Understanding landscape connectivity has become a global priority for mitigating the impact of landscape fragmentation on biodiversity. Link-based methods traditionally rely on relating pairwise genetic distance between individuals or demes to their landscape distance (e.g., geographic distance, cost distance). In this study, we present an alternative to conventional statistical approaches to refine cost surfaces by adapting the Gradient Forest (GF) approach to produce a resistance surface. Used in community ecology, GF is an extension of random forest (RF), and has been implemented in genomic studies to model species genetic offset under future climatic scenarios. By design, this adapted method, resGF, has the ability to handle multiple environmental predicators and is not subjected to traditional assumptions of linear models such as independence, normality and linearity. Using genetic simulations, resGF performance was compared to other published methods. In univariate scenarios, resGF was able to distinguish the true surface contributing to genetic diversity among competing surfaces better than the compared methods. In multivariate scenarios, the GF approach performed similarly to the other RF-based approach using least-cost transect analysis (LCTA). Additionally, two worked examples are provided using two previously published datasets. This machine learning algorithm has the potential to improve our understanding of landscape connectivity and can inform long-term biodiversity conservation strategies.
Rationale: The fundamental understanding of Grignard-type organolanthanides(III) is still in its infancy. Decarboxylation of metal carboxylate ions is a powerful method to obtain organometallic ions which are well suited for gas-phase investigation by using ESI-MS in combination with DFT calculations. Methods： (RCO2)LnCl3- (R = CH3, Ln = La-Lu except Pm; Ln = La, R = CH3CH2, CH2CH, CHC, C6H5 and C6H11) ions were produced via ESI of LnCl3 and RCO2H/RCO2Na in methanol. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was employed to examine whether RLnCl3- can be obtained via decarboxylation of (RCO2)LnCl3-. With the aid of DFT calculations, the influences of Ln and R on the formation of RLnCl3- can be uncovered. Results: When R was fixed as methyl, CID of (CH3CO2)LnCl3- (Ln = La-Lu except Pm) all gave (CH3)LnCl3- and LnCl3·- with a variation in the relative intensity ratio of (CH3)LnCl3-/LnCl3·-. The trend is following as (CH3)EuCl3-/EuCl3·- < (CH3)YbCl3-/YbCl3·- ≈ (CH3)SmCl3-/SmCl3·- < other (CH3)LnCl3-/LnCl3·-, which generally complies with the trend of Ln(III)/Ln(II) reduction potentials. When Ln was fixed as La and R groups were varied as CH3CH2, CH2CH, CHC, C6H5 and C6H11, the fragmentation behaviors of these (RCO2)LaCl3- are diverse. Except for (C6H11CO2)LaCl3-, the rest four (RCO2)LaCl3- ions all underwent decarboxylation to give RLaCl3-. The relative intensities of RLaCl3- compared to (RCO2)LaCl3- decrease as follow: CHC > CH2CH > C6H5 > CH3 > CH3CH2 >> C6H11 (not visible). Conclusion： A series of Grignard-type organolanthanide(III) ions RLnCl3- (R = CH3, Ln = La-Lu except Pm; Ln = La, R = CH3CH2, CH2CH, CHC and C6H5) were generated from (RCO2)LnCl3- via CO2 loss while (C6H5)LaCl3- not. The experimental and theoretical results suggest that the reduction potentials of Ln(III)/Ln(II) couples as well as the bulkiness and hybridization of hydrocarbyl groups play crucial roles in promoting or limiting the formation of RLnCl3- via decarboxylation.
On June 26-28, 2020, the International Conference on Software and Systems Processes (ICSSP 2020) and the International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE 2020) were held in virtual settings during the first year of the COVID pandemic. Several submissions to the joint event have been selected for inclusion in this special issue, focusing on impactful and timely contributions to Machine Learning (ML). At present, many in our field are enthusiastic about the potential of ML, yet some risks should not be casually overlooked or summarily dismissed. Each ML implementation is subtly different from any other implementation, and the risk profile varies greatly based on the approach adopted and the implementation context. The ICSSP/ICGSE 2020 Program Committees have encouraged submissions that explore the risks and benefits associated with ML so that the important discussion regarding ML efficacy and advocacy can be further elaborated. Four contributions have been included in this special issue.
Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with heart failure associated with a reduced EF (HFrEF) was associated with a significantly lower rate of a composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospitalization for worsening heart failure (HF) than medical therapy in the CASTLE-AF trial. In patients with HF and also with a preserved EF (HFpEF), AF is known to be associated with increased mortality. Although the particular benefit in patients with an EF >35% may suggest the need for prospective randomized control trial data in patients with HF to assess the role of ablation as a first-line therapy as Sessions AJ, et al. stated, we believe at present that 1) whether there is structural heart disease detected by cardiac images and 2) whether the left atrial voltage is generally low, should be assessed “before ablation” in each patient with HF to achieve a successful ablation.
Since the rapid development of nanomedicine in oncotherapy, multiple nanomaterials are adopted to regulate the immune system in cancer individuals. Tumor immunotherapy enhances the immune function of patients to achieve the purpose of killing tumor cells by utilizing the organism immune mechanism. As emerging inorganic carbon nanoparticles, carbon dots (CDs) have been found as photosensitizers, vaccines, immunoadjuvants, and so on for cancer treatment due to their unique structure and property, such as effective platforms for drug delivery, immunomodulation, and phototherapy. In this review, we mainly discuss the recent application of CDs in tumor immunotherapy and the prospects of CDs in the field of immune medicine. By assessing the achievements and challenges of CDs in tumor immunotherapy, our review would provide mechanistic insights into the evolution of future nanomedicine.
1. A survey on the recent COVID-19 epidemic in China was conducted. 2. The epidemic likely made over 85% of people in China sick in December 2022. 3. The epidemic likely ended in early January 2023. 4. The epidemic had the features of spreading more rapidly and widely and having a higher symptomatic rate than previously thought. 5. The above features could lead to many severe cases and deaths due to the shortages of medical resources. 6. The above features greatly enhanced the population immunity in China, which will accelerate the end of the COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the emergence of risky variants of SARS-CoV-2 in China.
Background: Since early May 2022, outbreaks of Monkeypox (Mpox) cases have emerged and become a global concern. Studies exploring the gastrointestinal (GI) and/or liver manifestations of Mpox are still very limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to summarize the GI manifestations reported by Mpox patients. Methods: We searched for Mpox studies published until October 21, 2022, in MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and organization websites. Mpox studies were observational studies that reported at least one of either GI and/or liver manifestations. Meta-analysis was done to obtain the pooled prevalence of GI manifestations in Mpox patients. The quality of included studies was assessed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool. Results: Overall, 31 studies that reported GI and/or liver manifestations in Mpox patients were included. The five most commonly reported GI manifestations by studies were abdominal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, nausea and/or vomiting, and proctitis. There is a lack of reporting for liver manifestations. The most prevalent GI manifestations in Mpox patients were anorexia (47%; 95%CI 41-53%), followed by nausea and/or vomiting (12%; 95%CI 11-13%), proctitis (11%; 95%CI 11-12%), abdominal pain (9%; 95%CI 8-10%), and diarrhea (5%; 95%CI 4-6%). Conclusion: Anorexia was the most frequently reported GI manifestation in Mpox patients, followed by nausea and/or vomiting, proctitis, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The presentation of proctitis during the ongoing Mpox outbreak highly suggests a potential for Mpox diagnosis.
Seed dormancy contributes greatly to successful establishment and community stability and shows large variation over a continuous status scale in mountain ecosystems. Although empirical studies have shown that seed dormancy status (SDS) is shaped by elevation and phylogenetic history in mountain ecosystems, few studies have quantified their combined effects on SDS. Here, we collected mature seeds from 51 populations of 11 Impatiens species (Balsaminaceae) along an elevational gradient in the Gaoligong Mountains of southwest China and downloaded 19 bioclimatic variables from WorldClim v.2.1 for each Impatiens population. We used internal transcribed spacer (ITS), atpB-rbcL, and trnL-F molecular sequences from the GenBank nucleotide database to construct a phylogenetic tree of the 11 species of Impatiens. SDS was estimated using mean dormancy percentage of fresh seeds germinated at three constant temperatures (15, 20, and 25 °C). Logistic regression model analysis was performed to quantify the effects of phylogeny and environment on SDS. Results showed that there was a significant phylogenetic signal of SDS in the Impatiens species. Furthermore, elevation and phylogeny accounted for 63.629% of the total variation in SDS among the Impatiens populations. The logistic model indicated that climatic factors accounted for 20.832% of the total variation in SDS among the Impatiens species, and model residuals were significantly correlated with phylogeny, but not with elevation. Our results indicated that seed dormancy is phylogenetically conserved, and climate drives elevational patterns of SDS variation in mountain ecosystems. This study provides new insights into the response of seed plant diversity to climate change.
Title: Some OPA once told me “LKB1 is going to rule me”: the OPA1-LKB1 axis in immune responseAuthors: Contreras N1,2*, Macías-Camero A1,2*, Delgado-Dolset MI1,2.Affiliations: 1Centre for Metabolomics and Bioanalysis (CEMBIO), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain.2Instituto de Medicina Molecular Aplicada Nemesio Díez (IMMA-NM), Departamento de Ciencias Médicas Básicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain.*These authors contributed equallyCorrespondence to: María Isabel Delgado-Dolset , Instituto de Medicina Molecular Aplicada Nemesio Díez (IMMA-NM), Departamento de Ciencias Médicas Básicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad San Pablo CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain.Campus Montepríncipe. Crtra. Boadilla del Monte km 5.3.CP 28668 Boadilla del Monte. Madrid, Spain.Tlf: +34 91 372 47 00 ext. 15068E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgConflict of interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.Funding information: The authors received no specific funding for the elaboration of this article.Authorship: All the authors approved the final version of the manuscript as submitted and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the support by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI18/01467 and PI19/00044), co-funded by FEDER “Investing in your future” for the thematic network and co-operative research centres ARADyAL RD16/0006/0015 and RICORS Red de Enfermedades Inflamatorias (REI) RD21 0002 0008. Authors would also like to recognize the funding by the Ministry of Science and Innovation in Spain (PCI2018-092930), co-funded by the European program ERA HDHL—Nutrition and the Epigenome, project Dietary Intervention in Food Allergy: Microbiome, Epigenetic and Metabolomic interactions (DIFAMEM); and by Fundación Mutua Madrileña (AP177712021). N.C. and A.M.C. are supported by FPI-CEU predoctoral fellowships. The authors would like to thank Dr Domingo Barber, Dr María M Escribese and Dr Alma Villaseñor for their asserted comments.List of abbreviations : 2-HG: 2-HidroxyGlutarate, α-KG: α-KetoGlutarate, CD4: Cluster of Differentiation 4, ETC: Electron Transport Chain, IL17A: InterLeukin 17A, LKB1: Liver-associated Kinase B1, NET: Neutrophil Extracellular Trap, OPA1: Optic Atrophy 1, PHGDH: PHosphoGlycerate DeHydrogenase, Treg: Regulatory T Helper, TH: T HelperIn the last 20 years, increasing evidence has arisen challenging the belief that mitochondria are mere ATP-synthesizing machines, shedding light on their role in cell signaling (1). Metabolites, energy mediators, and physical interactions involving membrane rearrangements are some of the mechanisms involved in mitochondria-driven cell regulation (1). In this sense, energetics plays a role in the development and function of immune cells, and immunometabolism is a flourishing field. Nonetheless, how mitochondria signaling networks, including membrane dynamics, affect T cell development and differentiation remains unclear (2).In a recently published work, Baixauli et al (3) investigated how CD4+ T cell differentiation is influenced by mitochondrial membrane morphology. In vitro analysis showed that elongated mitochondria with tight cristae in TH17 cells correlated with higher levels of the long isoform protein of OPA1 (L-OPA1) when compared to TH1 and TH2 cells. Moreover, they developed an OPA1 knockout mouse model (Opa1Cd4-cre ) which showed that, besides controlling mitochondrial membrane dynamics, OPA1 also regulated IL17A production, suggesting its potential role in the regulation of TH17 cells effector function.To address this matter, a multi-omic approach, including epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, was applied. They found several changes in the mitochondria due to the lack of OPA1 that could lead to the loss of Il17a expression. First, as a result of a disrupted inner mitochondrial membrane, electron transport chain (ETC) subunits uncouple, leading to an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Higher levels of NADH, together with an increase in the oxidation of glutamine, promote α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) conversion towards 2-hidroxyglutarate (2-HG) by phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH). 2-HG accumulation increases histone and DNA methylation that lastly alters chromatin accessibility in immune response genes interfering with Il17a expression.Pathway analysis was performed to determine OPA1 intracellular biological mediators, raising LKB1 as its major upstream regulator. While LKB1 activity was increased inOpa1Cd4-cre mice, authors demonstrated thatLkb1 deletion restored cell carbon metabolism and Il17aexpression by reducing the production of PHGDH and other serine biosynthesis enzymes.This article provides a perspective of the OPA1-LKB1 axis and its role in immune regulation in TH17 cells, which grants a deep understanding on how the different types of molecules are intertwined in the disease (4). As for possible limitations, this work was done using solely a mouse model, which, despite being as extraordinary as it is, does not necessarily match the conditions and metabolic changes that take place in human cells (1). It would have been interesting to see some of these experiments being done in T cells from human donors to corroborate these findings, which would be possible by using CRISPR/Cas technology to delete OPA1 and/or LKB1 .Furthermore, it is still necessary to understand how, if at all, OPA1-LKB1 axis regulates other subsets of T cells, such as TH1 or Treg. It is known that LKB1 affects other immune cell types, even within the innate immune response. For example, LKB1 deficiency in mouse dendritic cells results in higher levels of Treg in vivo that promote an immune-suppressed phenotype through mTOR signaling, impairing tumor growth control and protecting against allergic asthma development (5). Moreover, deletion of Lkb1 in mice alveolar macrophages leads to more severe asthma and higher susceptibility to S. aureusinfection through the AMPK pathway (6); and an increased number of neutrophils. Additionally, it has been described that OPA1-dependent ATP production is needed for neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and effective antibacterial defense both in human and mouse neutrophils (7). However, these studies fail to analyze the OPA1-LKB1 relation, which, to our knowledge, has been described for the first time by Baixauli et al. All in all, these authors have uncover the great potential of the OPA-LKB1 axis in the immunometabolism research field.REFERENCES1. Picard M, Shirihai OS. Mitochondrial signal transduction. Cell Metab 2022;34 :1620–1653.2. Shyer JA, Flavell RA, Bailis W. Metabolic signaling in T cells.Cell Res 2020;30 :649–659.3. Baixauli F, Piletic K, Puleston DJ, Villa M, Field CS, Flachsmann LJ et al. An LKB1–mitochondria axis controls TH17 effector function.Nature 2022;610 :555–561.4. Radzikowska U, Baerenfaller K, Cornejo-Garcia JA, Karaaslan C, Barletta E, Sarac BE et al. Omics technologies in allergy and asthma research: An EAACI position paper. Allergy2022;77 :2888–2908.5. Pelgrom LR, Patente TA, Sergushichev A, Esaulova E, Otto F, Ozir-Fazalalikhan A et al. LKB1 expressed in dendritic cells governs the development and expansion of thymus-derived regulatory T cells.Cell Res 2019;29 :406–419.6. Wang Q, Chen S, Li T, Yang Q, Liu J, Tao Y et al. Critical Role of Lkb1 in the Maintenance of Alveolar Macrophage Self-Renewal and Immune Homeostasis. Front Immunol 2021;12 :1–12.7. Amini P, Stojkov D, Felser A, Jackson CB, Courage C, Schaller A et al. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation requires OPA1-dependent glycolytic ATP production. Nat Commun 2018;9 :2958.
Takayasu arteritis is a granulomatous inflammation of the aorta and its major branches.Can present as an isolated, atypical,and/or catastrophic disease.The disease has been reported around the world, although it appears to be more prevalent in Asians.We report case of a 29-year-old pregnant lady presented with TA.
Aim Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains the standard of care. CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms results in variable Clopidogrel bioactivation. Increased function (CYP2C19*17) allele carriers (rapid metabolizers (RM) or ultrarapid metabolizers (UM)), are Clopidogrel hyper-responders and hence more susceptible to Clopidogrel related bleeding. Since current guidelines recommend against routine genotyping following PCI, data on the clinical utility of CYP2C19*17 genotype guided strategy are sparce. Our study provides real-world data on the 12-month follow-up of CYP2C19 genotyping in patients post-PCI. Methods This is a cohort study within an Irish population receiving 12 months of DAPT following PCI for ACS or CCS. It identifies the prevalence of CYP2C19 polymorphisms within an Irish population and describe the ischaemic and bleeding outcomes after 12 months of Clopidogrel DAPT. Results 129 patients were included with the following CYP2C19 polymorphism prevalence: 30.2% hyper-responders (26.4% RM (1*/17*), 3.9% UM (17*/17*)) and 28.7% poor-responders (22.5% IM (1*/2*), 3.9% IM (2*/17*), 2.3% PM (2*/2*)). Total bleeding incidence at 12-months increased from poor-responders (0.0%) to normal-responders (15.0%), to hyper-responders (25.0%). Compared to poor-responders, hyper-responders were significantly more likely to experience a bleeding event (25.0% vs 0.0%, P = 0.044). Conclusions The prevalence of CYP2C19 polymorphisms in Ireland is 58.9% (30.2% CYP2C19*17, 28.7% CYP2C19*2) with approximately 1 in 3 chance of being a Clopidogrel hyper-responder. The trend of increasing bleeding with increasing CYP2C19 activity, suggests a genotype guided strategy may have clinical utility identifying high-bleeding-risk with Clopidogrel in CYP2C19*17 carriers but further studies are required.
Quantifying spatiotemporally explicit interactions within animal populations facilitates the understanding of social structure and its relationship with ecological processes. Data from animal tracking technologies (Global Positioning Systems [“GPS”]) can circumvent longstanding challenges in the estimation of spatiotemporally explicit interactions, but the discrete nature and coarse temporal resolution of data mean that ephemeral interactions that occur between consecutive GPS locations go undetected. Here, we developed a method to quantify individual and spatial patterns of interaction using continuous-time movement models (CTMMs) fit to GPS tracking data. We first applied CTMMs to infer the full movement trajectories at an arbitrarily fine temporal scale before estimating interactions, thus allowing inference of interactions occurring between observed GPS locations. Our framework then infers indirect interactions – individuals occurring at the same location, but at different times– while allowing the identification of indirect interactions to vary with ecological context based on CTMM outputs. We assessed the performance of our new method using simulations and illustrated its implementation by deriving disease-relevant interaction networks for two behaviorally differentiated species, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) that can host African Swine Fever and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that can host Chronic Wasting Disease. Simulations showed that interactions derived from observed GPS data can be substantially underestimated when temporal resolution of movement data exceeds 30-minute intervals. Empirical application suggested that underestimation occurred in both interaction rates and their spatial distributions. CTMM-Interaction method, which can introduce uncertainties, recovered the majority of true interactions. Our method leverages advances in movement ecology to quantify fine-scale spatiotemporal interactions between individuals from lower temporal resolution GPS data. It can be leveraged to infer dynamic social networks, transmission potential in disease systems, consumer-resource interactions, information sharing, and beyond. The method also sets the stage for future predictive models linking observed spatiotemporal interaction patterns to environmental drivers.
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the TYMP gene. Clinical findings are characterized by neurologic manifestations and severe gastrointestinal dysfunction. The syndrome is usually fatal, the most effective treatment appears to be hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Aim:In this retrospective study, we evaluated HSCT that was performed using a reduced toxicicity myeloablative conditioning regimen in patients with MNGIE at our center. Results: A total of 6 allogeneic transplant procedures were performed in 4 patients. Three patients’ donors had fully matched donors, and one patients’ donor was haploidentical. Treosulfan-based myeloablative conditioning regimen was applied in 5 of 6 transplants. Bone marrow was used as a stem cell source. One patient is being followed up in the 4th year of posttransplant with full chimeric and without Graft versus host disease (GVHD). One patient died of acute stage IV GIS GVHD. Two patients underwent second transplantation due to engraftment failure, one of which was the patient who had a haploidentical transplant. Conclusions: Treosulfan-based regimen is well tolerated. Engraftment failure with this conditioning regimen can be a significant problem. We share our haploidentical transplant experience, which will be the first reported case in the literature.
TitleMaternal and infant serum carotenoids are associated with infantile atopic dermatitis developmentTo the Editor,Various epidemiological studies have shown that eczema/atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy is a risk for skin sensitization1 and development of allergic diseases later in life2.Carotenoids are natural pigments biosynthesized by bacteria, fungi, and plants, but not by mammals3; thus, they need to be supplied via dietary intake of vegetables and fruits or certain animal products. Carotenoids positively impact human health and prevents allergic reactions via their provitamin A activity and high antioxidant potential. However, previous studies using food frequency questionnaires that evaluated the association between maternal vegetable intake during pregnancy and eczema in offspring have shown inconsistent results4–6. As these studies did not measure the levels of individual carotenoids in the serum of mothers or children and in breast milk, appropriate nutritional interventions in maternal and early infant intake of vegetables for the prevention of AD remain unclear.In this study, we have measured the levels of total carotenoids and some of their sub-types in the serum of mothers and children and in maternal breast milk, to evaluate the association between carotenoid levels and the presence of AD at 1 year of age in infants.We compared participants’ characteristics and exposures by 1 year of age (Table S1); carotenoid, retinol, and α-tocopherol levels (Table 1) in the serum of participants, with and without AD at 1 year of age, were compared to those in the serum and breast milk of their respective mothers. We found that both the presence of eczema (OR, 31.7; 95%CI[13.2–76.0]) and S. aureus carriage in the skin by 6 months of age (OR, 5.20; 95%CI[2.30–11.75]) were associated with higher odds of AD development at 1 year of age. On the contrary, certain carotenoid levels in the serum and breast milk, including total carotenoids in the maternal blood, were associated with lower odds of AD at 1 year.To avoid multicollinearity in the regression analysis, we selected seven relevant predictive variables among the carotenoid data using VIP scores in the PLS analysis (Table S2). Stepwise logistic regression analysis using explanatory baseline characteristics, exposure by 1 year of age, and the seven selected carotenoid levels revealed that the following variables were significantly related to AD at 1 year of age (Table 2): presence of eczema by 6 months of age (OR, 34.5; P < 0.0001), maternal blood lutein level (unit OR, 0.002; P = 0.002), and infant blood lycopene level at 1 year (unit OR, 0.01; P = 0.007).One strength of this study is that multiple biological sample types were used as proxies for carotenoid intake. The lutein concentration in the maternal blood at 36 weeks of gestation, which was associated with a reduced AD risk at 1 year of age in the multivariate analysis, was significantly correlated with the cord blood lutein level (Table S3). This suggests that lutein ingested during pregnancy is transferred to the fetus and may have an inhibitory effect on the development of AD in infancy. Another strength of this study is that multiple carotenoids were evaluated simultaneously; the concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene were strongly correlated, suggesting that these nutrients are absorbed together (Table S4).In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that children of mothers with low carotenoid intake during pregnancy are at higher risk for developing infantile AD and are ideal targets for early intervention in allergy prevention. Further studies are needed to clarify whether carotenoid supplementation during pregnancy/in lactating mothers and infants after weaning has a preventive effect on AD development in infancy.Table 1 Levels of each carotenoid, total carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol in each type of sample in participants with or without atopic dermatitis at 1 year of age
Trapezium fracture is a rare condition that goes undetected and exposes to long-term comorbidities : chronic pain and rhizartrosis. In presence of suggestive clinical presentation with a normal radiograph, CT scan should be considered. Therapeutic guidelines are not well established due to the lack of series reported in the literature.
Transparent afterglow crystals are keenly desired for three-dimensional information storage. Herein, CsCdCl3 perovskite crystals were grown by a programmable cooling procedure in a hydrothermal reactor. The pristine crystal showed an abnormal optical behavior where the absorption increased by 2.3 folds at high temperature, leading to a 4-fold boost of PL intensity. After Mn2+ doping, the PL QY was improved to nearly unity. Importantly, the doped crystals exhibited an ultralong afterglow up to 12 hours after ceasing UV excitation and a high transmittance up to 75% in the visible region. This work brought a new member to the library of transparent afterglow crystal, opening up many possibilities to advanced applications such as volumetric display and three-dimensional information encryption.
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis is the most common cause of infectious encephalitis. Our case is of a 75-year-old woman who presented with dysuria and altered mental status. Our case addresses the difficulties in diagnosis and highlights the importance of early recognition of HSE and its associated neurological sequelae.