Despite the growing number of dam removals, very few have been studied to understand their impacts on stream fish communities. An even smaller proportion of dam removal studies focus on the impacts of low-head dam removals, although they are the most common type of dam. Instead, the majority of removal studies focus on the impacts of larger dams. In this study, two previously impounded Illinois rivers were monitored to assess the impacts of low-head dam removal on the functional assemblage of stream fishes. Study sites were sampled each fall from 2012-2015 (pre-dam removal) and 2018-2020 (post-dam removal) in three habitat types: downstream of the dam, impounded areas, and runs of rivers. Fishes were aggregated into habitat and reproductive guilds, relating community changes to habitat, environmental metrics, and stream quality. Prior to removal, the slackwater guild was the most prevalent habitat guild throughout both rivers, while nest builders and benthic spawners were the most abundant reproductive guilds. During the two years following removal, habitat conditions and fish assemblages improved throughout both rivers, with improvements in QHEI, IBI, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen, as well as a shift to more evenly distributed representation of habitat and reproductive guilds. The improvements in environmental metrics and overall stream quality, particularly in the formerly impounded habitats, indicate diminished habitat homogeneity, and a shift towards natural habitat diversity. This habitat diversification likely led to the restoration of a range of potential niches, thereby increasing the array of guild types inhabiting these rivers, while simultaneously preventing single-guild dominance.
Purpose: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU). Nonetheless, precise reporting of LVDD in COVID-19 patients is currently lacking and assessment could be challenging. Methods: We performed an echocardiography study in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU with the aim to describe the feasibility of full or simplified LVDD assessment and its incidence. We also evaluated the association of LVDD or of single echocardiographic parameters with hospital mortality. Results: Between 06.10.2020 and 18.02.2021, full diastolic assessment was feasible in 74% (n=26/35) of patients receiving full echocardiogram study. LVDD incidence was 46% (n=12/26), whilst the assessment produced different results (incidence 81%, n=21/26). Nine patients were hospital-survivors (39%); incidence of LVDD (full assessment) was not different between survivors (n=2/9, 22%) and non-survivors (n=10/17, 59%; p=0.11). Also, the E/e’ ratio lateral was lower in survivors (7.4 [3.6] vs non-survivors 10.5 [6.3], p=0.03). We also found that s’ wave was higher in survivors (average, p=0.01). Conclusion: In a small single-center study, assessment of LVDD according to latest guidelines was feasible in three quarter of COVID-19 patients. Non-survivors showed a trend towards greater LVDD incidence; moreover, they had significantly worse s’ values (all) and higher E/e’ ratio (lateral).
Herein, we propose a novel method to enhance the photoreactivity of an MOF catalyst by grafting isocyanate bonds (−N=C=O) and sulfhydryl-complexed copper (−SCu) onto ZIF-8 (NIF-SCu). The grafting process intercalated interlayer bands between the conduction and valence bands of ZIF-8, thereby providing a “ladder” for facile electron transition. The extreme improvement in the photoreactivity of NIF-SCu could be attributed to the enhancement in light responses in the range of 350–450 nm by −N=C=O groups and the widening of the visible light range of the MOF by −SCu groups. The formation of staggered energy levels in NIF-SCu could also narrow the band gap, lower the resistance, and facilitate the transfer of photogenerated carriers, thereby generating electrons with strong reduction potential in the −SCu conduction band. This study provides a new strategy for improving or even endowing the photoactivity of environmental functional materials with wide bandgaps.
George and colleagues report their experience with a non-transplant left ventricular assist device program (1). This manuscript spans a decade’s experience with LVADs and clearly demonstrates that LVAD therapy is possible in centers without a heart transplant program. 100 LVADs were placed during this period. The positive findings from this report include that as volume increased, the complications of right heart dysfunction and bleeding decreased. Noteworthy is that 85 of the 100 patients were implanted with a fully magnetically levitated ventricular assist device. Given the superior performance of a fully magnetically levitated device to a rotary pump (2) these findings are relevant for all contemporary centers with LVAD programs.The authors importantly sought the resources of a transplant center to ensure that patients who were offered LVAD in their non-transplant center were indeed not candidates for cardiac transplantation. In addition to this fundamental necessity, three features are necessary for a successful non-transplant LVAD program. Firstly, the institution must offer robust infrastructure and support. Secondly there must be a strong surgeon-leader dedicated to overseeing the program. Lastly, cardiologists who are dedicated to heart failure are essential to guide patients to this therapy.The extension of LVAD therapy to patients in non-transplant centers is essential for durable mechanical circulatory support to remain as a vital part of advanced therapies for heart failure. VADs will continue to play an important role in the management of end-stage heart failure for patients who are not eligible for cardiac transplantation. The 2020 Society of Thoracic Surgeons INTERMACs report now offers patients a 5-year survival of 45%(3). The survival of patients with LVADs continues to increase. The data in this current report offer a new perspective and increased access to LVAD therapy for patients with end stage heart failure.ReferencesGeorge TJ, Aldrich A, Smith III RL, et al. Development of a Non-Transplant Left Ventricular Assist Device Program. J Card SurgMehra MR, Uriel Y, Naka Y, et al. A Fully Magnetically Levitated Left Ventricular Assist Device – Final report. N Engl J Med 2019:380:1618-27.Molina EJ, Shah P, Kierman MS, et al. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Intermacs 202 Annual Report. Ann Thorac Surg 2021;111:778-92.
Bladder cancer treatment remains a challenge to every oncologist. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with BCG-refractory bladder cancer, who had a complete response to the intravesical Gemcitabine to shine the light on the role of Gemcitabine as a bladder sparing treatment in BCG-failure patients.
Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) result in millions of illnesses and hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations annually in the US. The responsible viruses include influenza, parainfluenza, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human rhinoviruses. This study estimated the population-based hospitalization burden of 18 respiratory viruses (RV) over 4 years, from 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2019 among adults ≥18 years of age for Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania. Methods: We used population-based statewide hospital discharge data, health system electronic medical record (EMR) data for RV tests, census data, and a published method to calculate burden. Results: Among 26,211 eligible RV tests, 67.6% were negative for any virus. The viruses detected were rhinovirus/enterovirus (2,552; 30.1%), influenza A (2,299; 27.1%), RSV (1,082; 12.7%), human metapneumovirus (832; 9.8%), parainfluenza (601; 7.1%), influenza B (565; 6.7%), non-SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (420; 4.9% 1.5 years of data available), and adenovirus (136; 1.6%). Most tests were among female (58%) and white (71%) patients with 60% of patients ≥65 years, 24% 50-64 years and 16% 18-49 years. The annual burden, ranged from 137-174/100,000 population for rhinovirus/enterovirus; 99-182/100,000 for influenza A; 56-81/100,000 for RSV. Among adults <65 years, rhinovirus/enterovirus hospitalization burden was higher than influenza A; whereas the reverse was true for adults ≥65 years. RV hospitalization burden increased with increasing age. Conclusions: These virus-specific ARI population-based hospital burden estimates showed significant non-influenza burden. These estimates can serve as the basis for several areas of research that are essential for setting funding priorities and guiding public health policy.
To understand dynamics of the COVID-19 disease realistically, a new SEIAPHR model has been proposed in this article where the infectious individuals have been categorized as symptomatic, asymptomatic and super-spreaders. The model has been investigated for existence of a unique solution. To measure the contagiousness of COVID-19, reproduction number R0 is also computed using next generation matrix method. It is shown that model is locally stable at disease free equilibrium point when R0 <1 and unstable for R0 >1. The model has been analyzed for global stability at both of the disease free and endemic equilibrium points. Sensitivity analysis is also included to examine the effect of parameters of the model on reproduction number R0. Couple of optimal control problems have been designed to study the effect of control strategies for disease control and eradication from the society. Numerical results show that the adopted control approaches are much effective in reducing new infections.
We present a case of a 47-year-old female with a history of diagnosed KD and autoimmune hepatitis 13 years ago who presented with recurrent fevers and a desquamative rash on the lower extremities. Patient has elevated ASMA titer, and a subsequent liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis
Biobutanol produced in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation at batch mode cannot compete with chemically derived butanol because of the low reactor productivity. Continuous fermentation can dramatically enhance productivity and lower capital and operating costs but are rarely used in industrial fermentation because of increased risks in culture degeneration, cell washout, and contamination. In this study, cells of the asporogenous Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC55025 were immobilized in a single-pass fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) for continuous production of butanol from glucose and butyrate at various dilution rates. Butyric acid in the feed medium helped maintaining cells in the solventogenic phase for stable continuous butanol production. At the dilution rate of 1.88 h -1, butanol was produced at 9.55 g/L with a yield of 0.24 g/g and productivity of 16.8 g/L∙h, which was the highest ever achieved for biobutanol fermentation and an 80-fold improvement over the conventional ABE fermentation. The extremely high productivity was attributed to the high density of viable cells (~100 g/L at >70% viability) immobilized in the fibrous matrix, which also enabled the cells to better tolerate butanol and butyric acid. The FBB was stable for continuous operation for an extended period of over one month.
Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic aortic arch and coarctation of aorta is still challenging and remains one of the most difficult cardiac defect to diagnose. The results reveal significant improvement of prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic arch and coactation of aorta. The data also shows the significant overlapping of fetal aortic isthmus z score between the infants who need the arch procedure and those who do not.
Cationic helical peptides play a crucial role in applications such as anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity. The activity of these peptides directly correlates with their helicity. In this study, we have performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of 25 Lysine-Leucine co-polypeptide sequences of varying charge density ( λ ) and patterns. Our findings showed that an increase in the charge density on the peptide leads to a gradual decrease in the helicity up to a critical charge density λ c . Beyond, λ c a complete helix to coil transition was observed. The decrease in the helicity correlated with the increased number of water molecules in first solvation shell, solvent-exposed surface area, and a higher value of the radius of gyration of the peptide.
A man in his 50s with no significant past medical history developed subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. 9th hospital day, he experienced a ruptured visceral aneurysm with segmental arterial mediolysis, and we successfully treated with transarterial embolization using metallic coils.
DNA extraction and preservation bias is a recurring topic in DNA sequencing-based microbial ecology. Different methodologies can lead to distinct outcomes, which has been demonstrated especially in studies investigating prokaryotic community composition. Eukaryotic microbes are ubiquitous, diverse, and increasingly a subject of investigation in addition to bacteria and archaea. However, little is known about how the choice of DNA preservation and extraction methodology impacts perceived eukaryotic community composition. In this study, we compared the effect of two DNA preservation protocols and 6 DNA extraction methods on the community profiles of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes in phototrophic biofilms on seagrass (Zostera marina) leaves from the Baltic Sea. We found that, whereas DNA preservation and extraction method caused significant bias in perceived community composition for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, extraction bias was more pronounced for eukaryotes than prokaryotes. Especially soft-bodied or hard-shelled eukaryotes like nematodes and diatoms were differentially abundant depending on the extraction method. We conclude that careful consideration of DNA preservation and extraction methodology is crucial to achieving representative community profiles of eukaryotes in marine biofilms, and likely all other habitats containing diverse eukaryotic microbial communities.
Based on Carpentier’s classification and principles, the techniques for mitral valve repair continue to evolve. We herein report our experience with the morpho-functional echocardiographic analysis of single mitral leaflets, as different anatomic features, even if conflicting, may coexist not only in the two leaflets, but in the same leaflet as well. A classification is proposed, based on the length (normal, short, or long) and mobility (normal, restricted, or excessive) of mitral leaflets. The surgical techniques adopted for mitral valve repair are the direct consequence of this analysis.