Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of mitral valve stenosis. Left atrial appendage thrombus is associated with mitral stenosis, but in rare cases the thrombus can extend to the left atrial cavity. We present a case of a severe rheumatic mitral stenosis and associated large left atrial thrombus, with embolic sequelae.
Background: Concern exists regarding adequacy of visualization of stress echocardiograms performed without intravenous contrast in persons with Class III obesity (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m2). Methods: Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed on 128 candidates for bariatric surgery with class III obesity without chest pain or pre-existent coronary artery disease (CAD). DSE without intravenous contrast was initially performed on 62 patients with class III obesity, then was subsequently was performed with intravenous contrast on 66 patients with class III obesity. Left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion was assessed at baseline and peak stress using the 16-segment model. Results: In the intravenous contrast group 1046 of 1056 LV segments studied (99.1%) were well-visualized and interpretable at baseline and 1044 of 1056 LV segments studied (98.9%) were well-visualized and interpretable at peak stress. In the non-contrast group 905 of 992 segments studied (91.2%) were well-visualized and interpretable at baseline and 886 of 992 segments studied (89.3%) were well-visualized and interpretable at peak stress. A significantly greater number of LV segments were well-visualized and interpretable in the intravenous contrast group than in the group compared to the non-contrast group, at baseline and at peak stress (p < 0.00001 for both). DSE was positive for ischemia in 1 patient. All patients underwent bariatric surgery without cardiovascular complications. Six months after surgery, all patients were alive; none developed cardiovascular events. Conclusion: The use of intravenous contrast during DSE significantly improves visualization and interpretability of LV segments in patients with class III obesity.
Objectives: Systolic and diastolic dysfunctions are related to adverse clinical outcomes in patients with sinus rhythm. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in patients with chronic persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: We evaluated data for 114 consecutive patients with chronic AF who underwent measurement of LVEDP at our hospital between 1 March 2011 and 31 December 2014. In total, 114 consecutive patients with chronic AF were divided into two groups according to the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): LVEF < 50 (reduced ejection fraction, REF group) and LVEF ≥50 (preserved EF, PEF group). The PEF group was further divided into two subgroups according to the left ventricular end-diastolic filling pressure (LVEDP): LVEDP >15 mmHg and LVEDP ≤ 15 mmHg. The 3-year clinical outcomes were compared between the PEF and REF groups and the LVEDP ≥15 mmHg and LVEDP <15 mmHg groups. Results: During the 3-year follow-up period, the rate of heart failure (HF) hospitalisation and incidence of AF with rapid ventricular rhythm (RVR) were higher in the REF group than in the PEF group. Multivariate analysis revealed that REF was the only significant predictor of HF hospitalisation (hazard ratio, 4.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.48–15.02; p=0.009). Conclusions: Our observations during a mid-term follow-up period revealed that systolic dysfunction could be an important predictor of HF hospitalisation in patients with AF. However, elevated LVEDP may not be associated with mid-term adverse clinical outcomes in patients without systolic dysfunction.
Background: The aim of our study was to characterize echocardiographic changes during pregnancy in women with known LVOT obstruction or AS compared to the healthy pregnancy controls, and to assess the relationship with pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively studied 34 pregnant patients with congenital LVOT obstruction or AS with healthy age-matched pregnant controls. Patients with other significant valvular lesions, structural heart disease (LVEF <40%), or prior valve surgery were excluded. All LVOTO/AS patients underwent a minimum of 2 consecutive echocardiograms between 1 year pre-conception up to 1 year postpartum, with at least 2 studies during the pregnancy. Comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation was performed including speckle-tracking LV global longitudinal strain. Results: A total of 83 echocardiograms from the study group and 34 echocardiograms from the control group were evaluated. Over the range of LVOTO/AS, a significantly greater increase in the AV gradients and LV and LA volumes were observed as compared with the controls. In the sub-group of LVOTO/AS pregnant women with > moderate (n=8) vs.
Left atrial intramural hematoma (LAIH) is an uncommon entity for which a timely diagnosis is critical for decision making. Cardiac surgical or catheter-based procedures are potential causing factors. Though cardiac computerized tomography and magnetic resonance are highly accurate diagnostic modalities, their role is limited by the lack of widespread availability. The present clinical case illustrates the diagnostic features of LAIH that can be obtained using echocardiography at the bedside in critically ill patients. We report a case of LAIH, that followed a catheter ablation procedure and was complicated by cardiac and cerebral ischemia. Cardiac surgical management was required.
Pulmonary artery and pulmonary valve sarcoma are malignant and very rare vascular tumors with aggressive clinical course and very poor outcomes. Patients affected by coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) are at higher risk for thromboembolism complication. we describe young woman with history of corona virus pneumonia and progressive dyspnea, hemodynamic disturbance, edema with initial evaluation and clinical diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. But further imaging study and pathology demonstrated, Giant sarcoma of pulmonary valve, obstructing pulmonary valve and extending to right ventricular outflow tract and main of pulmonary artery.
BACKGROUND. Multiple Doppler Echocardiography (DE) algorithms have been proposed to estimate mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPM) and assess pulmonary hypertension (PH) likelihood. We assessed the accuracy of 4 different DE approaches to estimate PAPM in patients with heart failure (HF) undergoing near-simultaneous right heart catheterization (RHC), and compared their diagnostic performance to identify PH with recommendation-advised tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity (TRVmax). METHODS. PAPM was retrospectively assessed in 112 HF patients employing 4 previously validated DE algorithms. Association and agreement with invasive PAPM were assessed. Diagnostic performance of DE methods vs. TRVmax=2.8m/sec to identify invasive PAPM ≥ 25mmHg were compared. RESULTS. All DE algorithms demonstrated reasonable association (r = 0.41 to 0.65; p<0.001) and good agreement with invasive PAPM, with relatively lower mean bias and higher precision observed in algorithms that included TRVmax or velocity time integral. All methods demonstrated strong ability (AUC=0.70-0.80; p<0.001) to identify PH but did not outperform TRVmax (AUC=0.84; p<0.001). Echocardiographic estimates of right atrial pressure were considered in 3 of 4 DE algorithms and falsely elevated in as many as 30% of patients. CONCLUSIONS. Echocardiographic estimates of PAPM demonstrate reasonable accuracy to represent invasive PAPM and strong ability to identify PH in HF. However, even the best performing algorithm did not outperform recommendation-advised TRVmax. The additional value of echocardiographic estimates of right atrial pressure may need to be re-evaluated.
Objectives: Myocardial injury during active coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection is well described however, its persistence during recovery is unclear. We assessed left ventricle (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in COVID-19 recovered patients and studied its correlation with various parameters.Methods: A total of 134 subjects within 30-45 days post recovery from COVID-19 infection and normal LV ejection fraction were enrolled. Routine blood investigations, inflammatory markers (on admission) and comprehensive echocardiography including STE were done for all. Results: Of the 134 subjects, 121 (90.3%) were symptomatic during COVID-19 illness and were categorized as mild: 61 (45.5%), moderate: 50 (37.3%) and severe: 10 (7.5%) COVID-19 illness. Asymptomatic COVID-19 infection was reported in 13 (9.7%) patients. Subclinical LV and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction were seen in 40 (29.9%) and 14 (10.5%) patients respectively. Impaired LVGLS was reported in 1 (7.7%), 8 (13.1%), 22 (44%) and 9 (90%) subjects with asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe disease respectively. LVGLS was significantly lower in patients recovered from severe illness (mild: -21 ± 3.4%; moderate: -18.1 ± 6.9%; severe: -15.5 ± 3.1%; P < 0.0001). Subjects with reduced LVGLS had significantly higher interleukin-6 (P < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (P = 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.009) and serum ferritin (P = 0.03) levels during index admission. Conclusions: Subclinical LV dysfunction was seen in nearly a third of recovered COVID-19 patients while 10.5% had RV dysfunction. Our study suggests a need for closer follow-up among COVID-19 recovered subjects to elucidate long-term cardiovascular outcomes.
A congenital left atrial appendage aneurysm (LAAA) is a rare cardiac malformation that is usually diagnosed in adulthood. It is rarely diagnosed prenatally. In most cases, surgical resection is recommended soon after the diagnosis has been made due to the risk of arrhythmia and thrombotic events. The present report describes a case of LAAA which was prenatally diagnosed and was asymptomatic postnatally. Imaging revealed the relation of the cardiac and airway structures around the LAAA in detail. The patient underwent surgical resection of the LAAA successfully at 7 months of age and is currently healthy at 5 years of age.
Extramedullary involvement of the endocardium is rare in multiple myeloma. Here we describe a case of multiple myeloma (plasma cell) with extramedullary plasmablastic transformation and endocardial involvement, which resulted in partial superior vena cava obstruction. We also conducted a literature review and summary analysis of space-occupying lesions in the heart in 12 patients with multiple myeloma (including the current case) in the last 10 years. Echocardiography is the preferred radiologic examination method for diagnosis and follow-up in multiple myeloma, and surgical resection is effective for alleviating symptoms.
Intraprocedural transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidance plays an essential role in transcatheter repair therapy of the tricuspid valve (TV). So far, several different imaging concepts are in use. However, an imaging protocol that fully addresses the morphological complexity of the TV and further offers efficacious workarounds for the frequently occurring restrictions of TV imaging is still missing. As a tertiary referral center with a large experience of more than 250 cases of transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) of the TV performed at the Heart Valve Center in Mainz/Germany, we have constantly adapted our periinterventional echocardiographic approach to accomplish both. As a key measure for success, we intensely rely on the transgastric acoustic windows that not only delivers high-resolution information on the morphology of the TV and all relevant procedural steps but also help to avoid the frequent shadowing artefacts experienced in transesophageal imaging.
Background Timing of aortic valve intervention is dependent on the accuracy and reproducibility of echocardiographic (ECHO) parameters. We aimed to assess haemodynamic subsets of aortic stenosis (AS), their change over time, and variability of ECHO parameters. Method This retrospective, longitudinal study compared sequential ECHO over 15 months to identify concordant or discordant aortic valve area (AVA) and mean pressure gradient (MPG). Results We included 143 patients with a mean age of 76.0 years. The median length of time between studies was 112 days (IQR 38-208). Initially participants were classified as 10 (7.0%) mild, 49 (34.3%) moderate and 84 (58.7%) severe AS. In 80 (55.9%) AVA and MPG were concordant; stroke volume index (SVi) was <35ml/m2 in 53 (74.6%). AS severity was downgraded in 33 (23.1%) patients. MPG was most consistent and AVA was the least consistent between successive investigations (intraclass correlation coefficients R=0.86 and R=0.76, respectively). Even small variations in left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) measurement of 1 standard deviation reclassified up to 67% of participants from severe to non-severe. Conclusion Almost half of patients with AS have valve area/gradient discordance. Variations in LVOT diameter measurement commensurate with clinical practice reclassified AS severity in up to 2/3 of cases. Change in AS severity should only be accepted following careful scrutiny of all available ECHO data.
Background: Identification of elevation in pulmonary pressures during exercise may provide prognostic and therapeutic implications in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common in CTD patients and subtle interstitial abnormalities detected by lung ultrasound could predict exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods and Results: Echocardiography and lung ultrasound were performed at rest and bicycle exercise in CTD patients (n=41) and control subjects without CTD (n=24). Ultrasound B-lines were quantified by scanning four intercostal spaces in the right hemithorax. We examined the association between total B-lines at rest and the development of exercise-induced PH during ergometry exercise. Compared to controls, the number of total B-lines at rest was higher in CTD patients (0 [0, 0] vs. 2 [0, 9], p<0.0001) and was correlated with radiological severity of ILD assessed by computed tomography (fibrosis score, r=0.70, p<0.0001). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was increased with ergometry exercise in CTD compared to controls (48±14 vs. 35±13 mmHg, p=0.0006). The number of total B-lines at rest was highly correlated with higher PASP (r=0.52, p<0.0001) and poor right ventricular pulmonary artery coupling (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion/PASP ratio, r=-0.31, p=0.01) during peak exercise. The number of resting B-lines predicted the development of exercise-induced PH with an area under the curve 0.79 (p=0.0003). Conclusions: These data may suggest the value of a simple resting assessment of lung ultrasound as a potential tool for assessing the risk of exercise-induced PH in CTD patients.
Aims. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a predictor of adverse outcomes among patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) however, differences in RV parameters in HFrEF patients with ischemic (ICM) and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) are not well understood. We investigated echocardiographic characteristics, including RV strain, in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and compared patients with ICM and NICM etiology. Methods. Consecutive patients who presented with ADHF and NYHA class III-IV were prospectively enrolled if they had LVEF <40% and history of ICM or NICM. All patients underwent clinical exam, laboratory evaluation and 2-D echocardiographic assessment of the left ventricular (LV) and RV function, LV and RV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS, RVGLS), and RV free wall strain (RVfwLS). Results. Of 84 patients, 44 had ICM and 40 NICM. The groups had similar blood pressure, NT-proBNP, and echocardiographic parameters of LV function including LVGLS. Absolute RVGLS values were lower than RVfwLS values in both groups. Patients with NICM had significantly lower RVfwLS, but not RVGLS, compared to patients with ICM (-13% to -17%, P=0.006). Similar differences in RVfwLS were seen in patients in NYHA class III (NICM vs ICM: -13% and -17%, respectively, 95% CI: -8.5 to -0.5) and NYHA class IV (NICM vs ICM: -13.8% and -17%, respectively, 95% CI: -6.4 to -0.59). Conclusion. Among patients hospitalized with ADHF, patients with nonischemic etiology compared with the patients with ICM, have worse RV dysfunction measured by RVfwLS, despite similar extent of LV impairment and the same functional limitation class.
Objective: To evaluate early changes in left ventricular systolic function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI). Methods: Thirty SLE patients and 30 healthy people (control group) were selected, the patients were further divided into subgroups according to their Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment version of the SLE Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) score: SELENA-SLEDAI ≤ 12 (mild-to-moderate group), SELENA-SLEDAI > 12 (severe group). Blood samples were obtained from patients and laboratory investigations were performed. All participants were examined using 3D-STI, the 3D conventional and strain parameters were obtained. The above parameters were compared in the three studied groups. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were prepared for above parameters and analyzed to identify correlations among LVEF, GLS, GCS, LVtw, Tor, MCI and hs-TropT. Results: Compared with the control group, the absolute values of LVEDV, LVEF, GLS, GCS, LVtw, Tor and MCI decreased, LV EDmass, LV ESmass and PSD increased in the mild-to-moderate and the severe groups (P2 < 0.05, P3 < 0.05). There was statistically significant difference in terms of strain parameters between the mild-to-moderate group and the severe group (P1 < 0.05). The highest area under the ROC for MCI was 0.909, the highest sensitivity for MCI was 90.00%, and the highest specificity for Tor was 86.67%. Correlation analysis showed that there was a good correlation between the MCI and hs-TropT (r = − 0.677). Conclusion: 3D-STI technology may help detect early changes in left ventricular systolic function in patients with SLE
Aims: We have previously shown that 2-dimentional strain is not a useful tool for ruling out acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). The aim of the present study was to determine whether in patients with suspected ACS, global longitudinal strain (GLS), measured in the ED using 2-dimensional strain imaging, can predict long-term outcome. Methods: Long-term (median 7.7 years [IQR 6.7-8.2]) major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiac death, ACS, revascularization, hospitalization for heart failure or atrial fibrillation) and all-cause mortality data was available in 525/605 patients (87%) enrolled in the Two-Dimensional Strain for Diagnosing Chest Pain in the Emergency Room (2DSPER) study. The study prospectively enrolled patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and suspected ACS but without a diagnostic ECG or elevated troponin. GLS was computed using echocardiograms performed within 24 hours of chest pain. MACE of patients with worse GLS (> median GLS) was compared to patients with better GLS ( median GLS). Results: Median GLS was -18.7%. MACE occurred in 47/261 (18%) of patients with worse GLS as compared with 45/264 (17%) with better GLS, adjusted HR 0.87 (95% CI 0.57-1.33, P=0.57). There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality or individual end-points between groups. GLS did not predict MACE even in patients with optimal 2-dimensional image quality (n=164, adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI 0.76-3.0). Conclusions: GLS did not predict long-term outcome in patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and suspected ACS, supporting our findings in the 2DSPER study.
Pericarditis is a rare but debilitating complication of cytarabine therapy. While echocardiography can aid with the diagnosis, cardiac MRI has superior accuracy in establishing the diagnosis. In this case, we describe a 65-year-old patient receiving cytarabine as part of induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia who developed acute pericarditis. Her cardiac MRI revealed pericardial edema on T2-weighted STIR imaging and pericardial late gadolinium enhancement which confirmed the diagnosis.