Gastrodia elata, a fully mycoheterotrophic orchid without photosynthetic ability, only grows symbiotically with the fungus Armillaria. The mechanism of carbon distribution in this mycoheterotrophy is unknown. We detected high sucrose concentrations in all stages of Gastrodia tubers, suggesting sucrose may be the major sugar transported between fungus and orchid. Thick symplasm-isolated wall interfaces in colonized and adjacent large cells implied involvement of sucrose importers. Two sucrose transporter (SUT)-like genes, GeSUT4 and GeSUT3, were identified that are highly expressed in young Armillaria-colonized tubers. Yeast complementation and radio tracer experiments confirmed that GeSUT4 functioned as a high-affinity sucrose-specific proton-dependent importer. Plasma-membrane/tonoplast localization of GeSUT4-GFP fusions, and high RNA expression of GeSUT4 in symbiotic and large cells indicated that GeSUT4 likely functions in active sucrose transport for intercellular allocation and intracellular homeostasis. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GeSUT4 had larger leaves but sensitive to excess sucrose and roots were colonized with fewer mutualistic Bacillus, supporting the role of GeSUT4 in regulating sugar allocation. This is not only the first documented carbon import system in a mycoheterotrophic interaction, but also highlights the evolutionary importance of sucrose transporters for regulation of carbon flow in all types of plant-microbe interactions.
The polysaccharidic mucilage is a widespread plant trait with diverse features, often present around plant structures in contact with the environment, providing numerous functions including protection and adhesion. In myxodiasporous species, a mucilage is released upon the imbibition of the seed (myxospermy) or the fruit (myxocarpy), and therefore can play roles in the early seedling stages. It is unclear whether myxodiaspory has one or multiple evolutionary origins and why it disappeared in several species. Here, we summarize the recent advances on (i) the mucilage and mucilage secretory cell diversity, (ii) the evolution of the molecular actors involved in myxospermy underlying the observed inter- and intra-species natural diversity and (iii) the recently identified ecological functions. At the intra-species level, a high polymorphism was detected for a few genes in relation to the observed morphological diversity. Well characterized transcriptions factors interact in master regulatory complexes to balance carbon partitioning in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. These transcription factors were sequentially recruited during seed plant evolution to control diverse traits including myxospermy, and their functions in seeds seem to be conserved across Rosids. Historically, the ecological functions of seed mucilage were mostly related to germination and seed dissemination but recently some exosystemic functions were uncovered such as soil micro-organism control and plant establishment support.
Knowing how switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) responds and adapts to phosphorus (P)-limitation will aid efforts to optimize P-efficiency in this species for sustainable biomass production. This integrative study investigated the impacts of mild, moderate, and severe P-stress on genome transcription and whole-plant metabolism, physiology and development in an unprecedented way for this species. P-limitation reduced overall plant growth, increased root/shoot ratio, increased root branching at moderate P-stress, and decreased root diameter with increased density and length of root hairs at severe P-stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed thousands of genes that were differentially expressed under moderate and severe P-stress in roots and/or shoots compared to P-replete plants, with many stress-induced genes involved in transcriptional and other forms of regulation, primary and secondary metabolism, transport, and other processes involved in P-acquisition and homeostasis. Amongst the latter were multiple miRNA399 genes and putative targets of these. Metabolite profiling showed that levels of most sugars and sugar alcohols decreased with increasing P stress, while organic and amino acids increased under mild and moderate P-stress in shoots and roots, although this trend reversed under severe P-stress, especially in shoots.
Theories attempting to explain species coexistence in plant communities have argued in favor of species’ capacities to occupy a multidimensional niche with spatial, temporal and biotic axes. We used the concept of hydrological niche segregation to learn how ecological niches are structured both spatially and temporally and whether small scale humidity gradients between adjacent niches are the main factor explaining water partitioning among tree species in a highly water-limited semiarid forest ecosystem. By combining geophysical methods, isotopic ecology, plant ecophysiology and anatomical measurements, we show how coexisting pine and oak species share, use and temporally switch between diverse spatially distinct niches by employing a set of functionally coupled plant traits in response to changing environmental signals. We identified four geospatial niches that turned into nine, when considering the temporal dynamics of the wetting/drying cycles in the substrate and the particular plant species adaptations to garner, transfer, store and use water. Under water scarcity, pine and oak exhibited water use segregation from different niches, yet under maximum drought when oak trees crossed physiological thresholds, niche overlap occurred. The identification of niches and mechanistic understanding of when and how species use them will help unify theories of plant coexistence and competition.
The mechanisms by which herbivores induce plant defenses are well studied. However, how specialized herbivores suppress plant resistance is still poorly understood. Here, we discovered a rice (Oryza sativa) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, OsLRR-RLK2, which is induced upon attack by gravid females of a specialist piercing-sucking herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). Silencing OsLRR-RLK2 decreases the constitutive activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (OsMPK6) and alters BPH-induced transcript levels of several defense-related WRKY transcription factors. Moreover, silencing OsLRR-RLK2 reduces BPH-induction of jasmonic acid and ethylene but promotes the biosynthesis of both elicited salicylic acid and H2O2; silencing also enhances the production of volatiles emitted from rice plants infested with gravid BPH females. These changes decrease BPH preference and performance in the glasshouse and the field. Our study identifies OsLRR-RLK2 as a major susceptibility factor of rice against BPH. It is likely to be employed by BPH to suppress host plant defenses for its own benefit via signaling crosstalk and/or changing the plant’s defense-related signaling profile.
Current crop protection strategies against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea rely on a combination of conventional fungicides and host genetic resistance. However, due to pathogen evolution and legislation in the use of fungicides, these strategies are not sufficient to protect plants against this pathogen. Defence elicitors can stimulate plant defence mechanisms through a phenomenon known as priming. Priming results in a faster and/or stronger expression of resistance upon pathogen recognition by the host. This work aims to study priming of a commercial formulation of the elicitor chitosan. Treatments with chitosan result in induced resistance in solanaceous and brassicaceous plants. In tomato plants, enhanced resistance has been linked with priming of callose deposition and accumulation of the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA). Large-scale transcriptomic analysis revealed that chitosan primes gene expression at early time-points after infection. In addition, two novel tomato genes with a characteristic priming profile were identified, Avr9/Cf-9 rapidly-elicited protein 75 (ACRE75) and 180 (ACRE180). Transient and stable overexpression of ACRE75, ACRE180 and their Nicotiana benthamiana homologs, revealed that they are positive regulators of plant resistance against B. cinerea. This provides valuable information in the search for strategies to protect Solanaceae plants against B. cinerea.
To understand the growth response to drought, we performed a proteomics study in the leaf growth zone of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings and functionally characterized the role of starch biosynthesis in the regulation of growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant capacity, using the shrunken2 mutant (sh2), defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Drought induced differential expression of 284 proteins overrepresented for photosynthesis, amino acids, sugar and starch metabolism, and redox-regulation. Changes in protein levels correlated with enzyme activities (increased ATP synthase, cysteine synthase, starch synthase, RuBisCo, peroxiredoxin, glutaredoxin, thioredoxin and decreased triosephosphate isomerase, ferredoxin, cellulose synthase activities, respectively) and metabolite concentrations (increased ATP, cysteine, glycine, serine, starch, proline and decreased cellulose levels). The sh2 mutant had a reduced ability to increase starch levels under drought conditions, causing soluble sugar starvation at the end of the night and impaired leaf growth. Increased RuBisCo activity and pigment concentrations observed in WT in response to drought were lacking in the mutant, which suffered more oxidative damage and recovered more slowly after re-watering. These results demonstrate that starch biosynthesis plays a crucial role in maintaining leaf growth under drought stress and facilitates enhanced carbon acquisition upon recovery.
Although cell wall polymers play important roles in the tolerance of plants to abiotic stress, the effects of salinity on cell wall composition and metabolism in grasses remain largely unexplored. Here, we conducted an in-depth study of changes in cell wall composition and phenolic metabolism induced upon salinity in maize seedlings and plants. Cell wall characterization revealed that salt stress modulated the deposition of cellulose, matrix polysaccharides and lignin. The extraction and analysis of arabinoxylans by size-exclusion chromatography, two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and carbohydrate gel electrophoresis showed a reduction of arabinoxylan content in salt-stressed roots, with no changes in xylose/arabinose ratios. Saponification and mild acid hydrolysis followed by RP-HPLC analysis revealed that salt stress also reduced the feruloylation of arabinoxylans. Determination of lignin content and composition by nitrobenzene oxidation and two-dimensional NMR confirmed the increased incorporation of syringyl units in lignin polymer. Our data also revealed the induction of the expression of genes and enzymes enrolled in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis under salinity. The UPLC-MS-based metabolite profiling confirmed the modulation of phenolic profiling by salinity and the accumulation of ferulate and its derivatives 3- and 4-O-feruloyl quinate. In conclusion, we present a model for explaining cell wall remodeling in response to salinity.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral nutrient for plants. Nevertheless, excessive P accumulation in leaf mesophyll cells causes necrotic symptoms in land plants; this phenomenon is termed P toxicity. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying P toxicity in plants have not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of P toxicity in rice. We found that under excessive inorganic P (Pi) application, Rubisco activation decreased and photosynthesis was inhibited, leading to lipid peroxidation. Although the defence systems against reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were activated under excessive Pi application conditions, the Cu/Zn-type superoxide dismutase activities were inhibited. A metabolic analysis revealed that excessive Pi application led to an increase in the cytosolic sugar phosphate concentration and the activation of phytic acid synthesis. These conditions induced mRNA expression of genes that are activated under metal-deficient conditions, although metals did accumulate. These results suggest that P toxicity is triggered by the attenuation of both photosynthesis and metal availability within cells mediated by phytic acid accumulation. Here, we discuss the whole phenomenon of P toxicity, beginning from the accumulation of Pi within cells to death in land plants.
The Plumbaginaceae (non-core Caryophyllales) is a family well known for species adapted to a wide range of arid and saline habitats. Of its salt-tolerant species, at least 45 are in the genus Limonium; two in each of Aegialitis, Limoniastum and Myriolimon, and one each in Psylliostachys, Armeria, Ceratostigma, Goniolimon and Plumbago. All the halophytic members of the family have salt glands and salt glands are also common in the closely related Tamaricaceae and Frankeniaceae. The halophytic species of the three families can secrete a range of ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42) and other elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Salt glands are, however, absent in salt-tolerant members of the sister family Polygonaceae. We describe the structure of the salt glands in the three families and consider whether glands might have arisen as a means to avoid the toxicity of Na+ and/or Cl- or to regulate Ca2+ concentrations with the leaves. We conclude that the establishment of lineages with salt glands took place after the split between the Polygonaceae and its sister group the Plumbaginaceae.
Utilizing phosphate more efficiently is crucial for sustainable crop production. Highly efficient rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars have been identified and this study aims to identify metabolic markers associated with P utilization efficiency. P deficiency generally reduced leaf P concentrations and CO2 assimilation rates but efficient cultivars were reducing leaf P concentrations further than inefficient ones while maintaining similar CO2 assimilation rates. Adaptive changes in carbon metabolism were detected but equally in efficient and inefficient cultivar groups. Groups furthermore did not differ with respect to partial substitutions of phospholipids by sulfo- and galactolipids. Metabolites significantly more abundant in the efficient group, such as sinapate, benzoate and glucoronate, were related to antioxidant defense and may help alleviating oxidative stress caused by P deficiency. Sugar alcohols ribitol and threitol were another marker metabolite for higher phosphate efficiency as were several amino acids, especially threonine. Since these metabolites are not known to be associated with P deficiency, they may provide novel clues for the selection of more P efficient genotypes. In conclusion, metabolite signatures detected here were not related to phosphate metabolism but rather helped P efficient lines to keep vital processes functional under the adverse conditions of P starvation.
Norway spruce is a conifer storing large amounts of terpenoids in resin ducts of various tissues. Parts of the terpenoids stored in needles can be emitted together with de novo synthesized terpenoids. Since previous studies provided hints on xylem transported terpenoids as a third emission source, we tested if terpenoids are transported in xylem sap of Norway spruce. We further aimed at understanding if they might contribute to terpenoid emission from needles. We determined terpenoid content and composition in xylem sap, needles, bark, wood and roots of field grown trees, as well as terpenoid emissions from needles. We found considerable amounts of terpenoids – mainly oxygenated compounds - in xylem sap. The terpenoid concentration in xylem sap was relatively low compared to the content in other tissues where terpenoids are stored in resin ducts. Importantly, the terpenoid composition in the xylem sap greatly differed from the composition in wood, bark or roots suggesting that an internal transport of terpenoids takes place at the sites of xylem loading. Our work gives hints that plant internal transport of terpenoids exists within conifers; studies on their functions should be a focus of future research.
Tropical forests are experiencing unprecedented high temperature conditions due to climate change that could limit their photosynthetic functions. We studied the high temperature sensitivity of photosynthesis in a rainforest site in southern Amazonia, where some of the highest temperatures and most rapid warming in the Tropics have been recorded. The quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II was measured in seven dominant tree species using leaf discs exposed to varying levels of heat stress. T50 was calculated as the temperature at which Fv/Fm) was half the maximum value. T5 is defined as the breakpoint temperature, at which Fv/Fm) decline was initiated. Leaf thermotolerance in the rapidly warming Southern Amazonia was the highest recorded for forest tree species globally. T50 and T5 varied between species, with one mid storey species, Amaioua guianensis, exhibiting particularly high T50 and T5 values. While the T50 values of the species sampled were several degrees above the maximum air temperatures experienced in southern Amazonia, the T5 values of several species are now exceeded under present-day maximum air temperatures.