Background: This study was conducted to determine the frequency and clinical features of patients who were diagnosed incidentally as having diabetes mellitus (DM) in the emergency department. Aim: Our aim was to investigate the frequency of DM in patients whose high blood glucose levels were detected, and to examine the subsequent treatment these patients. Methods: The participants were selected from among patients who had a glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL and admitted to emergency department with symptoms of hyperglycemia in the past 1 year. Age, sex, presence of chronic disease, and the laboratory blood parameter results of the patients were recorded. We divided the patients into three groups as those who had never been admitted to clinics for treatment, those who were admitted and given treatment, and not given treatment. Results: According to their sexes, 73 (52.1%) were male and 67 (47.9%) were female. It was determined that 86 of the 140 patients included in the study were admitted to clinics for treatment. It was determined that no medication was given to 50 of these patients, but treatment was initiated in 36. Patients with glucose level ≥300 mg/dL were found to be receiving more treatment significantly (p=0.031). Conclusions: In this study, diabetic patients whose blood sugar is between 200-300 mg/dL should be sent to the DM related clinic immediately when diagnosed in the emergency department.
Objective Our objective was to test the hypothesis that in-hospital respiratory viral infections (RVI) would be significantly lower in a cohort of patients with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the SARS-CoV-2 era when compared to historical controls. Study Design On April 1, 2020, we implemented a universal infection prevention bundle to minimize the risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a dedicated BPD intensive care unit. We performed a retrospective cohort study and included patients with established BPD, as defined by the 2019 Neonatal Research Network criteria, admitted to our center who underwent real-time polymerase-chain-reaction RVI testing between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2021. We excluded patients re-admitted from home. We compared to number of tests performed, the proportion of positive tests, and the distribution of viral respiratory pathogens in the pre- and post-SARS-CoV-2 eras. Results Among 176 patients included in the sudy, 663 RVI tests were performed and 172 (26%) tests were positive. The median number of tests performed, measured in tests per patient per month, in the SARS-CoV-2 era was not significantly different compared to the pre-SARS-CoV-2 era (0.45 vs 0.34 tests per patient per month, P = 0.07). The proportion of positive RVI tests was significantly lower in the SARS-CoV-2 era when compared to the pre-SARS-CoV-2 era (0.06 vs 0.30, P<0.0001). No patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the SARS-CoV-2 era. Conclusions Infection prevention measures developed in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may reduce the risk of RVIs in hospitalized patients with established BPD.
Background: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is defined as a temporary and reversible systolic abnormality of the left ventricle’s apical area resembling myocardial infarction (MI) in the nonexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD).Only a few cases have been reported after cardiac operations or after pericardiocentesis. Aims: To emphasize the need to be aware of the possibility of the occurrence of this potentially fatal complication after cardiac surgery. Materials and methods: A-66-year old man underwent pericardiectomy.Postoperative he endured TC and progressed exacerbation of hemodynamic instability.finally, he had to be supported by intra-aortic balloon pump（IABP),extracorporeal membrane oxygenation（ECMO). Results: Patient’s left ventricle function recovered fully in two weeks. Discussion: we discussed the pathogenesis and treatment of postoperative TC. Conclusion:TC has to be carefully considered in differential diagnosis in case of acute left ventricle dysfunction following cardiac surgery. Keywords: pericardiectomy; takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Background & Aim Cardiogenic shock (CS) withholds a significantly high mortality rate between 40-60% despite advances in diagnosis and medical/surgical intervention. To-date, machine learning(ML) is being implemented to integrate numerous data to optimize early diagnostic predictions and suggest clinical courses. This systematic review summarizes the area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristics (ROC) accuracy for the early prediction of CS. Methods A systematic review was conducted within databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Clinical Key/MEDLINE, Embase, GoogleScholar, and Cochrane. Cohort studies that assessed accuracy of early detection of CS using ML software were included. Data extraction was focused on AUC-ROC values directed towards early detection of CS. Results A total of 943 studies were included for systematic review. From the reviewed studies, 2.2% (N=21) evaluated patient outcomes, of which 14.3% (N=3) were assessed. The collective patient cohort (N=698) consisted of 314(45.0%) females, with an average age and body mass index (BMI) of 64.1years and 28.1kg/m2, respectively. Collectively, 159 (22.8%) mortalities were reported following early CS detection. Altogether, the AUC-ROC value was 0.82 (alfa=0.05), deeming it of superb sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions From the present comprehensively gathered data, this study accounts the use of ML software for the early detection of CS in a clinical setting as a valid tool to predict patients at risk of CS. The complexity of ML and its parallel lack of clinical evidence implies that further prospective randomized control trials are needed to draw definitive conclusions prior to standardizing use of these technologies.
The present perspective is a synthesis of 80 published investigations in the setting of a retroaortic left brachiocephalic vein, described in 250 patients. Clinical presentation, radiographic findings, ultrasonographic findings, saline contrast echocardiography, computed-tomographic angiocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiocardiography provided the diagnostic information used to define the disease entity prior to considering the surgical approach to the associated cardiac anomalies. We have also addressed several issues concerning the influence of isomerism, the establishment of diagnosis, and its importance in various surgical and interventional procedures. Although the retroaortic left brachiocephalic vein is asymptomatic, its recognition during clinical investigation should raise the possibility of an association with other malformations, especially right aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and anomalies of the outflow tracts. We submit that an increased appreciation of this venous anomaly may facilitate surgical planning, endovascular procedures, placement of central venous lines, and transvenous pacemakers.
Prompted by the centenary of Alfred Landé’s g-factor, we reconstruct Landé’s path to his discovery of half-integer angular momentum quantum numbers and of vector coupling of atomic angular momenta - both encapsulated in the g-factor - as well as point to reverberations of Landé’s breakthroughs in the work of other pioneers of quantum physics.
Background: This study evaluated the utilization and outcomes of postcardiotomy mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Methods: This was a retrospective, single institution analysis of adult cardiac surgery cases that required de novo MCS following surgery from 2011-2018. Patients that were bridged with MCS to surgery were excluded. The primary outcomes were early operative mortality and longitudinal survival. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complications, and five-year all-cause readmission. Results: 533 patients required de novo postcardiotomy MCS, with the most commonly performed procedure being isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (29.8%). Median cardiopulmonary bypass and cross clamp times were 185 (IQR 123-260) minutes and 122 (IQR 81-179) minutes, respectively. A total of 442 (82.9%) of patients were supported with intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation, 23 (4.3%) with an Impella device, and 115 (21.6%) with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Three (0.6%) patients had an unplanned ventricular assist device placed. Operative mortality was 29.8%. Longitudinal survival was 56.1% and 43.0% at 1- and 5-years, respectively. Survival was lowest in those supported with ECMO and highest with those supported with an Impella (P<0.001). Freedom from readmission was 61.4% at 5-years. Postoperative ECMO was an independent predictor of mortality (HR 5.1, 95% CI 2.0-12.9, P<0.001), but none of the MCS types predicted long-term hospital readmission after risk adjustment. Conclusions: Postcardiotomy MCS is associated with high operative mortality. Even patients that survive to discharge have compromised longitudinal survival, with nearly only half surviving to 1-year. Close follow-up and early referral to advanced heart failure specialists may be prudent in improving these outcomes.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of human membrane proteins and represent the primary targets of about one third of currently marketed drugs. Despite the critical importance, experimental structures have been determined for only a limited portion of GPCRs and functional mechanisms of GPCRs remain poorly understood. Here, we have constructed novel sequence coevolutionary models of the A and B classes of GPCRs and compared them with residue contact frequency maps generated with available experimental structures. Significant portions of structural residue contacts were successfully detected in the sequence-based covariational models. “Exception” residue contacts predicted from sequence coevolutionary models but not available structures added missing links that were important for GPCR activation and allosteric modulation. Moreover, we identified distinct residue contacts involving different sets of functional motifs for GPCR activation, such as the Na+ pocket, CWxP, DRY, PIF and NPxxY motifs in the class A and the HETx and PxxG motifs in the class B. Finally, we systematically uncovered critical residue contacts tuned by allosteric modulation in the two classes of GPCRs, including those from the activation motifs and particularly the extracellular and intracellular loops in class A GPCRs. These findings provide a promising framework for rational design of ligands to regulate GPCR activation and allosteric modulation.
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has gained a permanent place in the therapeutic arsenal for the patient with allergy. Particularly, substantial evidence has been established for the efficacy of AIT in allergic rhinitis. A hallmark of AIT is it disease modifying effect resulting in persistent benefit after the treatment has been terminated. Both the subcutaneous and sublingual mode of administration appear to be safe. It is, however, a matter of debate whether AIT can be implemented for patients with asthma. EAACI and GINA guidelines recommend sublingual AIT in house dust mite driven asthma. The question however remains whether the different available forms of AIT should be used for allergic asthma in general.
Key Points : • Interventional therapies directed at fenestration closure in the Fontan patient must rely on good hemodynamic data • The Large Optimus-CVSTM stent is an additional armamentarium for fenestration closure however, longer term follow up is needed • Multi institutional studies defining the long-term benefits of fenestration closure and outlining fenestration management guidelines may help improve the long-term morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.
Background Lack of definitive cure for COVID-19 and the late introduction of a vaccine were responsible to push the general public to look for a remedy to treat or prevent COVID-19. The objective of this study was to evaluate patterns and factors that affect self-medication practices in Jordan during the pandemic. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire that was developed, piloted and distributed to the general public via various social media platforms. The questionnaire assessed the type of drugs and treatments used to self -medicate, the reasons behind their self- medication, and the factors affecting their practices. Results A total of 1179 participants (females 46.4%) with a mean age of 32 (SD=12.5) completed the questionnaire. The overall prevalence of the use of at least one product to treat or prevent COVID-19 was 80.4 %. The most commonly used products to self-medicate were vitamin C (57.6%), followed by paracetamol (51.9%), zinc (44.8%) and vitamin D (32.5%). Female gender (odds ratio [OR]) = 1.603, working in the medical field (OR =1.697), and history of COVID-19 infection (OR =2.026) were variables associated with self-medication. The most common sources of participants’ information about drugs to prevent or treat COVID-19 were newspapers (n=519, 44.0%), followed by pharmacists (43.4%), friends (33.8%) and internet searching such as Google (30.7%). Conclusion This study identified the main drugs and supplements used during COVID-19 and the motives behind their use. It also identified the most influential source of information on the public during the pandemic. Self-medication can lead to worsening of the patient’s health and delay seeking medical advice from healthcare professionals. Efforts should be done to help mitigate risks of self-medications by active involvement of pharmacists and other members of healthcare team to refute false claims about drug, especially in the media.
NMR studies can provide unique information about protein conformations in solution. In CASP14, three reference structures provided by solution NMR methods were available (T1027, T1029, and T1055), as well as a fourth data set of NMR-derived contacts for a integral membrane protein (T1088). For the three targets with NMR-based structures, the best prediction results ranged from very good (GDT_TS = 0.90, for T1055) to poor (GDT_TS = 0.47, for T1029). We explored the basis of these results by comparing all CASP14 prediction models against experimental NMR data. For T1027, the NMR data reveal extensive internal dynamics, presenting a unique challenge for protein structure prediction. The analysis of T1029 motivated exploration of a novel method of “inverse structure determination”, in which an AF2 model was used to guide NMR data analysis. NMR data provided to CASP predictor groups for target T1088, a 238-residue integral membrane porin, was also used to assess several NMR-assisted prediction methods. Most groups involved in this exercise generated similar beta-barrel models, with good agreement with the experimental data. However, as was also observed in CASP13, some pure prediction groups that did not use the NMR data generated structures for T1088 that better fit the NMR data than the models generated using these experimental data. These results demonstrate the remarkable power of modern methods to predict structures of proteins with accuracies rivaling solution NMR structures, and that it is now possible to reliably use prediction models to guide and complement experimental NMR data analysis.
Symptom distress and decreased quality of life (QOL) among children with cancer are well documented. Research is emerging on the child’s voice in QOL-symptom reports, but existing QOL questionnaires are burdensome and objective biologic markers are lacking. We examined children’s symptoms and QOL from parent and child perspectives and compared the results to one biologic marker (body posture). A cross-sectional secondary analysis of prospective data from children receiving creative arts therapy explored potential associations among demographics with and between QOL measures (PedsQL, Faces Scale, posture). Children (n = 98) ranged in age from 3-17 years (M = 7.8) and were in the first year of cancer treatment. No significant associations were found among the child’s sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), or distance from hospital and total PedsQL. Older age was associated with worse total PedsQL, pain, nausea, worry, and posture (all ps < .05). Greater worry (β = 0.51) and worse posture (β = 0.41) were the QOL variables most strongly correlated with older age. Poorer posture was associated with worse child PedsQL (total score, nausea, treatment anxiety, cognitive) and parent PedsQL (pain, nausea). Worse scores on the Faces Scale, PedsQL, and posture were all correlated (rs = .21 - .39, all ps < .05). Interventions to improve QOL could target nausea, worry, and older patients. Accuracy and interpretation of symptom distress in children is problematic. The Faces Scale and posture may be suitable, readily obtained measures of QOL in pediatric oncology that hold promise.
Appendix adenocarcinoma associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) is extremely rare. Pathological examination of a man with 6-year history of UC revealed a primary appendix adenocarcinoma mixed with adenoma component. Dysplasia was not identified. The adenoma-carcinoma sequence, but not the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence, might be involved in this UC-associated appendix adenocarcinoma.