Fenebrutinib is an orally administered, selective and reversible BTK inhibitor. Metz et al recently published a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial where fenebrutinib (50mg daily, 150mg daily or 200mg twice-daily) or placebo were randomly administered to 93 adults with CSU refractory to up-dosed H 1-antihistamines during 8 weeks. Fenebrutinib was more effective than placebo in reducing weekly Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) after 8 weeks, achieving rates of well-controlled disease (UAS7≤6) of up to 57% (with a 200mg twice-daily dose).
Background Patients with severe asthma may present with characteristics representing overlapping phenotypes, making them eligible for more than one class of biologic. Our aim was to describe the profile of severe adult asthma patients eligible for both anti-IgE and anti-IL5/5R and to compare the effectiveness of both classes of treatment in real life. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that included adult severe asthma patients from 22 countries enrolled into the International Severe Asthma registry (ISAR) who were eligible for both anti-IgE and anti-IL5/5R. The effectiveness of anti-IgE and anti-IL5/5R was compared in a 1:1 matched cohort. Exacerbation rate was the primary effectiveness endpoint. Secondary endpoints included long-term-oral corticosteroid (LTOCS) use, asthma-related emergency room (ER) attendance and hospital admissions. Results In the matched analysis (n=350/group), the mean annualized exacerbation rate decreased by 47.1% in the anti-IL5/5R group and 38.7% in the anti-IgE group. Patients treated with anti-IL5/5R were less likely to experience a future exacerbation (adjusted IRR 0.76; 95% CI 0.64, 0.89; p<0.001) and experienced a greater reduction in mean LTOCS dose than those treated with anti-IgE (37.44% vs 20.55% reduction; p=0.023).) There was some evidence to suggest that patients treated with anti-IL5/5R experienced fewer asthma-related hospitalizations (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.38, 1.08), but not ER visits (IRR 0.94, 95% CI 0.61, 1.43). Conclusions In real life, both anti-IgE and anti-IL5/5R improve asthma outcomes in patients eligible for both biologic classes, however anti-IL5/5R was superior in terms of reducing asthma exacerbations and LTOCS use.
Background: Food allergy affects up to 8% of the pediatric population. Despite ongoing efforts, treatment options remain limited. Novel models of food allergy are needed to study response patterns downstream of IgE-crosslinking and evaluate drugs modifying acute events. Here, we report a novel human ex vivo model that displays acute, allergen-specific, IgE-mediated smooth muscle contractions using precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS). Methods: PCIS were generated using gut tissue samples from children who underwent clinically indicated surgery. Viability and metabolic activity were assessed from 0-24h. Distribution of relevant cell subsets was confirmed using single cell nuclear sequencing. PCIS were passively sensitized using plasma from peanut allergic donors or peanut-sensitized non-allergic donors, and exposed to various stimuli including serotonin, histamine, FcɛRI-crosslinker and food allergens. Smooth muscle contractions and mediator release functioned as readouts. A novel program designed to measure contractions was developed to quantify responses. The ability to demonstrate the impact of antihistamines and immunomodulation from peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) was assessed. Results: PCIS viability was maintained for 24h. Cellular distribution confirmed the presence of key cell subsets including mast cells. The video analysis tool reliably quantified responses to different stimulatory conditions. Smooth muscle contractions were allergen-specific and reflected the clinical phenotype of the plasma donor. Tryptase measurement confirmed IgE-dependent mast cell-derived mediator release. Antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced contraction and plasma from successful peanut OIT suppressed peanut-specific PCIS contraction. Conclusion: PCIS represent a novel human tissue-based model to study acute, IgE-mediated food allergy and pharmaceutical impacts on allergic responses in the gut.
Prodromes predict attacks of Hereditary Angioedema: results of a prospective StudyTo the Editor,Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a lifetime disease characterized by repetitive bouts of tissue edema.1 Early signs, symptoms and perceptions (prodromes) are manifested by subjective and objective signals, preceding attacks by several hours.2-3 Using an new HAE-specific instrument, we have recently shown that patients can identify prodromes and able to predict oncoming attacks.4 However, that study was retrospective, which might have been affected by recall bias.In the present study a cohort of 48 HAE patients prospectively reported four events of prodromes followed by attack, attacks not preceded by a prodrome and incidents with only a prodrome. Pre-defined domains (clusters of body locations) and scalable dimensions (pain, severity, impairment and functionality), time of onset and termination were assessed in each episode.3-4 (Statistical methods are described in the supplementary data ). The study was approved by the ethics committees of Tel-Aviv University, Sheba Medical Center and Barzilai Medical center. All patients signed an informed-consent form. Mean age was 35.25 years (SD ±16.4), Median 30.0 (age range 10-70) and 27 (56.25%) were females. Mean age of onset was 8.3 years and age at diagnosis 10.9 years (2.7 years diagnostic gap) (Table S1 ).We received reports on 119 prodromes and 192 attacks. The majority experienced a prodrome before at least one of their attacks, and 64% affirmed that they can predict an oncoming attack by having a prodrome.(Table S1) .Significant differences were found between prodromes and attacks across all dimensions of the predefined clusters of body locations. Statistical analysis verified that prodromes could be discriminated from attacks for all parameters. (Table 1) Positive correlations were found between the same attributes of prodromes and attacks, most notably in the abdominal and extremity clusters (Table S2, Fig S1A-E) . Mean duration of prodromes was significantly shorter than attacks, and prodromes overlapped the attack in 24.3% of cases. The predictive power analysis indicates that individuals who experience a prodrome had higher risk for having an attack in the same region. Sensitivity of the prodrome as a predictor of attack was 95% to 99%, and specificity 18% to 64%. (Table 2).HAE prodromes represents a continuity of pathophysiologic events, initiated by the activation of the bradykinin-forming cascade and ending with a breach in vascular endothelial integrity.2, 5(Fig S2 ) In this study we aimed to capture the critical elements of prodromes and their association with consequent attacks and evaluate their predictive power as an early warning sign.2-4 The HAE-EPA instrument reliably captures patient’s experience by using the same metrics, and the prospective design better reflects patients’ experience in real-time, which may have been missed in our previous study.The study shades light on the predictive value of prodromes as forecasters of attacks.2-4 It affirms that patients can clearly distinguish prodromes from attacks. The positive correlations support our basic assumption that prodromes could predict attack location and severity, which is particularly germane in the abdomen. In most cases a high intensity attack was predated by a high intensity prodrome. This substantiate our observation on inter-personal differences between subjects4 Mean disease duration of the cohort (27 years) may surmise that the study subjects were experienced patients, who could recognize early pre-attack cues.Treating oncoming attack at the prodromal stage may enhance resolution of attacks.6, 7 Therefore; experienced patients can use prodromes as an efficient strategy in managing attacks by employing early interventions. Such approach can apply in other diseases with relapsing-remitting pattern and advance the concept of prodrome-triggered intervention.8In conclusion , the study ascertained that HAE patients can distinguish prodromes from attacks and a prodrome may predict attack in the same location. Having a prodrome increase the likelihood of subsequent attack, alerting the patients and assisting in early initiation of therapy.Table 1: Within-subject differences between prodrome and attacks
There has been an important change in the clinical characteristics and immune profile of COVID-19 patients during the pandemic thanks to the extensive vaccination programs. Here, we highlight recent studies on COVID-19, from the clinical and immunological characteristics to the protective and risk factors for severity and mortality of COVID-19. The efficacy COVID-19 vaccines and potential allergic reactions after administration are also discussed. The occurrence of new variants of concerns such as Omicron BA.2, BA.4 and BA.5 and the global administration of COVID-19 vaccines have changed the clinical scenario of COVID-19. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been identified as an important cause of death of children with COVID-19. Perturbations in immunity of T cells, B cells, and mast cells, as well as autoantibodies and metabolic reprogramming may contribute to the long-term symptoms of COVID-19. Atopic diseases, such as allergic asthma and rhinitis, have been shown to be associated with a lower susceptibility and better outcomes of COVID-19. At the beginning of pandemic, EAACI developed guidelines that provided timely information for the management of allergic diseases and preventive measures to reduce transmission in the allergic clinics. The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with reduced pathogenic potential dramatically decreased the morbidity, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. Nevertheless, breakthrough infection remains a challenge for disease control. Hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to COVID-19 vaccines are low compared to other vaccines, and these were addressed in EAACI statements that provided indications for the management of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines. We have gained a depth knowledge and experience in the over 2 years since the start of the pandemic, and yet a full eradication of SARS-CoV-2 is not on the horizon. Novel strategies are warranted to prevent severe disease in high-risk groups, the development of MIS-C and long COVID.
Background: From early life, respiratory viruses are implicated in the development, exacerbation and persistence of respiratory conditions such as asthma. Complex dynamics between microbial communities and host immune responses, shape immune maturation and homeostasis, influencing health outcomes. We evaluated the hypothesis that the respiratory virome is linked to systemic immune responses, using peripheral blood and nasopharyngeal swab samples from preschool-age children in the PreDicta cohort. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 51 children (32 asthmatics, 19 healthy controls), participating in the 2-year multinational PreDicta cohort were cultured with bacterial (Bacterial-DNA, LPS) or viral (R848, Poly:IC, RV) stimuli. Supernatants were analyzed by Luminex for the presence of 22 relevant cytokines. Virome composition was obtained using untargeted high troughput sequencing of nasopharyngeal samples. The metagenomic data were used for the characterization of virome profiles and the presence of key viral families (Picornaviridae, Anelloviridae, Siphoviridae). These were correlated to cytokine secretion patterns, identified through hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis. Results: High spontaneous cytokine release was associated with increased presence of Prokaryotic virome profiles and reduced presence of Eukaryotic and Anellovirus profiles. Antibacterial responses did not correlate with specific viral families or virome profile, however, low antiviral responders had more Prokaryotic and less Eukaryotic virome profiles. Anelloviruses and Anellovirus-dominated profiles were equally distributed amongst immune response clusters. The presence of Picornaviridae and Siphoviridae was associated with low interferon-λ responses. Asthma or allergy did not modify these correlations. Conclusions: Antiviral cytokines responses at a systemic level reflect the upper airway virome composition. Individuals with low innate interferon responses have higher abundance of Picornaviruses (mostly Rhinoviruses) and bacteriophages. Bacteriophages, particularly Siphoviridae appear to be sensitive sensors of host antimicrobial capacity, while Anelloviruses are not affected by TLR-induced immune responses.
Functional role of ST6GALNAC1-mediated sialylation of mucins in preserving intestinal barrier integrity and ameliorating inflammation. Authors : Elisa Sánchez-Martínez1*, Manuel Garrido-Romero1,2,*, F. Javier Moreno21Department of Immunology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, (IIS-Princesa), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.2Department of Bioactivity and Food Analysis, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación, CIAL (CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain.*Equal contributionCorrespondence to:F. Javier Moreno. Department of Bioactivity and Food Analysis, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación, CIAL (CSIC-UAM), Nicolás Cabrera 9, 28049 Madrid, Spain.E-mail:[email protected]:ST6GALNAC1, ST6; mucin-2, MUC2; dextran sulfate sodium, DSS; wild-type, WT; short-chain fatty acids, SCFA.Funding information : MGR is supported by an EFSA project (Grant agreement GP/EFSA/ENCO/2020/02 – 1) granted to FJM. Conclusions, findings and opinions expressed in this document reflect only the view of the authors and not the official position of EFSA.Keywords: epithelial barrier; MUC2; intestinal mucus; gut microbiota disruption; colitis.
Virus infections and T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) can influence each other. In most instances, systemic virus infections appear first. They may prime the reactivity to drugs in two ways: First, by virus-induced second signals: certain drugs like β-lactam antibiotics are haptens and covalently bind to various soluble and tissue proteins, thereby forming novel antigens. Under homeostatic conditions, these neo-antigens do not induce an immune reaction, probably because co-stimulation is missing. During a virus infection, the hapten-modified peptides are presented in an immune-stimulatory environment with co-stimulation. A drug-specific immune reaction may develop and manifest as exanthema. Second, by increased pharmacological interactions with immune receptors (p-i) : drugs tend to bind to proteins and may even bind to immune receptors. In the absence of viral infections, this low affine binding may be insufficient to elicit T cell activation. During a viral infection immune receptors are more abundantly expressed and allow more interactions to occur. This increases the overall avidity of p-i reactions and may even be sufficient for T cell activation and symptoms. There is a situation, where the virus-DHR sequence of events is inversed: in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), a severe DHR can precede reactivation and viremia of various herpes viruses. One could explain this phenomenon by the massive p-i mediated immune stimulation during acute DRESS, which coincidentally acvitates many herpes virus-specific T cells. Through p-i stimulation, they develop a cytotoxic activity with killing of herpes peptide-expressing cells and release of herpes viruses. These concepts could explain the often transient nature of DHR occurring during viral infections and the often asymptomatic herpes-virus viraemia after DRESS.
Background. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an emerging method for treating food allergy in children. However, data regarding adults undergoing this process is lacking. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with food allergy aged ≥17 years who completed OIT treatment between April 2010 to December 2020 at Shamir medical Center. Data was compared to that of children aged 4 to <11 years and adolescents aged ≥11 to 17 treated during the same time period. Results. A total of 96 adults at a median age of 22.3 years who underwent OIT for milk (n=53), peanut (n=18), sesame (n=7), egg (n=5) and tree nuts (n=13) were analyzed and compared to 1299 children and 309 adolescents. Adults experienced more adverse reactions requiring injectable epinephrine, both during in-clinic up-dosing (49% vs. 15.9% and 26.5% for children and adolescents respectively, p<0.0001) and during home treatment (22.9% vs. 10.5%, p=0.001 for children, and 14.2%, p=0.06 for adolescents). Most adults (61.5%) were fully desensitized, but rates of full desensitization were significantly lower compared to children (73.4%, p=0.013). Significantly more adults (28.3%) undergoing milk OIT failed treatment compared to children (14.3%, p=0.015) and adolescents (14.1%, p=0.022), while failure rates in adults undergoing OIT for other foods were low (9.3%) and comparable to children and adolescents. Conclusions. OIT is successful in desensitizing most adults with IgE-mediated food allergy. Adults undergoing milk OIT are at increased risk for severe reactions and for OIT failure while failure rates in adults undergoing OIT for other foods are low.
Adolescence is a critical stage of rapid biological, emotional and social change and development. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with asthma and allergies need to develop the knowledge and skills to self-manage their health independently. Healthcare professionals (HCP), parents and their wider network play an essential role in supporting AYA in this process. Previous work showed significant limitations in transition care across Europe. In 2020, the first evidence-based guideline on effective transition for AYA with asthma and allergies was published by EAACI. We herein summarize practical resources to support this guideline’s implementation in clinical practice. For this purpose, multi-stakeholder Task Force members searched for resources in peer review journals and grey literature. These resources were included if relevant and of good quality, and were pragmatically rated for their evidence-basis and user friendliness. Resources identified covered a range of topics and targeted healthcare professionals, AYA, parents/carers, schools, workplace, and wider community. Most resources were in English, web-based and had limited evidence-basis. This position paper provides a valuable selection of practical resources for all stakeholders to support effective transitional care for AYA with asthma and allergies. Future research should focus on developing validated, patient-centred tools to further assist evidence-based transition care.