This study aimed to compare the infection dynamics of three genotype II African swine fever viruses (ASFV) circulating in Europe. Eighteen domestic pigs divided into three groups were infected intramuscularly or by direct contact with two haemadsorbent ASFVs (HAD) from Poland (Pol16/DP/ OUT21) and Estonia (Est16/WB/Viru8), and with the Latvian non-HAD ASFV (Lv17/WB/Rie1). Parameters such as symptoms, pathogenicity, and distribution of the virus in tissues, humoral immune response, and dissemination of the virus by blood, oropharyngeal and rectal routes were investigated. The Polish ASFV caused a case of rapidly developing fatal acute disease, while the Estonian ASFV caused acute to subacute infections in the presence of surviving animals. In contrast, animals infected with the ASFV from Latvia developed a more subtle, mild, or even subclinical disease. Oral excretion was sporadic or even absent in the attenuated group, whereas in animals that developed an acute or subacute form of ASF, oral excretion began at the same time as in the blood, or even 3 days earlier, and persisted up to 22 days. Regardless of virulence, blood was the main route of transmission of ASFV and infectious virus was isolated from persistently infected animals for at least 19 days in the attenuated group and up to 44 days in the group of moderate virulence. Rectal excretion was limited to the acute phase of infection. In terms of diagnostics, the ASFV genome was detected in contact pigs from oropharyngeal samples earlier than in blood, independently of virulence and, together with blood, both samples could cover a longer range to detect ASFV infection. The results presented here provide quantitative data on the spread and excretion of ASFV strains of different virulence among domestic pigs that can help to better focus surveillance activities and thus increase the ability to detect ASF introductions earlier.
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to recalculate the efficacy of these two vaccine strains, and to discuss the main variables associated with controlled trials to evaluate bovine brucellosis vaccines efficacy. The most used vaccine strain was S19, at the dose of 10 10 colony forming units (CFU), followed by the vaccine strain RB51 at 10 10 CFU. The most used challenge strain was B. abortus 2308, at the dose of 10 7 CFU by intraconjunctival route. For the meta-analysis, trials were grouped according to the vaccine strain and dose to recalculate protection against abortion (four groups) or infection (five groups), using pooled risk ratio (RR) and vaccine efficacy (VE). For protection against abortion (n = 15 trials), S19 vaccine at 10 9 CFU exhibited the highest protection rate (RR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.52; VE = 75.09%, 95% CI: 48.08 – 88.05), followed by RB51 10 10 (RR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.61; VE = 69.25%, 95% CI: 39.48 – 84.38). For protection against infection (n = 23 trials), only two subgroups exhibited significant protection: S19 at 10 9 CFU (RR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.55; VE = 72.03%, 95% CI: 57.70 – 81.50) and RB51 at 10 10 CFU dose (RR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.84; VE = 57.05%, 95% CI: 30.90 – 73.30). In conclusion, our results suggest that the dose of 10 9 CFU for S19 and 10 10 CFU for RB51 are the most suitable for the prevention of abortion and infection caused by B. abortus.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral transboundary disease of small ruminants that causes significant damage to agriculture. This disease has not been previously registered in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK). This paper presents an assessment of the susceptibility of the RK’s territory to the spread of the disease in the event of its importation from infected countries. The Generalized Linear Negative Binomial regression model that was trained on the PPR outbreaks in China was used to rank municipal districts in the RK in terms of PPR spread risk. The outbreaks count per administrative district was used as a risk indicator, while a number of socio-economic, landscape and climatic factors were considered as explanatory variables. Summary road length, altitude, the density of small ruminants, the maximum green vegetation fraction, cattle density and the Engel coefficient were the most significant factors. The model demonstrated a good performance in training data (R 2 = 0.69) and was transferred to the RK, suggesting a significantly lower susceptibility of this country to the spread of PPR. Hot Spot analysis identified three clusters of districts at the highest risk, located in the western, eastern and southern parts of Kazakhstan. As part of the study, a countrywide survey was conducted to collect data on the distribution of livestock populations, which resulted in the compilation of a complete geo-database of small ruminant holdings in the RK. The research results may be used to formulate a national strategy for preventing the importation and spread of PPR in Kazakhstan through targeted monitoring in high-risk areas.
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a deadly disease of pigs which spread through southeast Asia in 2019. We investigated one of the first outbreaks of ASFV in Lao Peoples Democratic Republic amongst smallholder villages of Thapangtong District, Savannakhet Province. In this study, two ASFV affected villages were compared to two unaffected villages. Evidence of ASFV-like clinical signs appeared in pig herds as early as May 2019, with median epidemic days on 1 and 18 June in the two villages, respectively. Using participatory epidemiology mapping techniques, we found statistically significant spatial clustering in both outbreaks (P < 0.001). Villagers reported known risk factors for ASFV transmission − such as free-ranging management systems and wild boar access − in all four villages. The villagers reported increased pig trader activity from Vietnam before the outbreaks; however, the survey did not determine a single outbreak source. The outbreak caused substantial household financial losses with an average of 9 pigs lost to the disease, and Monte Carlo analysis estimated this to be USD 215 per household. ASFV poses a significant threat to food and financial security in smallholder communities such as Thapangtong, where 40.6% of the district’s population are affected by poverty. This study shows ASFV management in the region will require increased local government resources, knowledge of informal trader activity and wild boar monitoring alongside education and support to address intra-village risk factors such as free-ranging, incorrect waste disposal and swill feeding.
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoans of the Leishmania genus, which includes more than 20 species capable of infecting humans worldwide. In the Americas, the most widespread specie is L. braziliensis, present in 18 countries, including Bolivia. The taxonomic position of the L. braziliensis complex has been a subject of controversy, complicated further by the recent identification of a particular subpopulation named L. braziliensis atypical or outlier. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic analysis of the L. braziliensis complex in Bolivia and to describe the associated clinical characteristics. Forty-one strains were analyzed by sequencing an amplified 1245 bp fragment of the hsp70 gene, which allowed its identification as: 24 (59%) L. braziliensis, 16 (39%) L. braziliensis outlier and one (2%) L. peruviana. In a dendrogram constructed, L. braziliensis and L. peruviana are grouped in the same cluster, whilst L. braziliensis outlier appears in a separate branch. Sequence alignment allowed the identification of five non-polymorphic nucleotide positions (288, 297, 642, 993 and 1213) that discriminate L. braziliensis and L. peruviana from L. braziliensis outlier. Moreover, nucleotide positions 51 and 561 enable L. peruviana to be discriminated from the other two taxa. A greater diversity, was observed in L . braziliensis outlier than in L. braziliensis- L. peruviana. The 41 strains came from 32 patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis, among which 22 patients (69%) presented cutaneous lesions (11 caused by L. braziliensis and 11 by L. braziliensis outlier) and ten patients (31%) mucocutaneous lesions (eight caused by L. braziliensis, one by L. braziliensis outlier and one by L. peruviana). Nine patients (28%) simultaneously provided two isolates, each from a separate lesion, and in each case the same genotype was identified in both. Treatment failure was observed in six patients infected with L. braziliensis and one patient with L. peruviana.
Numerous studies have unsuccessfully tried to unravel the definitive host of the coccidian parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Cattle infections by B. besnoiti cause a chronic and debilitating condition called bovine besnoitiosis that has emerged in Europe during the last two decades, mainly due to limitations in its control associated to the absence of vaccines and therapeutical tools. Although the exact transmission pathway of B. besnoiti is currently unknown, it is assumed that the parasite might have an indirect life cycle with a carnivore as definitive host. Current lack of studies in wildlife might underestimate the importance of free-living species in the epidemiology of B. besnoiti. Thus, the aim of the present study is to assess the presence of Besnoitia spp. in free-ranging mesocarnivores in Spain. DNA was searched by PCR on faeces collected from wild carnivores as a first approach to determine which species could be considered as potential definitive host candidates in further research. For this purpose, a total of 352 faecal samples from 12 free-living wild carnivore species belonging to the Canidae, Felidae, Herpestidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, and Viverridae families were collected in seven Spanish regions. PCR testing showed that Besnoitia spp. DNA was present in four faecal samples from red foxes collected in western Spain, an area with the greatest density of extensively reared cattle and associated to high incidence of bovine besnoitiosis in the country. To date, this is the first report of a Besnoitia besnoiti-like sequence (99.57% homology) from carnivore faeces in a worldwide context. Red foxes might contribute to the epidemiology of B. besnoiti, although further studies, mostly based on bioassay, would be needed to elucidate the accuracy and extent of these interesting findings.
African swine fever (ASF), is a serious global concern from an ecological and economic point of view. While it is well established that its main transmission routes comprise contact between infected and susceptible animals and transmission through contaminated carcasses, the specific mechanism leading to its long-term persistence is still not clear. Among others, a proposed mechanism involves the potential role of convalescent individuals, which would be able to shed the virus after the end of the acute infection. Using a spatially explicit, stochastic, individual-based model, we tested: 1) if ASF can persist when transmission occurs only through infected wild boars and infected carcasses; 2) if the animals that survive ASF can play a relevant role in increasing ASF persistence chances; 3) how hunting pressure can affect the ASF probability to persist. The scenario in which only direct and carcass-mediated transmission were contemplated had 52% probability of virus persistence 10 years after the initial outbreak. The inclusion of survivor-mediated transmission corresponded to slightly higher persistence probabilities (57%). ASF prevalence during the endemic phase was generally low, ranging 0.1-0.2%. The proportion of seropositive individuals gradually decreased with time and ranged 4.5 – 6.6%. Our results indicate that direct and carcass-mediated infection routes are sufficient to explain and justify the long-term persistence of ASF at low wild boar density and the ongoing geographic expansion of the disease front in the European continent. During the initial years of an ASF outbreak, hunting should be carefully evaluated as a management tool, in terms of potential benefits and negative side-effects, and combined with an intensive effort for the detection and removal of wild boar carcasses. During the endemic phase, further increasing hunting effort should not be considered as an effective strategy. Additional effort should be dedicated to finding and removing as many wild boar carcasses as possible.
Porcine circoviruses are important pathogens of production swine. Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) is non-pathogenic, and discovered as a contaminant of a porcine kidney cell line, PK-15. The discovery of pathogenic variant, PCV2, occurred in the late 90’s in association with post-weaning multi-systemic wasting disease syndrome (PMWS), which is characterized by wasting, respiratory signs and lymphadenopathy in weanling pigs. A new PCV type, designated as PCV3, was discovered in 2016, in pigs manifesting porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), respiratory distress and reproductive failure. Pathological manifestations of PCV3 Infections include systemic inflammation, vasculitis and myocarditis. A 4 th PCV type, PCV4, was identified in 2020 in pigs with PDNS, respiratory and enteric signs. All the pathogenic PCV types are detected in both healthy and morbid pigs. They cause chronic, systemic infections with various clinical manifestations. Dysregulation of the immune system homeostasis is a pivotal trigger for pathogenesis in porcine circoviral infections. While the study of PCV3 immunobiology is still in its infancy lessons learned from PCV2 and other circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single stranded(ss) (CRESS) DNA viruses can inform the field of exploration for PCV3. Viral interactions with the innate immune system, interference with dendritic cell function coupled with the direct loss of lymphocytes compromises both innate and adaptive immunity in PCV2 infections. Dysregulated immune responses leading to the establishment of a pro-inflammatory state, immune complex associated hypersensitivity, and the necrosis of lymphocytes and immune cells are key features of PCV3 immunopathogenesis. A critical overview of the comparative immunopathology of PCV2 and PCV3/4, and directions for future research in the field are presented in this review.
Summary: This study evaluates through modeling the possible individual and combined effect of three populational parameters of pathogens (reproduction rate; rate of novelty emergence; and propagule size) on the colonization of new host species – putatively the most fundamental process leading to the emergence of new infectious diseases. The results are analyzed under the theoretical framework of the Stockholm Paradigm using IBM simulations to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of the pathogen population and the possible role of Ecological Fitting. The simulations suggest that all three parameters positively influence the success of colonization of new hosts by a novel parasite population but contrary to the prevailing belief, the rate of novelty emergence (e.g. mutations) is the least important factor. Maximization of all parameters result in a synergetic facilitation of the colonization and emulates the expected scenario for pathogenic microorganisms. The simulations also provide theoretical support for the retention of the capacity of fast-evolving lineages to retro-colonize their previous host species/lineage by ecological fitting. Capacity is, thus, much larger than we can anticipate. Hence, the results support the empirical observations that opportunity of encounter (i.e. the breakdown in mechanisms for ecological isolation) is a fundamental determinant to the emergence of new associations – especially Emergent Infectious Diseases - and the dynamics of host exploration, as observed in SARS-CoV-2. Insights on the dynamics of Emergent Infectious Diseases derived from the simulations and from the Stockholm Paradigm are discussed.
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important viral diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar. Apart from endemic cycles in Africa, ASF is now continuously spreading in Europe and Asia. As ASF leads to severe but unspecific clinical signs and high lethality, early pathogen detection is of utmost importance. Recently, “point-of-care” (POC) tests have been intensively discussed for the use in remote areas but also in the context of on-farm epidemiological investigations and wild boar carcass screening. Along these lines, the INGEZIM ASFV CROM Ag lateral flow assay (Eurofins Technologies Ingenasa) promises virus antigen detection under field conditions within minutes. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the assay with selected high-quality reference blood samples, and also with real field samples from wild boar carcasses in different stages of decay from the ongoing ASF outbreak in Germany. While we observed a sensitivity of roughly 77% in freeze-thawed matrices of close to ideal quality, our approach to simulate field conditions in direct carcass testing without any modification resulted in a drastically reduced sensitivity of only 12.5%. Freeze thawing increased the sensitivity to roughly 44% which mirrored the overall sensitivity of 49% in the total data set of carcass samples. A diagnostic specificity of 100% was observed. However, most of the German ASF cases in wild boar would have been missed using the lateral flow assay (LFA) alone. Therefore, the antigen-specific LFA should not be regarded as a substitute for any OIE listed diagnostic method and has very limited use for carcass testing at the point of care. For optimized LFA antigen tests, the sensitivity with field samples must be significantly increased. An improved sensitivity is seen with freeze-thawed samples, which may indicate problems in the accessibility of ASFV antigen.
Ticks are involved in the transmission of various pathogens and some tick-borne diseases cause significant problems for the health of humans and livestock. Despite their obvious importance, the composition of viral communities in ticks, and their interactions with pathogens, is poorly understood, particularly in Eastern Europe that constitutes (via bird migrations for example) a major hub for animal-arthropod vectors exchanges. The aim of this study was first to describe the virome of Dermacentor sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and Haemaphysalis sp. ticks collected from poorly investigated regions of Romania (Iasi and Tulcea counties) located at the intersection of various biotopes, countries and routes of migrations. We then focused the study on viruses that could have potential relevance for human and animal health. More than 500 ticks were collected in 2019 from the environment and from small ruminants and analyzed by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Among the viral communities infecting Romanian ticks, viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae, Phenuiviridae and Nairoviridae families were identified and full genomes were derivedPhylogenetic analyses placed them in clades where mammalian isolates are found, suggesting that these viruses could constitute novel arboviruses. We also assessed the bacterial microbiome of the collected ticks. The characterization of these microbial communities increases the knowledge of the diversity of viruses in Eastern Europe and provide a basis for further studies on the relationship between ticks and tick-borne viruses.
Porcine Sapovirus (SaV) was first identified by electron microscopy in the United States in 1980 and has since been reported from both asymptomatic and diarrheic pigs usually in mixed infection with other enteric pathogens. SaV as the sole etiological agent of diarrhea in naturally infected pigs has not previously been reported in the United States. Here, we used four independent lines of evidence including metagenomics analysis, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR), histopathology, and in situ hybridization to confirm porcine SaV genogroup III (GIII) as the sole cause of enteritis and diarrhea in pigs. A highly sensitive and specific rRT-PCR was established to detect porcine SaV GIII. Examination of 184 fecal samples from the outbreak farm showed that pigs with clinical diarrhea had significantly lower Ct values (15.9 ± 0.59) compared to clinically unaffected pigs (35.8 ± 0.71). Further survey of 336 fecal samples from different states in the United States demonstrated that samples from pigs with clinical diarrhea had a comparable positive rate (45.3%) with those from non-clinical pigs (43.1%). However, the SaV-positive pigs with clinical diarrhea had significantly higher viral loads (Ct = 26.0 ± 0.5) than those positive but clinically healthy pigs (Ct = 33.2 ± 0.9). Phylogenetic analysis of 20 field SaVs revealed that all belonged to SaV GIII and recombination analysis indicated that intra-genogroup recombination occurred within the field isolates of SaV GIII. These results suggest that porcine SaV GIII plays an important etiologic role in swine enteritis and diarrhea and rRT-PCR is a reliable method to detect porcine SaV. Our findings provide significant insights to better understand the epidemiology and pathogenicity of porcine SaV.
Porcine astroviruses (PoAstVs) have been reported globally and are divided into at least five distinct lineages (PoAstV1-PoAsV5). The primary objective of this study was to summarize the scientific literature about the frequency of detection, associated clinical presentations, and type of samples and diagnostic tools used for the detection of porcine astroviruses. The secondary objective was to summarize the body of knowledge about the causal role in disease of PoAstVs using the Bradford Hill framework. A search was conducted using Centre for Biosciences and Agriculture International (CABI), MEDLINE, American Association of Swine Veterinarians (AASV) Swine Information Library (SIL) abstracts, swine conferences including American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP), and American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD). From 168 studies identified by the search, 29 studies were eligible. Results indicated that 69% (20/29) of the literature on PoAstVs has been published between 2011 and 2018. Of 29 papers, 52% were detection studies (15 of 29) and 48% (14 of 29) were case-control studies. Seventy-two percent (21 of 29) reported differential diagnosis and 10% (3 of 29) reported histologic lesions, out of which 67% (2 of 3) associated the detection of PoAstV3 with development of polioencephalomyelitis. PCR-based assays were the most common diagnostic tools. Keywords: Swine, Astrovirus, Scoping review, Bradford Hill, PoAstV detection
The hypothesis that feed ingredients could serve as vehicles for the transport and transmission of viral pathogens was first validated under laboratory conditions. To bridge the gap from the laboratory to the field, this current project tested whether three significant viruses of swine could survive in feed ingredients during long-distance commercial transport across the continental US. One-metric ton totes of soybean meal (organic and conventional) and complete feed were spiked with a 10 mL mixture of PRRSV 174, PEDV, and SVA and transported for 23 days in a commercial semi-trailer truck, crossing 29 states, and 10,183 km. Samples were tested for the presence of viral RNA by PCR, and for viable virus in soy-based samples by swine bioassay and in complete feed samples by natural feeding. Viable PRRSV, PEDV, and SVA were detected in both soy products and viable PEDV and SVA in complete feed. These results provide the first evidence that viral pathogens of pigs can survive in representative volumes of feed and feed ingredients during long-distance commercial transport across the continental US.
Rabies is a global viral zoonosis endemic to South Africa, resulting in fatal encephalitis in warm blooded animals, including humans. The loss of human lives and economic losses in rural areas through loss of livestock are substantial. A review was conducted of all confirmed rabies cases in South Africa from 1993 to 2019, with a total of 11 701 cases identified to species level to assess the wildlife plays in the epidemiology of rabies. A spatiotemporal cluster analysis using a discrete Poisson space-time probability model, accounting for underlying estimated dog and livestock densities, identified 13 significant clusters (p<0.05). These included four long-term clusters lasting more than 8 years in duration and seven short term clusters lasting less than 2 years, with the remaining two clusters being of intermediate length. Outside of these endemic clusters, wildlife outbreaks in the remainder of South Africa were often less than one and a half years in duration most likely due to the rapid decline of wildlife vectors, especially jackals associated with rabies infection. Domestic dogs accounted for 59.8% of cases, with domestic cats (3.2%), livestock (21.1%) and wildlife (15.8%) making up the remainder of the cases. Yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillate) was the most frequently affected wildlife species, followed by bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), meerkat (Suricata suricatta) and aardwolf (Proteles cristatus). Rabies in wildlife species followed different spatial distributions: black-backed jackal cases were more common in the north-western parts of South Africa, yellow mongoose cases more frequent in central South Africa, and bat-eared fox and aardwolf cases were more frequent in southern and western South Africa. Clusters often spanned several provinces, showing the importance of coordinated rabies control campaigns across administrative boundaries, and high-risk areas were highlighted for rabies in South Africa.
Objectives: evaluate the Surveillance Program of Gestational and Congenital Toxoplasmosis. Methods: 424 pregnant women were interviewed regarding their knowledge of prevention measures in 2019. Secondary prevention measures were assessed on the results of anti-Toxoplasma gondii serological tests were collected from pregnant women, from 2015 to 2018. the tertiary prevention measures, we screened the babies of mothers who had recent suspected infections of T. gondii to verify the referrals to the reference service. Results: 45.5% (192/424) reported that they had received guidance from health professionals; 35.4% (68/192) changed their risk habits. The variables of schooling and age, having received prior guidance from health professionals and feline possession, proved to be significant when associated with the notions of preventive measures. 90.2% (17,423 / 19,319) of pregnant women had undergone serological tests to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies but there was an excess in requests for tests and medication and only 40.6% (26/64) of the children were referred to the referral hospital. Conclusions: the Program presents positive results regarding the performance of serological screening in prenatal care; however, the dissemination of knowledge about the prevention of toxoplasmosis and the request for tests need to be improved.
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), which has been confirmed to be associated with congenital tremor (CT) in pigs, is a newly discovered porcine virus that has been found in the Americas, Europe, and Asia; however, no report of APPV in Japan has been published. We identified an APPV in the central nervous system of Japanese piglets with CT, and firstly determined and analyzed the complete genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis using the complete genome nucleotide sequence of the Japanese APPV, named Anna/2020, and those of APPVs from the NCBI database showed that APPVs were divided into three genotypes (genotypes 1 to 3), and that Anna/2020 clustered with the genotype 3 APPV strains, but distantly branched from these strains. Pairwise complete coding region nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that there was 94.0% to 99.7% sequence identity among the genotype 3 strains, while Anna/2020 showed 87.0% to 89.3% identity to those genotype 3 strains, suggesting that Anna/2020 represents a novel APPV lineage within genotype 3. Retrospective examinations using RT-PCR revealed one genotype 1 and two novel genotype 3 APPVs from pigs without CT, and that novel genotype 3 APPVs have been prevalent in Japan since at least 2007.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the duration of protective immunity against Porcine epidemic diarrheoa virus (PEDV). To that, a two phases study was performed. In the first phase, 75 four-week-old pigs (group A) were orally inoculated (0 days post-inoculation; dpi) with a European PEDV G1b strain and 14 were kept as controls (group B). The second phase started five month later (154 dpi), when animals in group A were homologous challenged and animals in group B were challenged for first time. Clinical signs, viral shedding and immune responses were evaluated after each inoculation, including the determination of antibodies (ELISA and viral neutralisation test, IgA and IgG ELISPOTs using peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells) and the frequency of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secreting cells. During the first phase, loose stools/liquid faeces were observed in all group A animals. Faecal shedding of PEDV occurred mostly during the first 14 days but, in some animals, persisted until 42 dpi. All inoculated animals seroconverted for specific-PEDV IgG and IgA, and for neutralizing antibodies (NA). At 154 dpi, 77% of pigs were still positive for NA. After that, the homologous challenge resulted in a booster for IgG, IgA, NA, as well as specific-PEDV IgG, IgA and IFN-γ secreting cells. In spite of that, PEDV was detected in faeces of all pigs from group A, indicating that the immune response did not prevent reinfection although the duration of the viral shedding and the total load of virus shed was significantly lower for previously challenged pigs (p<0.05). Taken together, the results indicated that, potentially, maintenance of PEDV infection within an endemic farm may occur by transmission to and from previously infected animals and also indicates that sterilising immunity is shorter than the productive life of pigs.