On 19 September 2021, a new monogenetic volcano (Tajogaite) erupted on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). After 86 days of strombolian eruption, with emissions of volcanic material, a pyroclastic cone 200 m high and 800 m in diameter was formed. Successive lava flows descended the western slopes and reached the sea on 29 September. On descending the coastal cliffs and entering the sea, the lava flows formed two lava deltas of 75 and 5 ha, on the submarine island shelf, backed by fossilized coastal cliffs. This work presents an approach, using comparative and numerical methods, to estimate the geoheritage value and support the conservation of a new volcanic landscape in an island territory with high anthropic pressure on land uses. In a first phase, a cartographic inventory was made of all the volcanic formations similar to the new volcano in the geological domain of the Canary Islands. In a second phase, their representativeness (A), rarity (R), diversity (D), integrity (I) and observability (O) was quantitatively measured by means of dimensional estimators. The results obtained show that the new volcano presents a geological value of the first order in the context of the Canary Islands, which is one of the most prominent hot-spot archipelago worldwide. Its value is based above all on its high conservation state with respect to the similar volcanoes in the Canary Islands. The high mismatch found between the intrinsic geological value and the environmental protection of this area, justifies the development and application of urgent basic guidelines for its protection, as well as the promotion of geotourism as opposed to alternative land uses.
Snow avalanches are a major component of the mountain cryosphere that frequently create a menace for the road network. Deposit characteristics determine the extent of damage and disruption to communication networks, but the factors controlling snow-deposit volumes remain largely unknown. This study investigates the influence of meteorological and snowpack conditions on snow-avalanche deposits and road-network vulnerability based on 1986 deposit volumes from 182 paths located in two regions of the French Alps between 2003 and 2017: Guil and Haute-Maurienne valleys. During the period, 195 avalanches impacted the road network in these areas, leading to major disruptions. In Haute-Maurienne, correlations between deposit volumes and meteorological and snowpack conditions are high in winter. However, the relationships differ with path elevation and orientation. Results do not show any significant relationship between volumes and meteorological or snowpack conditions for the spring season. Focusing on deposits that disturbed the road network, winter and spring reveal a distinct influence of meteorological and snow variables compared to the overall data set, with snowfall intensity as the predominant control variable of deposit volumes leading to road cuts. When the same analysis is conducted by considering Guil valley separately or by aggregating Haute-Maurienne with Guil valley area data, results do not show any significant relationship, highlighting the specific regional nature of relations between deposit volumes and meteorological and snowpack conditions.
One of the core challenges to achieve Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) is to spatially identify, and strategically prioritise, the areas to implement actions to avoid, reduce and reverse land degradation. To achieve this, a tool for a participatory and data-driven assessment considering both the biophysical, and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation across scales was developed for Ecuador. In this paper, we present the methodology and results obtained, including the spatially explicit interactive tool developed to integrate indicators that support the scaling-up of sustainable land management (SLM). The process involved specialists from various national and international institutions, as well as decision makers from the public sector and other relevant stakeholders. Cloud computing allowed the integration of five main sources of data: (1) the results of a participatory land degradation assessment based on an expert knowledge questionnaire following the Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA) and World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) methodology; (2) the Hand-in-Hand Initiative Ecuador typology maps based on poverty maps and estimated agricultural potential and efficiency scores using household surveys on agricultural production; (3) National data sets on land cover and land use, soil properties, and hydro climatic indicators; (4) global satellite-derived LDN indicators, such as Land Productivity Dynamics; and (5) Documented SLM practices from WOCAT Global SLM Database. The tool is based on a Google Earth Engine application and allows decision makers to easily compare results and obtain statistics at different spatial scales and landscapes, including 647 Land Use Systems delimited by experts. It also includes a multi-criteria module to identify areas with specific characteristics to prioritise different types of interventions to achieve the country´s LDN targets. Convergence of local and global evidence allowed the identification of hotspots of degradation as well as areas of false positives/negatives - if only global or remote sensing indicators were considered. The participatory process contributed to strengthening multi-sector cooperation mechanisms and to guaranteeing ownership of the tool and the results. The system will support Ecuador’s efforts to monitor and report progress towards LDN to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The system´s code is shared as a repository at Earth Engine and can be adapted to and used by other countries and regions.
科学合理布设耕地质量（CLQ）监测点，可以及时准确地提供耕地质量现状和变化信息，对保障国家粮食安全具有重要意义。传统的 CLQ 监测点选择方法是基于土地利用斑块的 CLQ。由于大补丁可能有不同等级，被选为监控点会降低监控CLQ的可靠性。此外，传统的监测点部署方法主要只考虑CLQ，而忽略了道路可达性和地形等因素，导致部分监测点无法进入。因此，为了提高 CLQ 监测的可靠性，本研究提出了一种部署 CLQ 监测点的新方法。第一的，像素尺度的 CLQ 是使用遗传算法 - 反向传播神经网络 (GA-BPNN) 模型基于具有 30 m 空间分辨率的 Landstat8 数据估计的。其次，采用分层抽样模型确定最佳样本点。最后，应用改进的空间模拟退火算法（ISSA），同时考虑坡度和道路可达性，以优化监测点的位置。本研究在中国广东省广州市从化区进行。结果突出表明 (1) 与测量的 CLQ 的准确度相比，准确度 (R 应用改进的空间模拟退火算法（ISSA），同时考虑坡度和道路可达性，以优化监测点的位置。本研究在中国广东省广州市从化区进行。结果突出表明 (1) 与测量的 CLQ 的准确度相比，准确度 (R 应用改进的空间模拟退火算法（ISSA），同时考虑坡度和道路可达性，以优化监测点的位置。本研究在中国广东省广州市从化区进行。结果突出表明 (1) 与测量的 CLQ 的准确度相比，准确度 (R2 = 0.63, RMSE = 79.32, NRMSE = 13.77%) 用遥感技术估计的 CLQ 是可靠的，不同等级的像素级 CLQ 数据比斑块级 CLQ 数据更合理。(2)基于分层抽样模型，最终在研究区确定了132个监测点。（3）与空间模拟退火算法（SSA）和标准网格法相比，本研究提出的方法总分更高（F=94.61）。此外，获得的样本点主要位于道路和平坦地形附近。这样可以有效避开人迹罕至的地方。因此，基于本研究提出的新方法的结果为获得最佳CLQ监测点提供了科学依据和技术支持。
Aeolian desertification is a severe ecological and environmental problem in arid regions. Research on its temporal and spatial distribution, development model, and driving force is necessary to prevent the development of aeolian desertification. In this study, the Moltsog dune field in Mongolia and the Ujimqin dune field in China were selected as the study areas, as both contain dunes with similar natural conditions. Using Landsat data from 1988, 1995, 2002, 2009, 2016, and 2020, the spatial-temporal distribution and degree of development of aeolian desertification in the two dune fields over the past 30 years were compared. Two periods of high-resolution images were then used to compare the surface morphological changes induced by aeolian desertification in the dune fields. Climatic and socio-economic data of the same period were used to compare and analyze the causes of changes in aeolian desertification in these regions. The results show that: (1) Over 30 years, the degree and development rate of aeolian desertification in the Ujimqin dune field were generally higher than those in the Moltsog dune field, and the former had a high degree of fragmented aeolian desertification patches with an expanding range. (2) The main form of aeolian desertification is the reactivation of fixed dunes, which includes the development of blowouts on the flat grassland under the influence of human activities in the Ujimqin dune field. (3) The desertification in Moltsog is mainly affected by climatic factors, while that in Ujimqin is mainly affected by human activities. The latter is specifically affected by the high grazing intensity before 2000 and increased mining activities after 2000. These findings provide a reference for comparing the aeolian desertification process and meaningful information for preventing and managing aeolian desertification and enabling the sustainable development of dune fields in arid regions.
Planted vegetation is considered one of the most important soil-forming factors in the reclamation of degraded post-mining lands for forestry. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of N-fixing tree species and non-N-fixing species on the organic phosphorus (P org) forms in technosols developing from various substrates. Samples were taken from the uppermost layer (depth 0 – 5 cm) of technosols afforested with black locust ( Robinia pseudoaccaccia), black alder ( Alnus glutinosa), silver birch ( Betula pendula) and Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris). Samples of the tree foliage and the O horizons were taken as well. The studied technosols developed from Quaternary sands (Sands), fly ashes after lignite combustion (Ashes) and Miocene clays (Clays). The soil samples were measured for the contents of labile (P Olab) and moderately labile organic phosphorus (P Omod), phosphorus contained in fulvic and humic acids (P fulv and P hum, respectively) and residual organic phosphorus (P Ores). The foliage and O horizon samples were measured for the concentrations of C, N and P. The N-fixing trees had higher P concentration in the foliage than non-N-fixing species. However, in the O horizon the highest P concentration was determined under birch and not under N-fixers. The effect of tree species on the organic P (P org) concentrations in the mineral soil was limited with significantly lower P org concentrations under pine. Soil under this species contained less P fulv, P hum and P Ores. However, the percentages of P Olab, P Omod, P fulv, P hum and P Ores in soil P org were nearly the same under all tree species. The largest effect on the P org concentration and on the contents of particular P org fractions was from the substrate type. Sands contained much less P org than the Clays and Ashes but their percentage of P Olab in P org was much higher than in two other substrates. We conclude that N-fixing trees do not affect the concentration of labile organic P and the major factor controlling this P org fraction is the soil substrate quality.
： The problem of grassland degradation resulting from livestock production at the expense of local grasses has become a serious environmental problem worldwide. To maintain livestock production and sustainable grassland development, a better grasp of the extent and intensity of grassland utilization needs to be realized. We developed a model to monitor the intensity of grazing in a typical grazing area (Selinco basin) of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Based on combining the number of livestock at the township scale with their matching livestock habitat area and location, the biomass consumed by livestock was then assigned to the productivity supply map (NPP) by a mathematical iterative algorithm from the perspective of different foraging habits of different livestock. The objective is to more accurately measure the overall grazing pressure on the pasture as well as to estimate livestock pasture utilization. The model has confirmed that there are obvious spatial differences in the intensity of grassland utilization in the Selinco basin, which is significantly lower except in the southwestern region. Overall grazing area derived from the statistics on the pixel is 150, thousands km 2. Among them, the area of moderate grazing area is 130, thousands km 2, accounting for 87% of the total grazing area, and the area of overgrazing area is 20, thousands km 2, accounting for 13% of the total grazing area. Our model can quantify human activities spatially and provide a reliable and accurate scientific basis for livestock production development and ecological environment management.
The effects of different straw returning and nitrogen addition levels on soil quality are important for proper coastal saline soil remediation. Two maize/wheat straw returning levels (1.0 × 10 4 kg ha -1 (2S) and 5.0 × 10 3 kg ha -1 (S)) and three inorganic nitrogen addition levels (300 kg ha -1 (N2), 150 kg ha -1 (N) and 75 kg ha -1 (N1/2))—were studied, with 150 kg ha -1 inorganic nitrogen and without straw addition treatment as the control (CK), to elucidate the response of soil physical and chemical properties to the two factors. Dry-sieving technique was applied to fractionate the soils into silt-plus-clay particles (< 0.053 mm, CS), microaggregates (0.053–0.25 mm, MI), small macroaggregates (0.25–2.0 mm, SM), and large macroaggregates (> 2 mm, LM). After four consecutive wheat-maize cycles, different straw and N fertilizer treatments obviously decreased the salinity contents, increased the total nutrient contents, and optimized the soil structure of the saline soil. The saline soil reclamation effects showed significant distinctions among the different straw and N fertilizer treatments. The 2SN2 treatment displayed the greatest effects in regard to decreasing salinity, increasing the total soil nutrient contents and optimizing the soil structure, which resulted in the best remediation effect. Straw returning play a major role in decreasing soil salinity and enhancing saline soil aggregate formation. N fertilizer addition supplies rich nutrients for straw decomposition, and promotes soil microbial growth and reproduction, which brought about C sequestration in coastal saline soil. During the coastal saline soil remediation process in the Yellow River Delta, it is suggested to prioritize straw returning and moderate N fertilizer addition, and live together with moderate P fertilizer application.
The sulfur cycle is one of the geochemical element cycles in which microorganisms play a key driving role. The microbial function of soil S cycling in response to desert degradation, however, remains largely unknown. We used metagenomics to analyze the characteristics of microbial communities and their functional genes involved in the S cycles under natural water gradients with three typical halophytes shrubs in the Ebinur Lake Basin Desert, China. Our results showed that the rhizosphere effect, water gradient, and halophyte type played a major role in shaping the S cycle. On the whole, in the rhizosphere type and low water environment, the functional genes involved in the S cycle had high abundance, and the SOX system in Alhagi sparsifolia had a high expression level. In the S cycle network structure, as the soil water content decreased, the complexity in S gene networks increased, showing the characteristics of clustering and high connectivity. Indicates the strengthening mode in microbial interactions with the water content. Interestingly, the negative correlation of the network changed with the water content, and there was more competition among communities under the low water gradient and more cooperation under the high water gradient. Through the correlation between environmental factors and the network, nitrate (NO 3 −) and soil available S (AS) constrained most S gene ecology networks. The key species involved in the S cycle were halophilic microorganisms. These results can enhance the understanding of soil S biogeochemical processes and contribute to the mitigation of desertification by improving soil conservation.
This paper present results on soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) on soil sorptivity and hydrophobicity under different soil moistures. The micro-infiltrometer method was used in laboratory experiment to determine the soil water repellency index (R) and the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. The increase in PHs contamination contributed to soil repellency and caused a decrease in water sorptivity. The negative effect of contamination with PHs on soil sorptivity depended on soil moisture and was marked especially clearly after exceeding the critical moisture threshold. However, contamination by PHs did not reveal significant changes when ethanol was used instead of water. The R index and the WDPT test revealed a similar trend, inversely related to the level of soil contamination with PHs. The total amount of water available to plants in non-contaminated soil was 19.04%, while contamination equal to 100 g kg -1 caused a decrease to 6.36%. Hydrophobization of water-conducting pore surfaces by petroleum hydrocarbons severely reduced infiltration and destroyed the existing hydrological system of naturally hydrophilic soil. The almost three-fold decrease in total amount of water has a fundamental influence on increasing the risk of soil drought. The soil water repellency causes a decrease in resistance to droughts and slows the alimentation process of soil water retention. The results obtained indicated that the interrelations presented between the level of PHs contamination, soil sorptivity, water repellency, and soil moisture are key to predicting the environmental effects of contamination and effective soil remediation.
Ecosystem carbon sequestration services (CSSs) are the most important ecosystem services (ESs) to mitigate global warming. Multiple soil and water conservation projects (SWCPs) have been implemented to restore disturbed ecosystems on the Loess Plateau, China. However, responses of CSSs to SWCPs are unclear due to trade-offs between CSSs and other ESs. Here, we quantified key ESs (i.e. carbon sequestration, water yield, soil conservation and crop production) and the spatio-temporal trade-off relationships by using RS/GIS techniques and ecosystem modeling in the Yanhe Basin, Loess Plateau, during 1990-2020. Additionally, the structural equation model (SEM) was used to estimate the direct and indirect inflences of multiple SWCPs including check dams, terraces and Grain for Green (GFG) on CSSs. Results show that CSSs has improved to 457 t/ha in 2020, which was twice compared to 1990. Here in, 57% of CSSs changes were explained by ESs and SWCPs. That is, water yield (-77%), soil conservation (76%), crop production (22%), GFG (80%), check dams (16%), and terraces (-72%), respectively. In order to balance trade-offs among ESs, GFG project with a focus on vegetation protection need to be prioritised, followed by check dams, and non-agricultural terraces such as [reverse-slope level terrace](http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=10019332&asa=Y&AN=63484555&h=G6mLycMgNlOVPgRoCYkOUk10bJVLBylqio15fIxfweqCrJzP5PEtwMoYDxnyvIpHMRMXk%2BO8V2wSOuIGuR9DpA%3D%3D&crl=c)s and fish-scale pits. Our results provide a mechanistic understanding of how interacting processes of human activities at small catchments scales to influence carbon sequestration, and promote sustainable utlization of ESs in hill and gully regions of the Loess Plateau.
In the last few decades, Silchar city and its surrounding areas have witnessed massive population growth due to local and migrated peoples, which led to the rapid transformation of its land use/land cover (LU/LC) pattern. For detailed micro-level LU/LC analysis, very high-resolution satellite data (VHRS) and on-screen visual interpretation techniques were used. The LU/LC classification of the city has been prepared for 2005, 2011 and 2018 with five major and further seventeen sub-classes. The wards of the city were classified into five zones and the Shannon entropy model applied to analyze the degree and trends of urban built-up development. The obtained results indicate that the Silchar city is compact near the center which follows the infill built-up growth trend. However, as the distance has increased from its center the scattering with infill growth pattern was observed. The accuracy assessment techniques are used to validate the results of the classification. The results of this study can provide detailed information for land-use planners, researchers, policy-decision makers, and municipal authorities.
Soil cracks significantly affect preferential flow; however, there are some uncertainties associated with the effect of soil cracks on preferential flow in karst areas in southwest China. In this study, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was applied to pedons to investigate the soil crack properties (inclusion, width, and configuration). Blue dye tracing experiments were designed, based on geophysical detection results, to assess the influences of inclusions (sand grains and rock fragments), crack width (1, 1.5, and 2 cm), and configuration (I-shape, V-shape, and Λ-shape) on the preferential flow. Our results indicated that (1) GPR envelope can describe the configuration of isolated soil cracks; (2) the Brilliant Blue FCF (C.I. Food Blue 2) infiltration rate and depth were over 1.5 times slower and 1.2–3.8 times lower those of water, respectively, during infiltration; (3) soil cracks can accelerate infiltration and increase the maximum dye-penetration depth, cumulative infiltration, and wetting front depth by at least an average of 5.2% and 63.2%, respectively; and (4) the I- and Λ-shaped soil crack configurations contributed to preferential flow, while the flow was not observed along the V-shaped configuration crack pore paths. The I-shaped configurations, with a width of 1.5 cm, were filled with rock fragments and had higher preferential flow ratios (18.2%–52.3%) and length indexes (4.0%–33.8%) than those of other configurations. Inclusions, crack widths, and configurations had significant influences on preferential flow ( p < 0.05). The influence of soil crack properties on preferential flow cannot be neglected during vegetation restoration and groundwater security processes in karst areas.
Sustainability of agroecosystems is the most challenging task for humans in this anthropocentric era. The faulty agriculture practices and several undesirable anthropological factors caused substantial soil erosion, desertification, and soil dryness, resulting in a severe decline in soil biodiversity and crop productivity. The mismanagement of agriculture land has deteriorated around 25% of the world’s total land area, resulting in the annual loss of approximately 24 billion tonnes of soil. By 2050, 95% world’s land might be degraded if current trends continue. The tillage practices are responsible for more than 150 t ha -1 of annual soil loss around the world. Soil erosion is responsible for 40% of all soil deterioration worldwide. Agricultural land degradation is mainly caused by intensive soil ploughing, removal or burning of crop leftovers, poor pasture management, and insufficient crop rotations. Conservation Agriculture (CA) practices are essential for soil quality restoration and improvement. The global annual adoption rate of CA has been 7 M ha year -1 over the last ten years. By decreasing soil erosion, maintaining soil structure, and encouraging soil organisms, by using CA practices, Brazil has stored around 12 million tonnes of carbon from 23.6 M ha of land. The regenerative CA practices are also important to the achievement the sustainable development goals (SDGs). This review seeks to gather and provide collective literature on the global agroecosystem situation and the impact of CA methods in restoring our degraded agroecosystems for food security.
The establishment of biological soil crusts is widely perceived as a main method to control ecological environment in arid and semi-arid regions. However, artificial biocrusts are insufficient to face with some stress from environment by using traditional established methods. Hence in this study, kaolin, a common clay mineral, was introduced as a stabilizer by mixing with Microcoleus steenstruppi of different mass ratios for inoculating onto sand to establish artificial biocrust. The results showed that the addition of kaolin exhibited a significantly positive effect on promoting biocrust formation, and accelerating the biocrust development. Moreover, the artificial biocrust from 1:500 (algae:kaolin) inoculant achieved the best performances with coverage of 98%, and thickness of 5.62 mm after 86 days of incubation. The highest contents of chlorophyll a, exopolysaccharides, and soluble protein were also observed in 1:500 mass ratio of algae:kaolin throughout the biocrust development process. As for the water retention performances, the results of contact angle, water drop penetration time (WDPT), and repellency index (RI) illustrated that biocrusts improve water utilization in kaolin-treated groups by delaying the time of water infiltration, especially in 1:500 group. After 86 days post inoculation, a series of common bacteria appeared in the biocrusts such as actinobacteria and acidobacteria and decomposed metabolites from cyanobacteria as energy source to supply their own life activities. This study gains new insights on clay minerals on biocrust development and puts forward a new approach for rapid artificial biocrust establishment to reverse desertification.
Long-term monitoring of ice-dammed lake development are important for understanding the process of lake storage and outburst. Based on remote sensing observations for the period 1972-2020, we obtained so far the most detailed reconstruction of the filling and drain of Kyagar lake, a typical annually ice-dammed lake in the north Karakoram. We show that annually repeated lake filling-drains were detected by satellite observations during two periods:1996 to 2009 and 2015 to 2020, while between 2009 and 2015 none obvious outburst occurred. These two intermitted periods with regular annual cycles of lake outburst were likely related to the long-term cycle of glacier surge dynamics, which show two remarkable surge-induced terminus accelerations during 1995-1997 and 2014-2016. Following each surge, the maximum lake areas were decreased by about 33% from 1996-2009 and by about 88% from 2015-2020. With climate warming and the thinning of the ice-dam, the storage capacity of glacial lake will likely continue decrease in the future, and the risk of lake outburst flood thus somehow decrease. Repeated drainage following filling exacer-bates the depletion of material at the glacier terminal, leading to the cessation of storage and creating the conditions for the next glacial surge to occur, thus creating a long-term cycling process. Together with the uncertainty and intensified climate changes, it suggests that a close monitoring of the glacial lake development and glacier dynamics would be still important.
Soil is the largest carbon reservoir in terrestrial ecosystems, and thus minor changes in it can dramatically affect atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. The fragile ecological environment in the northwestern arid zone of China is susceptible to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, which lead to variations in structure and function of the ecosystem, as well as carbon source–sink dynamics. In this study, digital soil maps of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCS) were produced at a 90-m resolution for two periods (the 1980s and 2010s) based on historical soil profile data and a random forest model. The results showed that the prediction accuracy for SOCS in the topsoil (0–30 cm) was superior to that of the subsoil (30–100 cm). Among them, the mean annual evapotranspiration, normalized difference vegetation index during the growing season, multi-year mean temperature, and clay content were the main environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of SOCS. In the past 30 years, the SOCS of the northwestern arid zone have decreased by 585.50 Tg, with a mean decline of 19.52 Tg C yr -1. The changes in SOCS caused by land-use conversion and reductions in SOCS were further shown to be attributable to grassland desertification and agricultural reclamation. These findings are valuable for exploring the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems in the context of global climate change and for achieving China’s goal of carbon neutrality.
Despite straw application within rice agriculture being widely practiced, both in China and globally, there remain few studies on the maize straw substituted for chemical fertilizers. In this study, maize straw substituted for chemical fertilizers to a double-cropping rice field and compared the effects of medium (MS 9,600 kg·ha−1·year−1) and high (HS 19,200 kg·ha−1·year−1) application on rice yield and soil characteristics with that of the application of single chemical fertilizers (CF) over a period of 1982 to present. The yields of late and early rice increased by 42.66 and 25.04% in 2019 and 2020, respectively. The soil bulk density of MS and HS decreased significantly by 15.94 and 33.35% compared with that of CF, whereas total soil porosity increased significantly by 9.46 and 20.17%, respectively. Long-term straw application significantly improved the soil stable aggregates content (> 0.25 mm). Straw application increased soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and catalase activities, microbial biomass carbon (C), microbial biomass nitrogen (N), and soil nutrients content compared with CF, especially HS. Correlation analysis showed that double-cropping rice yield was highly significantly correlated with soil bulk density, total porosity, catalase, microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, and available P. In conclusion, maize straw substituted for chemical fertilizers not only makes rational use of straw resources, but also improves soil characteristics to improve crop yield.