Congenital aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus is reported in 0.8% in neonatal autopsies, however true incidence is unknown because of high rate of asymptomatic cases and spontaneous regression. Possible complications in symptomatic cases are; thromboembolism, spontaneous rupture, erosion, infection, compression of airways and death. In this report we present a newborn with giant DAA diagnosed in first day of life, surgically treated after thrombosis of aneurysm.
Aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva are rare, with dissecting aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva that extend into the interventricular septum being even more rare. This report describes a young patient with syphilis and a quadricuspid aortic valve who experienced a spontaneously dissecting aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva and the basal interventricular septum.
Introduction: Several homeostatic changes like an increase in sympathoadrenal response and oxidative stress occur in hypoglycemia. As a result of these findings, an increase in inflammation and pre-atherogenic factors is observed and these changes may lead to endothelial dysfunction. Aim: Our study aims to reveal possible cardiac risks (systolic-diastolic functions and endothelial dysfunctions) in patients who have applied to the emergency department with hypoglycemia. Methods: This cross-sectional, case-control study included 46 hypoglycemia patients who admitted to the emergency with symptoms compatible with hypoglycemia and diagnosed with hypoglycemia and 30 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated with baseline echocardiography, tissue-doppler imaging(carotid and brachial artery). Also, the fasting blood tests of the patients referred to the internal medicine department were examined. Results: There were no differences between the groups regarding age, weight, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Vitamin B12, TSH, and fasting blood glucose levels were similar in the groups’ blood tests (all p values>0.05). We observed a statistically significant decrease in diastolic dysfunction parameters: E/A and E/e’ ratios (respectively, p=0.020 and 0.026). It was shown that insulin resistance was influential in forming these considerable differences. The patient group observed that the carotid intima-media thickness was more remarkable(p=0.001), and the brachial flow-mediated dilatation value was smaller(p=0.003), giving an idea about endothelial functions.
We report applications of novel high-frame rate blood speckle tracking (BST) echocardiography in a series of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). BST echocardiography was highly feasible, reproducible, and fast. High-frame rate BST provided complimentary information to conventional color-Doppler data enhancing the visualization and understanding of anomalous blood trajectories (e.g., shunt direction, regurgitant volumes, and stenotic jets) and vortex formation. High-frame rate BST echocardiography is a new, promising imaging tool that may be helpful for deeper understanding of complex CHD physiology.
Case 1. An 82-year-old man with history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and multiple admissions due to acute decompensated heart failure was evaluated for moderate to severe secondary MR due to atrial dilation (atrial functional MR). TTE showed severe biatrial enlargement with a left atrial volume of 117mL and a left atrial volume index of 65.5ml/m2. It also showed LV of normal size, left ventricular LVIDd of 4.5cm and LVEF of 55%. En face view revealed two central jets arising from the coaptation gaps between posterior mitral leaflet indentations (P1/P2 and P2/P3) (Panel A). (Panel B) Transillumination rendering on 3D TEE, highlighted two distinct coaptation gaps between posterior mitral leaflet scallops. Case 2. A 63-years-old woman with medical history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (35%) was evaluated for moderate to severe secondary MR. TTE showed the LV dilation with LVIDd of 5.7cm. TEE revealed severe eccentric MR. (Panel C) 3D color Doppler TEE imaging of the mitral valve showed a severe regurgitant jet, originated in-between P2 and P3 posterior scallops. (Panel D) Transillumination rendering on 3D TEE, view from left atrium, in systole highlighted the coaptation gap. (Panel E) 3D color Doppler TEE imaging showed residual mild MR after a mitral clip was deployed grasping the medial aspect of P2 and A2 scallops covering the coaptation defect. (Panel F) Transillumination rendering on 3D TEE, view from LV, showed complete resolution of the coaptation gap between posterior scallops after clip deployment.
Introduction: The development of right atrial (RA) thrombus (RAT) is a known complication of central venous catheter insertion (CVC). Deeper insertion of CVC within the RA may increase the risk for RAT development versus those placed at the superior vena cava (SVC)-RA junction. We sought to evaluate the incidence of catheter-associated RAT as detected by transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs), characterize thrombi though multimodal imaging, and evaluate thrombi management with follow-up imaging. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of consecutive TTEs from our institution between October 1, 2018, and January 1, 2020 in which a venous catheter was visualized in the RA. Studies were reviewed in detail to determine presence of suspected RAT. Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory values, characteristics of the catheter and the thrombus, subsequent imaging and management, and outcomes were collected. Results: A total of 364 TTEs were performed in 290 patients with a venous catheter visualized in the RA. Of these 290 patients, 15 had an imaging suspicion for RAT yielding an incidence of 5.2%. Management strategies included anticoagulation in 13 (86.7%) patients and catheter removal in 11 (73.3%) patients. At eight months follow-up, 11 (73.3%) patients had resolution of RAT based on subsequent imaging. Conclusion: In patients with deeply placed CVC catheters, the incidental detection of RAT by TTE was not trivial. Anticoagulation and catheter removal and replacement, if deemed safe, were effective methods of thrombus management. RAT as a complication of CVCs must be accounted for when addressing factors that influence depth of CVC insertion.
We present a case of a 75-year-old woman with typical myocardial infarction, however coronary angiogram was negative. Echocardiography identified the rare cause of chest pain, as a mobile mass of aortic valve was found to obstruct the coronary ostium. histopathology revealed a papillary fibroelastoma (PFE). Chest pain was relieved after surgical resection of the mass.
Background Past active surveillance have reported prevalence of subclinical RHD amongst school children which are not comparable because of major differences in screening methods. The present study is based on the WHF criteria to assess the prevalence of subclinical carditis due to RHD and elucidate evolution of the disease when these children were placed on appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis and regular follow-up. This is the first large active surveillance study which has been conducted in a single district of India after the publication of WHF criteria and is reporting short-medium term follow-up data. Methods For active surveillance of RHD among urban and rural school children of Bikaner, a random inclusion strategy was adopted. The diagnostic labelling based on the echocardiographic criteria proposed by World Heart Federation was done by a group of experienced cardiologists. The follow up of the patients recruited in to the study was done to ascertain the early evolution of the disease in the presence of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Results A high prevalence of subclinical RHD was noted in the study population. Pathological mitral and/or aortic valves regurgitation was the commonest lesion and significant proportion of cases improved on regular antibiotic prophylaxis. There was no case of fixity of leaflets/ stenosis. Conclusion The prevalence of subclinical RHD and these cases are reversible if appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis is instituted at an early stage.
Mitral commissural prolapse or flail, either isolated or combined with more extensive degenerative valve disease imposes several challenges both on its diagnosis and management whilst being a risk factor for valve reoperation after mitral valve repair. Accurate identification of the prolapsing segment is often not feasible with transthoracic 2D echocardiography, with transesophageal 3D imaging then required for correct diagnosis and surgical planning. Various surgical techniques employed alone or in combination, have yielded good results in the repair of commissural prolapse. Herein, we analyze the specific characteristics of commissural disease focusing our attention on 2D and 3D echocardiographic findings and we briefly comment on techniques employed for surgical correction of the disease.
Background. Whereas dependency of left ventricular outflow tract diameter (LVOTD) from body surface area (BSA) has been established and a BSA-based LVOTD formula has been derived, the relationship between LVOTD and aortic root and LV dimensions has never been explored. This may have implications for evaluation of LV output in heart failure (HF) and aortic stenosis (AS) severity. Methods. A cohort of 540 HF patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography was divided in a derivation and validation subgroup. In the derivation subgroup (N=340) independent determinants of LVOTD were analyzed to derive a regression equation, which was used for predicting LVOTD in the validation subgroup (N=200) and compared with the BSA-derived formula. Results. LVOTD determinants in the derivation subgroup were sinuses of Valsalva diameter (SVD, beta=0.392, P<0.001), BSA (beta=0.229, P<0.001), LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD, beta=0.145, P=0.001), and height (beta=0.125, P=0.037). The regression equation for predicting LVOTD with the aforementioned variables (LVOTD=6.209+[0.201xSVD]+[1.802xBSA]+[0.03xLVEDD]+[0.025xHeight]) did not differ from (P=0.937) and was highly correlated with measured LVOTD (R=0.739, P<0.001) in the validation group. Repeated analysis with LV end-diastolic volume instead of LVEDD and/or accounting for gender showed similar results, whereas BSA-derived LVOTD values were different from measured LVOTD (P<0.001). Conclusion. Aortic root and LV dimensions affect LVOTD independently from anthropometric data and are included in a new comprehensive equation for predicting LVOTD. This should improve evaluation of LV output in HF and severity of AS, avoiding use of LVOT velocity-time integral alone, which can be misleading, especially when LV cavity and aortic root dimensions are abnormal.
Coronary flow reserve is the capacity of the coronary circulation to augment the blood flow in response an increase in myocardial metabolic demands and has a powerful prognostic significance in different clinical situations. It might assess with invasive and non-invasive technique. Transthoracic echocardiography Doppler is an emerging diagnostic technique, noninvasive, highly feasible, safe for patient and physician, without radiation, able to detect macrovascular and microvascular anomalies in the coronary circulation. This review aims to describe the benefit and limits of noninvasive assessment of coronary flow reserve, in particular his evaluation with echocardiography.
Abstract Background/aim: Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) is a novel method that allows the assessment of regional myocardial function. The aim of our study was to use 2D-STE to assess left ventricular deformation in patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Methods: In this prospective study, patients with CoA (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 39) were recruited. Children with CoA who visited the outpatient clinic between 2013 and 2014 were included. The data were compared with those obtained from the sex- and age-matched controls. Results: The mean age of the patients was 5.8 ± 4.5 years. Global longitidinal strain based on all three apical views and total global strain values did not appear to be different between the patient and the control group (p = 0.59, p = 0.51, p = 0.15, p = 0.38). Hypertension was detected in 14 (33.3%) patients with CoA. There were significant differences between the global longitudinal strain values of the normotensive CoA subgroup and the hypertensive CoA subgroup (p < .05). Conclusions: In our study, we found that 2D-STE total strain analysis of patients with CoA was not different from comparative healthy controls. However, we determined that 2D-STE parameters were lower in the hypertensive CoA subgroup compared to the normotensive CoA subgroup.
Utility of the E/e’ index in ventilated patients and those with sepsisImran Sunderji 1, Alan G Fraser 2(Reply to the letter from Filippo Sanfilippo and colleagues, ECHO-2020-0930)1 Department of Cardiology, Castle Hill Hospital, Hull, U.K.2 Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, U.K.Address for correspondence :Professor Alan G. Fraser,University Hospital of Wales,Heath Park,Cardiff, CF14 4XW,Wales, U.K.email@example.comTelephone: +44 (0)29 2074 5366Fax: +44 (0)29 2074 4473915 wordsWe thank Sanfilippo and his colleagues for their interest in our paper, and for the opportunity thus afforded to comment on the E/e’ index in critically ill patients and in those who have severe sepsis.We agree that the E/e’ index has some utility in predicting successful weaning from mechanical ventilation, as they have shown in their most recent meta-analysis,1 but published studies show high heterogeneity, there are often only small initial differences in mean E/e’ between patients who will remain off ventilation and those who will not, and average E/e’ values in both groups are sometimes within normal or intermediate ranges. Earlier systematic reviews also concluded that a higher E/e′ ratio is associated with weaning failure in ventilated patients2 and that E/e′ (as well as other markers of diastolic dysfunction) predicts mortality in critically ill patients.3 In a large study of 161 patients, however, neither E/e’ at the lateral mitral annulus nor any other echocardiographic index predicted success in weaning.4The heterogeneity of criteria for diastolic dysfunction in these studies is illustrated by cut-points for abnormal E/e’ varying between 8 and 12 at the lateral mitral annulus and 8 and 9.6 at the medial (septal) annulus.3In ventilated as in other patients, both E and e’ are preload-dependent.5 Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) reduces both; for example PEEP of 12 cm H2O decreased lateral e’ by 19.7% and E by 13.7%, so E/e’ was unchanged.6 An increase in e’ when a patient is taken off a ventilator could indicate a response to changed loading rather than an improvement in intrinsic diastolic function. Before concluding that observed changes in E/e’ imply corresponding changes in left ventricular (LV) filling pressures, we should consider if E/e’ has been validated by correlation with pulmonary capilllary wedge pressure (PCW) measured with Swan Ganz catheters, specifically in ventilated and critically ill patients.In 39 patients there was no difference in E/e’ before a trial of spontaneous breathing, between those subjects in whom it was successful (defined as PCW remaining <18 mmHg after 60 minutes; mean baseline E/e’ 8.0) and those in whom it was not (PCW increasing to >18 mmHg; baseline E/e’ 7.6).7 The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for E/e’ as a guide to PCW at the end of the trial of spontaneous breathing was 0.8. In an earlier study of patients in intensive care who were also breathing spontaneously, E/e’ had a modest correlation with PCW (r=0.69); a patient with E/e’ of around 10 could have a PCW ranging from <10 to >20 mmHg.8 In other studies of ventilated patients, the correlation of lateral E/e’ with PCW was 0.849 and its AUC was 0.91.10Recently, Brault et al reported that the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging guidelines for diastolic dysfunction did not accurately assess PCW in 98 ventilated and critically ill patients, of whom 54% experienced septic shock. The diagnostic score was indeterminate in 49% of patients, sensitivity and specificity were both 74%, and agreement between echocardiography and PCW was moderate (Cohen’s Kappa, 0.48). The best echocardiographic predictor of a normal PCW was not the E/e’ ratio but a lateral e′ >8.11From experimental and clinical observations it is clear that severe sepsis can depress myocardial contractile function, probably through multiple mechanisms.12 In 40 patients with sepsis, however, there were no significant correlations between serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and measurements of e’ or calculated E/e’.13 In another study, mortality was predicted by the APACHE II score and mitral annular systolic excursion (MAPSE) with an AUC of 0.88, while the E/e’ index was not selected as a predictor in a logistic regression analysis.14Reproducibility of echocardiographic measurements in patients with septic shock is moderate to good15 but it is difficult to rely on single observations to guide clinical decisions.In patients with sepsis and severe diastolic dysfunction, failure to respond to volume replacement may be caused by impaired early diastolic relaxation and LV suction, which cannot be detected by the E/e’ index. In a randomised trial, an intravenous infusion of esmolol to slow the heart rate prolonged LV filling and increased stroke volume, with a subsequent reduction in mortality.16 In a prospective observational study, levosimendan increased the probability of successful weaning from ventilation, and averted any increase in E/e’;17 that could also be explained by improved early diastolic relaxation and filling, since levosimendan is positively lusitropic.18 Detailed echocardiographic assessment of ventilated patients after cardiac surgery showed that levosimendan increased early diastolic strain rate by 30%.19 Thus changes in E/e’ as a marker of mean PCW do not necessarily confirm a causal relationship with any particular aspect of LV diastolic function, while more comprehensive echocardiographic analysis of pathophysiological mechanisms may be more informative.These thoughts reinforce some of the conclusions that we drew in our review. Many studies are difficult to interpret because the E/e’ index is reported without information on changes in its individual components, and because dichotomising patients into normal or diastolic dysfunction (grades) loses information from multiple continuous variables that are inter-related but may change with differing patterns according to particular circumstances. It is unwise to use discrete cut-points especially if they are unadjusted for age and gender, and mistaken to conclude that LV diastolic function has changed when there are significant differences in the E/e’ index but its mean values remain within the normal range. The optimal assessment of diastolic dysfunction in septic and ventilated patients requires a multiparametric approach and we caution against over-reliance on E/e’.
Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the sensitivity and positive predictive value of contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD), contrast- transthoracic echocardiography (c-TTE) and contrast- transesophageal echocardiography (c-TEE), to determine the best method for diagnosing patent foramen ovale (PFO) and to provide a reference for the further improvement of clinical practice. Methods: We investigated 161 patients who suffered from migraines, cryptogenic stroke, TIA, and cerebral infarction of unknown cause. All patients underwent transcatheter examination, and the results of the right heart catheterization (RHC) were considered the gold standard for PFO diagnosis. Results: The present study revealed that c-TTE with the Valsalva maneuver had a higher sensitivity in detecting PFO related right-to-left shunt (PFO-RLS), but it might have a higher rate of misdetection than c-TCD. Conclusion: Patients with suspected PFO can be examined with c-TCD first, and if positive results are obtained, then c-TTE and c-TEE should be performed for further confirmation.
Inadvertent endocardial lead malposition is recognised as a rare incident which is usually underreported and if recognised during implantation can be easily corrected. This phenomenon is caused by the ventricular lead unintentionally crossing a pre-existing patent foremen ovale, septal defects (atrial or ventricular) or directly from the aorta via an accidental subclavian puncture resulting in the lead implanting into the left ventricle. While this is a rare occurrence we report the incidental finding of pacemaker lead malposition during a routine follow-up transthoracic echocardiogram and the benefits of three dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography in this patient prior to lead extraction.
Background: Right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of multiple imaging parameters, none of these parameters had adequate predictive accuracy for post-LVAD RVF. Aim: To study whether right ventricular pressure-dimension index (PDI), which is a novel echocardiographic index that combines both morphologic and functional aspects of the right ventricle, is predictive of post-LVAD RVF and survival. Methods: 49 cases that underwent elective LVAD implantation were retrospectively analyzed using data from an institutional registry. PDI was calculated by dividing systolic pulmonary artery pressure to the square of the right ventricular minor diameter. Cases were categorized according to tertiles. Results: Patients within the highest PDI tertile (PDI>3.62 mmHg/cm2) had significantly higher short-term mortality (42.8%) and combined short-term mortality and definitive RVF (50%) compared to other tertiles (p<0.05 for both, log-rank p for survival to 15th day 0.014), but mortality was similar across tertiles in the long-term follow up. PDI was an independent predictor of short-term mortality (HR:1.05–26.49, p=0.031) and short-term composite of mortality and definitive RVF (HR:1.37–38.87, p=0.027). Conclusions: Increased PDI is a marker of an overburdened right ventricle. Heart failure patients with a high PDI is at risk for short-term mortality following LVAD implantation.
Prosthetic valve endocarditis is a rare but serious complication of cardiac valve replacement, and echocardiography plays a fundamental role in its diagnosis and management. However, there is not much information about the use of the 3D transillumination rendering in this context. In this report we present an unusual case of prosthetic valve endocarditis that exemplifies the utility of this new tool.