This letter proposes a cross-domain WiFi-based gesture recognition system (WiCross) based on a dynamically weighted multi-label generative adversarial network. Most existing WiFi-based gesture recognition systems are user, orientation, and environment sensitive, which limits the application of WiFi sensing. Compared with the influence of users and environments on WiFi sensing systems, the influence of orientation on WiFi sensing systems is more difficult to remove. To alleviate the confusion caused by the orientation more effectively, we arrange the transmitting and receiving antennas according to the characteristics of the Fresnel region. We propose to dynamically weight different links according to users’ orientations and use a multi-label generative adversarial network to obtain domain-independent features. More importantly, WiCross can use domain-independent features to classify some unknown gestures without modifying any code or data set. Lightweight computing resource consumption allows WiCross to respond in real-time. The experimental results show that WiCross can achieve an in-domain recognition accuracy of 93.54% and a cross-domain recognition accuracy of 93.11%
A novel 3-bit frequency-reconfigurable antenna (FRA) with miniaturized dimensions is realized with a meander line. The frequency reconfiguration of the antenna is achieved by introducing N RF p-i-n diodes into the meander line. The related parts of the meander line with different lengths are bypassed or included into the antenna by switching on or off the diodes, resulting in 2N switchable size lengths of the antenna and equally spaced operating frequencies. A 3-bit meander-line reconfigurable antenna (N=3) is designed, and the simulated and measured results agree well. The antenna provides 23=8 independent switchable states, with the operating frequencies covering a wide switchable frequency range from 1.04 GHz to 1.51 GHz and the working bandwidths varying from 80 MHz to 150 MHz. The number of working states is optimally large, considering the number of switches used. Besides, this work has an acceptable peak gain of 1.59 dBi regarding the miniaturized total dimension of 0.17 λ × 0.07 λ (λ is the wavelength of the lowest working frequency), which is more compact than many published FRAs.
This paper presents an energy-efficient digital-to-analog converter (DAC) switching method with low common-mode variations for high resolution successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), while enabling to implement resolutions such as 14-bit as compared to the typical 10-bit. The proposed switching method enables high resolution by having a nearly constant common-mode voltage and employing input-swapping to use the reference voltage (Vref) only in the sampling phase. This method eliminates the need for the third reference voltage during the entire DAC switching steps, which reduces the required number of switches even compared to the state-of-the-art methods that use low number of switches. The use of lower number of switches not only lowers the DAC control logic complexity, but also results in a faster operation, lower power, and smaller area. When compared to conventional 10-bit SAR ADCs, the proposed switching method in a 10-bit implementation reduces the average switching energy and area by 93.7 % and 75 %, respectively, while offering high resolution implementation options such as 14 bits.
A low-power wideband self-biased phase-locked loop (SPLL) is proposed for multi-protocol SerDes applications in this letter. With the proposed adaptive fast-locking current circuit (AFLCC), the settling time is reduced significantly, and no extra power and jitter contribution. In addition, a start-up module is adopted to reset the system to an optimal initial operating frequency quickly. The proposed 1-3-GHz SPLL, fabricated in TSMC 28-nm CMOS process and occupies a compact 0.028mm2 area. It achieves a roughly constant settling time of 5 μs over all frequencies and division ratios range. Only 0.96 mW is consumed from a 0.9 V supply at 1 GHz frequency.
It is shown experimentally a new digital optical decoding scheme based on the transmission or polarized light at p polarization planes using a K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm through a single-mode optical fibre at 633 nm. The optical power signal is sent at p polarization planes which constitute p classes required for signal bit recognition. Results show that it is possible to recognize 32 polarizations planes, 5 bits, using 4 features corresponding to the measurement of optical power at 4 different angles at the photodetector side with an average assertiveness of 99.1%.
The development of mega constellations inevitably brings various problems for the development of routing techniques. Most of the existing work considers end-to-end delay and load balancing problems, while the analysis of routing strategies in case of link performance degradation is neglected, and an optimization approach applicable to mega satellite networks is not developed. In this letter, we propose a robust routing strategy based on deep reinforcement learning (RRS-DRL) that regards the Age of Information (AoI) of packets as an optimization target, and ensures the effectiveness of message transmission throughout the network. Extensive simulation results show that our proposed RRS-DRL algorithm obtains a lower average AoI across the network and better utilization of the resources than the traditional shortest path algorithm, significantly increasing the robustness of the constellation.
The tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is capable of providing ranging and communication services for user spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) through the inter-satellite link (ISL). The time delay of TDRS’ ISL transponder in orbit differs from that before launch and changes due to complex space environment, which contributes non-negligible errors to user spacecraft’s orbit determination based on the four-way ranging data. We construct a calibration system and propose an efficient on-orbit calibration method for time delay of ISL transponder in TDRS. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the RMS of calibration residuals is less than 0.5 meters.
In this paper, a 2-bit digital reflection-type phase shifter working at 120 GHz is presented. It uses a compact coupled-lines coupler with low insertion loss and high isolation over a wide bandwidth. The loads are made by a microstrip-line loaded by three PIN diodes whose states are tuned ON/OFF to obtain 90°, 180° and 270° phase shift relative to the reference (0°). Measurement results show RMS phase and amplitude error equal to 10.3° and 1.2 dB, respectively. The maximum insertion loss is equal to 8.6 dB, leading to a figure of merit of 31°/dB. As shown by simulation, by flipping PIN diodes and use negative voltage for biasing, the maximum insertion loss could be reduced to 3.6 dB (figure of merit of 75°/dB) along with a great improvement in RMS phase and amplitude errors, thus showing the potential of the proposed architecture.
A low-power NPN-based bandgap voltage reference (BGR) over an ultra-wide temperature range is presented. The conventional NPN-based BGRs cannot maintain a low-temperature coefficient (TC) over an ultra-wide temperature range due to the inherent substrate leakage current of the NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJT) in the high-temperature range. This work introduces a new NPN-based BGR unaffected by substrate leakage current and receives low TC over the range of -40℃ to 150℃. The proposed circuit was fabricated in a 180 nm CMOS process. It consumes 2uA from a 4V power supply, and its average TC is 14.89ppm/℃. Also, the average line sensitivity is 0.039%/V.
With the increasing attention on remote monitoring of human heart rate by radar, there is a need to develop a method that can estimate heart rate quickly and reliably. In this study, a new estimation method using a periodic average magnitude difference function (PAMDF) is proposed to estimate the heart rate from the radar signal. PAMDF advances the classical average magnitude difference function (AMDF) with the help of maximum likelihood (ML) theory. It operates in the time domain and estimates the heart rate by calculating the signal magnitude difference between all heartbeat periods. The proposed technique is more accurate than AMDF and allows rounding interpolation to improve resolution, while maintaining the low complexity advantage of AMDF. The algorithm was validated using radar data from a publicly available dataset.
In the process of identifying non-line-of-sight (NLOS), acoustics-based indoor positioning needs to collect audio recordings of sound fields in multiple rooms and upload them to the central server for training. Once the transmission process and server-side suffer malicious attacks, private data will also be leaked. To solve the training difficulty and privacy issues at the same time, we propose a novel Personalized Federated Learning (PFL) model combined with user frequency and room data capacity, taking into account the significant differences in positioning data with room layout. The proposed model can accurately identify the differences between different room data when aggregating on the server-side. By collecting data in the actual indoor environment and comparing the existing algorithms, the accuracy of the proposed method in the data verification of unfamiliar rooms is 90%.
In this paper, a quasi-optical resonator with new coupling method and parasitic-mode-suppressing in 110~170GHz is proposed. The coupling of THz quasi-optical resonator in this paper is realized by PCB substrate processing and pressurized flange. At the same time, the parasitic mode is effectively suppressed by slitting the plane mirror to reduce the influence on the main mode during the test. And fused quartz sample was tested to verify the feasibility of the system for complex dielectric testing of materials in 110~170GHz.
The fully passive noise shaping (NS) successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are simple, OTA-free and scaling friendly. Previous passive NS-SAR ADCs rely on the multi-path-input comparator or capacitors stacking to realize the passive gain for compensating the signal attenuation during passive integration. However, the former causes high comparator power consumption, and the latter suffers from additional signal attenuation due to the parasitics and is hard to extend to high-order systems. This work proposes a new fully passive NS-SAR technique, it can realize 2× gain with a simple structure, leading to the reduced comparator power and less parasitics. This technique is also easy to extend to high-order NS-SAR ADCs.
This paper focuses on the compressed sensing $\ell_1-\ell_2-$minimization model and develops new bounds on cumulative coherence $\mu_1(s)$. We point out that if cumulative coherence $\mu_1(s)$ satisfies (2) or (11), then the sparse signal can stably recover in noise model and exactly recover in free noise by $\ell_1-\ell_2$-minimization model.
Low power IoT communication signals (e.g., Bluetooth and ZigBee) may seriously suffer from the presence of high-power co-channel interference like wireless local area network (WLAN) signal. They may effectively avoid WLAN interference by exploiting dynamic characteristics of WLAN traffic. Representing the arrival/departure of WLAN users using an M/M/m/m queueing structure, we consider the characterization of large-scale dynamics of WLAN channel occupancy. We also consider the characterization of small-scale dynamics of WLAN channel occupancy by generating WLAN signal using a two-state semi-Markovian process. Simulation results show that the proposed model generates WLAN signal having similar statistical characteristics to those of real WLAN signal.
NiOx thin films were prepared on an Au substrate using the electrodeposition (ED), spin-coating (SP), and ED after SP (SP/ED) techniques to realize their application as an electrochemical sensor for the selective detection of trace substances. Results indicated that the electrodeposited films had nanoparticles formed as coarse-grain morphology, and the spin-coated films had a uniform layer with ~60 nm thickness. The thin film prepared by the SP/ED technique showed the highest electrochemical activity, and it was used to record a linear sweep voltammogram to measure the target substance, MSG and glucose, from low concentrations (2 nM) to high concentrations (200 μM). Within the range of concentrations, high R2 values of ≥0.99 were observed for both target substances, confirming that the SP/ED thin films can be used as an electrochemical sensor with high reliability.
This letter reports a 28-GHz multi-port magneto-electric (ME) dipole array for 5G applications. The proposed antenna array enlarges the system polarization diversity with the capability of being utilized as a balanced antenna, a dual-polarized antenna and a circularly polarized antenna. Co-planar waveguide (CPW) lines are used to connect ME dipole radiators to achieve a high gain with simple feeding structure. The proposed antenna array exhibits a -10dB impedance bandwidth of 12.8% and a maximal peak realized gain of 13.52 dBi as a balanced antenna, and exhibits a -10dB impedance bandwidth of 28.57%, a 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 16% and a maximal peak realized gain of 12.15 dBi as a circularly polarized antenna.
It is well known that long time coherent integration (LTCI) can effectively improve the radar detection ability of manoeuvring weak targets, since a considerable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement can be achieved . However, for most existing LTCI algorithms [2-5], there is a common assumption that the observed target is of the single motion stage (i.e., the motion parameters of targets are uniform) during the coherent processing interval (CPI). However, with the advancement of manoeuvrability and the increasement of CPI, the observed target might be of multiple motion stages. In this case, the above-mentioned LTCI algorithms will not be effective any more. The specific LTCI algorithms developed for manoeuvring weak target with multiple motion stages are relatively few. In , a short-time generalized radon-Fourier transform (STGRFT) based LTCI algorithm is proposed to remove range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM) effects and estimate the stage-changing point. Similar as GRFT, STGRFT can be able to obtain an excellent SNR gain through multi-dimension parametric searching. In , a reference signal is introduced to compensate the motion parameters change (MPC) effect between different motion stages, and then GRFT is utilized to achieve the coherent integration during the CPI. However, the computational load of these algorithms is quite high, since the key procedure is based on the multi-dimension parametric searching. This may deteriorate the engineering practicability of these algorithms.