We prove the existence and uniqueness of global strong solution to the free boundary problem in one dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes system for the viscous and heat conducting ideal polytropic gas flow, when the viscosity and heat conductivity depend on temperature in power law of Chapman-Enskog and the data is in the neighborhood of some background solution at initial time. We also study the large time behavior of the solution and obtain its decay property.
In this paper, we prove the well-posedness of the solution to the three-dimensional Boussinesq system with nonlinear damping term. Existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence with respect to initial data of the weak solution are proved, under minimum regularity requirement in Sobolev and Lebegue spaces. Energy method, compactness method, and appropriate technical lemmas are used.
Coral reef fish larvae are tiny, exceedingly numerous, and hard to track. They are also highly capable, equipped with swimming and sensory abilities that may influence their dispersal trajectories. Despite the importance of larval input to the dynamics of a population, we remain reliant on indirect insights to the processes influencing larval behaviour and transport. Here, we used genetic data (300 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms) derived from a light trap sample of a single recruitment event of Dascyllus abudafur in the Red Sea (N=168 settlers). We analysed the genetic composition of the larvae and assessed whether kinship among these was significantly different from random as evidence for cohesive dispersal during the larval phase. We simulated many iterations of similar-sized recruitment cohorts to compare the expected kinship composition relative to our empirical data. The high number of siblings within the empirical cohort strongly suggests cohesive dispersal among larvae. This work highlights the utility of kinship analysis as a means of inferring dynamics during the pelagic larval phase.
Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model strain of exoelectrogenic bacteria (EEB), plays a key role in environmental bioremediation and bioelectrochemical systems because of its unique respiration capacity. However, only a narrow range of substrates can be utilized by S. oneidensis MR-1 as carbon sources, resulting in its limited applications. In this work, a rapid, highly efficient and easily manipulated base editing system pCBEso was developed by fusing a Cas9 nickase (Cas9n (D10A)) with the cytidine deaminase rAPOBEC1 in S. oneidensis MR-1. The C-to-T conversion of suitable C within the base editing window could be readily and efficiently achieved by the pCBEso system without requiring double strand break or repair templates. Moreover, double-locus simultaneous editing was successfully accomplished with an efficiency of 87.5. With this tool, the roles of the key genes involving in N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) or glucose metabolism in S. oneidensis MR-1 were identified. Furthermore, an engineered strain with expanded carbon source utilization spectra was constructed and exhibited a higher degradation rate for multiple organic pollutants (i.e., azo dyes and organoarsenic compounds) than the wild type when glucose or GlcNAc was used as the sole carbon source. Such a base editing system could be readily applied to other EEB. This work not only enhances the substrate utilization and pollutant degradation capacities of S. oneidensis MR-1, but also accelerates the robust construction of engineered strains for environmental bioremediation.
Fangzhu, which has been lost for thousands of years, is an ancient device for water collection from air, its mechanism is unknown yet. Here we elucidate its possible surface-geometric and related physical properties by the oldest the Yin-Yang contradiction. In view of modern nanotechnology, we reveal that Fangzhu’s water-harvesting ability is obtained through a hydrophilic-hydrophobic hierarchy of the surface, mimicking spider web’s water collection, lotus or desert beetle’s water intake. The convex-concave hierarchy of Fangzhu’s textured surface enables it to have low wettability(high geometric potential) to attract water molecules from air through the nano-scale convex surface and transfer the attracted water along the concave surface to the collector. A mathematical model is established to reveal three main factors affecting its effectiveness, i.e., the air velocity, the surface temperature and surface structure. The lost technology can play an extremely important role in modern architecture, ocean engineering, transportation and others to catch water from air for everyday use.
Molecular mechanisms and process kinetics of crystallizing concomitant polymorphs remain poorly understood. Solvent-mediated phase transformation is often mistaken as concomitant crystallization, mainly due to the two processes sharing similar kinetic profiles. Herein, we developed a population balance model to simulate a concomitant crystallization process of two polymorphs of tolfenamic acid (TFA). The kinetic modeling aims to better understand concomitant crystallization and help guide form selection of such a molecular system. Crystallization kinetics of ethanolic TFA solutions were uncovered from induction time measurements, as well as seeded and unseeded crystallization experiments. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the stable form I crystallizes concomitantly with the metastable form II. The faster growing form II results in an intermediate decline in the kinetic profile of form I composition in crystallized samples, a characteristic feature of the concomitantly crystallized system. A four-quadrant scheme of attainable polymorph outcome was simulated under various crystallization conditions.
The interior Dirichlet boundary value problem for the diffusion equation in non-homogeneous media is reduced to a system of Boundary-Domain Integral Equations (BDIEs) employing the parametrix obtained in different from . We further extend the results obtained in for the mixed problem in a smooth domain with L²(Ω) right hand side to Lipschitz domains and PDE right-hand in the Sobolev space H−1(Ω), where neither the classical nor the canonical co-normal derivatives are well defined. Equivalence between the system of BDIEs and the original BVP is proved along with their solvability and solution uniqueness in appropriate Sobolev spaces.
Nanofluid as a special thermal transporting medium has recently received unprecedented attention due to its improved heat transfer performance compared to conventional fluids. Numerous researches have been conducted on the natural convection characteristics of different nanofluids in various configurations of cavities due to the important applications of natural convection in environmental, petrochemical, medical, aviation and space technology, industrial and many more areas. The emergence of a magnetic field as a tool for the manipulation of convective flow and heat transfer behaviours of nanofluids in non-square enclosures has been extensively reviewed. The influence of several variables such as controlling parameters, heat distribution methods, thermal and concentration boundary conditions, magnetic field types, numerical methods, correlation types, nanofluid types, heaters types, numbers and length, and slip conditions, etc., on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection flow and heat transfer behaviours of nanofluid in non-square cavities has been given great attention and brought to the spotlight for discussion. The concepts of bioconvection, micro-polar nanofluid, bio-nanofluid (green nanofluid), ionic nanofluid, and hybrid nanofluid have also been discussed for the first time in relation to natural convection. Special cases of MHD natural convection in non-square cavities involving hybrid nanofluids and micro-polar nanofluids are also presented herein. The application of several numerical methods (which is the major approach studied so far) to investigate the hydromagnetic behaviours of nanofluids in non-square cavities is the focus of this work.
We apply the Bielecki metric on the space C([a, b]), to analyze the different types of stabilities of non-linear fractional integral equation corresponding to fractional boundary value problems. Sufficient conditions are obtained to prove stability results for fractional non-linear Volterra and Fredholm integral equations, given by Ulam, Hyer and Rassias. We extend the respective stability results to the fractional integral equations where the domain of integration is an unbounded interval. We provide numerical examples which asserts our stability results.
We establish nonexistence of nontrivial solutions (including sign-changing ones) for some partial differential inequalities of elliptic and parabolic type containing nonlinear terms that depend on the positive and negative part of the sought function in different ways. Systems of elliptic inequalities with similar structure are also considered. The proofs are based on the test function method.
Although species delimitation can be highly contentious, the development of reliable methods to accurately ascertain species boundaries is an imperative step in cataloguing and describing Earth’s quickly disappearing biodiversity. Spider species delimitation remains largely based on morphological characters; however, many mygalomorph spider populations are morphologically indistinguishable from each other yet have considerable molecular divergence. The focus of our study, Antrodiaetus unicolor species complex which contains two sympatric species, exhibits this pattern of relative morphological stasis with considerable genetic divergence across its distribution. A past study using two molecular markers, COI and 28S, revealed that A. unicolor is paraphyletic with respect to A. microunicolor. To better investigate species boundaries in the complex, we implement the cohesion species concept and employ multiple lines of evidence for testing genetic exchangeability and ecological interchangeability. Our integrative approach includes extensively sampling homologous loci across the genome using a RADseq approach (3RAD), assessing population structure across their geographic range using multiple genetic clustering analyses that include STRUCTURE, PCA, and a recently developed unsupervised machine learning approach (Variational Autoencoder). We evaluate ecological similarity by using large-scale ecological data for niche-based distribution modeling. Based on our analyses, we conclude that this complex has at least one additional species as well as confirm species delimitations based on previous less comprehensive approaches. Our study demonstrates the efficacy of genomic-scale data for recognizing cryptic species, suggesting that species delimitation with one data type, whether one mitochondrial gene or morphology, may underestimate true species diversity in morphologically homogenous taxa with low vagility.
In this paper we investigate the size of a bi-dimensional fragmentation process. A rectangle of dimensions x and y is considered, it is split into four sub-rectangles with some probability that depends on x and y, we iterate until the stop of the process. The total number of the all the obtained rectangles at the end of the process satisfies some equality in distribution which is resolved , using some tools on integral equations, via the contraction method.
Crowd-based hydrological observations can supplement existing monitoring networks and allow data collection in regions where otherwise no data would be available. In the citizen science project CrowdWater, repeated water level observations using a virtual staff gauge approach result in time series of water level classes. To investigate the quality of these observations, we compared the water level class data for a number of locations where water levels were also measured and assessed when these observations were submitted. We analysed data for nine locations where citizen scientists reported multiple observations using a smartphone app and stream level data were also available. At twelve other locations, signposts were set up to ask citizens to record observations on a form that could be left in a letterbox. The results indicate that the quality of the data collected with the app was higher than for the forms. A possible explanation is that for each app location, most contributions were made by a single person, whereas at the locations of the forms almost every observation was made by a new contributor. On average, more contributions were made between May and September than during the other months. Observations were submitted for a range of flow conditions, with a higher fraction of high flow observations for the data collected with the app. Overall, the results are encouraging for citizen science approaches in hydrology and demonstrate that the smartphone application with its virtual staff gauge is a promising approach for crowd-based water level class observations.
Backgroud: A long-term hepatic inflammatory response is a risk factor for liver cancer initiation and progression. Interleukin (IL)-35 is the newest member of the IL-12 cytokine family, and has been reported to play an essential role in the immunosuppressive liver microenvironment. Herein we focus on the expression profiles of IL-35 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the effect on local immune status. Methods: HCC transcriptome array data were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The bioinformatics analysis was performed by the BRB array tools and online Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. The serum IL-35 level was detected by AimPlet bead-based immunoassay. In situ IL-35 expression detection was performed by immunohistochemical staining and western blot. Results: Our results showed that there were large amounts of IL-35 expressed in HCC serum and tumor tissues. IL-35 expression affects the transcript of thousands of genes, most of which correlated with T-cell immunity. This study proved that enhancement of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and impairment of cytolytic T cells are prominent effects of IL-35. Conclusions: Elevated IL-35 played critical roles in HCC patients through affecting the balance between Tregs and cytotoxic T cells. Dissection of the precise targets and the underlying molecular mechanisms will lead to alternative treatments for HCC patients.
We develop a novel approach to trophic metacommunities which allows us to explore how progressive habitat loss affects food webs. Our method combines classic metapopulation models on fragmented landscapes with a Bayesian network representation of trophic interactions for calculating local extinction rates. This means we can repurpose known results from classic metapopulation theory for trophic metacommunities, such as ranking the habitat patches of the landscape with respect to their importance to the persistence of the metacommunity as a whole. We use this to study the effects of habitat loss, both on model communities and the plant-mammal Serengeti food web dataset as a case study. Combining straightforward parameterizability with computational efficiency, our method permits the analysis of species-rich food webs over large landscapes, with hundreds or even thousands of species and habitat patches, while still retaining much of the flexibility of explicit dynamical models.
Tissue constructs of physiologically relevant scale require a vascular system to maintain cell viability. However, in vitro vascularization of engineered tissues is still a major challenge. Successful approaches are based on a feeder layer (FL) to support vascularization. Here, we investigated whether the supporting effect on the self-assembled formation of vascular-like structures by microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs) originates from the FL itself or from its extracellular matrix (ECM). Therefore, we compared the influence of ECM, either derived from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) or adipogenic differentiated ASCs, with the classical approaches based on a cellular FL. All cell-derived ECM (cdECM) substrates enable mvEC growth with high viability. Vascular-like structure formation was visualized by immunofluorescence staining of endothelial surface protein CD 31 and can be observed on all cdECM and FL substrates but not on control substrate collagen I. On adipogenic differentiated ECM longer and higher branched structures can be found compared to stem cell cdECM. An increased concentration of pro-angiogenic factors can be found in cdECM substrates and FL approaches compared to controls. Finally, expression of proteins associated with tube formation (E-selectin and thrombomodulin) was confirmed. These results highlight cdECM as promising biomaterial for in vitro vascularization in adipose tissue engineering.
The goal of the present study is to demonstrate 1H LF-NMR time relaxation measurements for efficient and rapid evaluation of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich linseed oil (LSO) oxidative aging mechanisms, by monitoring primary chemical and structural changes occurring during thermal oxidative stress. The LF NMR monitors the different proton spin-spin coupling energy relaxation times, T2 within LSO molecular segments, from the initiation of free radical generation and hydroperoxide formation to the propagation of alkoxy radicals, and alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes formation, and a termination phase of crosslinked polymerization end products. The 1H LF NMR T2 values monitors both the covalent and secondary bonding interactions (e.g., electrostatic and hydrogen bonding) during the different oxidation phases. The present paper shows that LSO tail segments mobility in terms of T2 multi-exponential relaxation decays, generated by data reconstructing of 1H transversal relaxation components are providing a clear, sharp and informative understanding of LSO sample’s autoxidation aging processes. This is supported by high field band selective 1H NMR pulse excitation for hydroperoxide and aldehydes quantification of the same LSO samples at 25, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120oC with pumped air for 168 h. Peroxide value, viscosity and self-diffusion, as well as fatty acids profile and by- products determined by GC-MS were also carried out, and correlated with the LSO tail T2 relaxation results. In conclusion the selective determination of LSO alkyl tail T2 energy relaxation time domain values was demonstrated as a rapid evaluation marker for following omega-3 PUFA-rich oils oxidative aging.
The sharp rise in anthropogenic activities and climate change have caused the extensive degradation of grasslands worldwide, jeopardising ecosystem function and threatening human well-being. Toxic weeds have been constantly spreading in recent decades; indeed, their occurrence is considered to provide an early sign of land degeneration. Policy makers and scientific researchers often focus on the negative effects of toxic weeds, such as how they inhibit forage growth, kill livestock and cause economic losses. However, toxic weeds can have several potentially positive ecological impacts on grasslands, such as promoting soil and water conservation, improving nutrient cycling and biodiversity conservation, and protecting pastures from excessive damage by livestock. We reviewed the literature to detail the adaptive mechanisms underlying toxic weeds and to provide new insight into their roles in degraded grassland ecosystems. The findings highlight that the establishment of toxic weeds may provide a self-protective strategy of degenerated pastures that does not require special interventions. Consequently, policy makers, managers and other personnel responsible for managing grasslands need to take appropriate actions to assess the long-term trade-offs between the development of animal husbandry and the maintenance of ecological services provided by grasslands.