This study presents a comparative analysis of radar cross section (RCS) simulations using Ansys High-Frequency Simulation Software (HFSS) and MATLAB. The primary objective is to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of RCS calculations performed by these two software tools for metallic cylinders. Metallic cylinders are selected as radar targets due to their well-defined and standardized shapes, which enable easier modeling and comparative analysis. To validate the RCS simulations, actual RCS measurements were conducted on an airport runway. The measurements took place at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) using an FOD detection system operating at 93.1 GHz. By comparing the measured RCS data with the simulations results, the agreement and reliability of the simulation techniques were assessed, considering metallic cylinders of six different sizes. The findings indicate that the RCS values obtained from measurements align with the simulation results, exhibiting a similar RCS pattern. Both simulations exhibit minimal discrepancies, ranging between 0.01 to 0.1 dBsm. Through the analysis of the simulation results and measurements, valuable insight were gained regarding the performance and effectiveness of HFSS and MATLAB in predicting RCS values. Consequently, this study contributes to the understanding and validation of RCS simulation techniques and their practical applicability in real-world scenarios.
This paper, presents a 4×4 BM based on four direction switch BM antenna array. The proposed design operated at 3.5 GHz. The use of multi-beam antennas or switched-beam antenna arrays (SAAs) promised users of high-gain and large coverage areas for 5G technologies. The BM was implemented by combining 3-dB BLC, two crossovers, and 45 o phase shifters fabricated on the RT5880LZ substrate, with using a triangular slot and T-shape based on the BM design. The proposed design focused on the miniaturization and enhancement of the bandwidth. The return loss and isolation were better than -15 dB at all the ports, according to the simulated and measured result showed that with excellent insertion loss -6.1 ± 2 dB. A fractional bandwidth of 49.7% and the overall dimension were reduced to 56% as compared to the conventional BLC and crossover. Hence, the proposed design of BM performed an excellent size reduction of 80% and improvement bandwidth up to 836 MHz compared to the traditional BM. The switched beam directions were measured at -34 o, -40 o, +32 o and +35 o at 3.5 GHz for each input port of 1-4 excitation. The proposed design BM is suitable of 5G application.
This work presents an investigation on the numerical simulation of a layered piezoelectric system using the complex finite element method (ZFEM). This approach allows the standard FEM solution to provide information about the design sensitivity of the mechanical displacement and voltage potential fields with respect to small variations in the material properties of the system. The layered body is formed by PZT-4 and PZT-5 stacked together. Results show that the design sensitivities of the soft grounded piezoelectric are larger compared to those of PZT-4 for the specific configuration analyzed. For solution verification purposes. The standard steady state solution was compared against a commercial FEM package and the error obtained was less than 4%.
This paper presents the room temperature performance of Si MOSFET nanowires subjected to NBTI (Negative Bias temperature Instability) and HCI (Hot Carrier Injection) stress. The static and dynamic characterizations were carried out with an enormous amount of stress adequate for a trapping / detrapping corresponding to NBTI and HCI. A simulated aging test bench has been designed to evaluate the lifetime of trapping / detrapping loads under resistive stress with an ambient temperature of 300K.
In the upcoming epochs, conventional energy may deplete soon. Thus, the use of conventional energy in the power industries need to be supplemented by non-conventional energy resources. This would result in loss of synchronisms in the power grids owing to the fact that solar and wind alternate their attributes expeditiously with change in atmospheric phenomenon. To ameliorate frequency deviation within a specific range automatic generation control (AGC) implements forced allowance on system operation. A three area thermal with photovoltaic (PV), electric vehicle (EV), wind system is considered under deregulated environment to develop and to judge the efficacy of newly developed cascade fractional order hybrid controller combination of (FOTID & 3DOF-PID). Comparing the aforementioned controller to other controllers such as the three degree of freedom proportional-integral-derivative (3DOF-PID), the fractional order tilt-integral-derivative (FOTID), and the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) justifies the system’s effectiveness. This assessment has been accomplished by a trendy optimization technique such as hybrid whale optimization algorithm (HWOT). However, the main intent of this write-up is to fabricate a cascade fractional order (CC-FO) hybrid controller that would act as the new control mechanism for the proposed system under deregulated scenario. It has been found that the suggested CC-FO hybrid controller stabilises the system ( i.e., Under step load disruptions, frequency deviation and tie-line power become zero) in the shortest amount of time possible. Additionally, it is seen that the recommended controller can control a wide range of nominal loading circumstances and system characteristics, demonstrating its robustness.