existing information problems between power utilities and regulators. DER policies oblivious to the trilemma of information asymmetry between power utilities, DER aggregators, and regulators result in distorted price signals to DER investors, and socially inefficient DER roll-out. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach for modeling information asymmetry in distribution network information and consumer data between the DER aggregators and the power utilities. The proposed framework is based on Single Leader Single Follower (SLSF) games, reformulated as Mathematical Programs with Equilibrium Constraints (MPECs), and solved using the Scholtes’s relaxation technique. Our results, based on the 7-bus Manhattan power network, show that unless the DER aggregators have complete information about the distribution network characteristics, the welfare along with the realized installed capacity of DERs in the system decreases. Moreover, progressively decreasing DER investment costs alleviate the effects of information asymmetry, suggesting that early adopters face disproportionately high welfare losses attributed to incomplete information between the DER stakeholders. Hence, policy interventions to alleviate the rampant information problems are imperative to ensure an optimal DER roll-out.
As electric vehicles(EVs) begin to participate in the peak regulating auxiliary service market, it has become a major problem that how can price aggregators maximize the peak shaving capacity provided by EVs and maximize their own interests. This paper proposes a bargaining game pricing method based on the psychology cost of EVs and the risk assessment of aggregators. First of all, according to the impact of users’ participation in peak shaving on the battery life of EVs, the impact of participation in peak shaving on users’ original travel plans and time, and the impact of aggregator pricing on users’ psychology, the comprehensive psychology cost of EV users is obtained. Then, based on the user’s psychology cost and the law of gravitation, the evaluation scheme for the peak shaving capacity of EVs is obtained. On the basis of conditional value at risk(CVaR), the mixed CVaR is obtained by considering the behavior of users who may chase risks. Based on the mixed CVaR, the risk assessment of aggregators’ participation in the peak regulating auxiliary service market is carried out. According to the above information, the aggregators and the EV teams are engaged in a bargaining game based on the peak shaving pricing problem, which is divided into complete information game and incomplete information game. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified by an example analysis.
A novel parameter estimation method is proposed for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), which is implemented by an enhanced self-learning particle swarm optimization algorithm with Levy flight (SLPSO), and the problem of lower parameter estimation precision of standard PSO is obviated. This method injects currents of different intensities into the d-axis in a time-sharing manner to solve the problem of equation under-ranking, and the mathematical model for full-rank parameter estimation is developed. The speed term of PSO is simplified to expedite the convergence of PSO, and a strategy with Chaotic decline for the inertia weight of PSO is adopted to strengthen its ability to jump out of the local optimum. Moreover, the self-learning dense fleeing strategy (SLDF) is proposed where particles perform diffusion learning based on population density information and Levy flight, the evolutionary unitary problem and human intervention in the evolutionary process is averted. Furthermore, the memory tempering annealing algorithm (MTA) and greedy algorithm (GA) is integrated into the algorithm, MTA can facilitate the exploration of potentially better regions, and GA for local optimization enhances the convergence speed and accuracy in late stage of the algorithm. Comparing the proposed method with several existing PSO algorithms through simulation and experiments, the experimental data show that the proposed method can effectively track variable parameters under different working conditions and has better robustness.
This paper proposes an intelligent approach based on the empirical Fourier decomposition (EFD) to identify harmonic sources at the point of common coupling (PCC) when different inverter-based distributed generations (DGs) like microturbine (MT), Battery energy storage system (BESS), photovoltaic (PV), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), and doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine are presented. In order to decrease memory storage and computational burden, strife feature selection is used. Applying just voltage signals consumes less processing time and decreases measurement devices. Moreover, the whale optimization algorithm (WOA) as the optimizer of the parameters of the support vector machine (SVM) classifier is used. Consequently, the results from the proposed method can be helpful for both engineers and researchers to plan and develop a better strategy to mitigate harmonic distortion.
The iron core in the circuit breaker of oil dashpot is mainly affected by the electromagnetic force, spring force and oil damping force, which can play the function of anti-time protection when overload current is excited. At low temperature, the viscosity of the methyl silicone oil damping fluid will change, and the parameters of spring and iron core will also change with temperature. The change of this parameters will lead to the change of the resultant force on the iron core, which will affect the operation time. To analyze this problem, a correlation model is established. Through the measurement of parameters at low temperature, numerical calculation, electromagnetic analysis, simulation analysis and compared with the experimental results. The study found that the viscosity of the damping fluid increases, the iron core is deformed, and the spring stiffness increases at low temperature. The influence of a single factor on the operation characteristics of the tripper is not enough to reflect its overall characteristics, and the comprehensive effect of each factor needs to be considered. After comprehensively considering all factors, the results are closer to the experimental results. The results provide a theoretical basis for the optimization design of the circuit breaker.