A 5-month-old male baby was brought to the emergency room with a one-day history of respiratory distress, wheezing, vomiting, and high fever. Wheezing had been present since birth but had recently become more frequent and intense, occurring even at rest. The baby was born full-term by cesarean delivery and had a medical history of gallbladder agenesis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and cryptorchidism.
Response to “Delay in AF ablation costs lives”Andrew J. Sessions BS1, Heidi T. May, PhD, MSPH2, Brian G. Crandall, MD2, John D. Day, MD3, Michael J. Cutler DO, PhD2, Christopher A. Groh MD4, Leenapong Navaravong MD4, Ravi Ranjan MD, PhD4, Benjamin A. Steinberg MD, MHS4, T. Jared Bunch, MD4Corresponding Author: Dr. T. Jared BunchUniversity of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USADepartment of Cardiology, Intermountain Heart Institute, Intermountain Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USASt. Marks Hospital, Salt Lake City, UtahDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, USAAddress for correspondence: T. Jared Bunch, M.D.University of Utah School of Medicine Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine 50 N Medical Drive Salt Lake City, Utah 84132 Phone: 801-585-7676Short Title: Impact of delays in catheter ablationFunding : None
The dental clinic air microbiome incorporates microbes from the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract (URT). This study aimed to establish a reliable methodology for air sampling in a dental clinic setting and quantify the abundance of culturable mesophilic aerobic bacteria present in these samples using regression modeling. Staphylococcus hominis, a potentially pathogenic bacterium typically found in the human oropharynx and URT, was consistently isolated. S. hominis was the most abundant species of aerobic bacteria (22% to 24%) and comprised 60% to 80% of all Staphylococcus spp. The study also assessed the susceptibility of S. hominis to 222nm-far-UVC light in laboratory experiments, which showed an exponential surface inactivation constant of k = 0.475 cm2/mJ. This constant is a critical parameter for future on-site use of far-UVC light as a technique for reducing pathogenic bacterial load in dental clinics.
Adaptation enables natural populations to survive in a changing environment. Understanding the mechanics of adaptation is therefore crucial for learning about the evolution and ecology of natural populations, and for better conservation and management of natural resources such as fish stocks. In this review we focus on the impact of random sweepstakes on selection in highly fecund populations. In random sweepstakes the distribution of individual recruitment success is highly skewed, resulting in a huge variance in the number of offspring contributed by the individuals present in any given generation. We also describe selective sweepstakes which are well approximated by recurrent selective sweeps of strongly beneficial allelic types arising by mutation. We demonstrate that both types of sweepstakes reproduction may facilitate rapid adaptation. Finally, we review an important case study in which a model of recurrent selective sweeps is shown to essentially explain population genomic data of the highly fecund Atlantic cod, with broad implications for studying the evolution and ecology of highly fecund populations across domains of life.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a familial or sporadic severe neurodegenerative disorder that leads to short-term memory impairment followed by progressive cognitive deterioration of executive functions. AD frequency is increasing with a consequent socio-economic burden and there is an urgent need to understand its aetiological complexity, find reliable animal models and identify effective therapeutic treatments. AD diagnosis relies on a series of neuropsychiatric criteria and the detection of two pathognomonic protein aggregates in the brain parenchyma: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The concurrence of these aggregates seems to be mostly present in humans. In this issue, Vacher and colleagues demonstrate the notable coexistence of AP deposition and hyperphosphorylated tau in the brains of dolphins. Here we discuss the relevance of this finding and how they could help understanding AD
A suitable interface between the electrode and electrolyte is crucial in achieving highly stable electrochemical performance for Li-ion batteries, as facile ionic transport is required. Recently, intriguing research and development have been carried out to form a stable interface between the electrode and electrolyte. Therefore, it is essential to investigate emerging knowledge and contextualize it. The nanoengineering of the electrode-electrolyte interface has been actively researched both at the electrode/electrolyte and interphase levels, which calls for significant attention. This review presents and summarizes some recent advances aimed at nanoengineering approaches to build a more stable electrode-electrolyte interface and assess the impact of each approach adopted. Furthermore, future perspectives on the feasibility and practicality of each approach will also be reviewed in detail. Finally, this review aids in projecting a more sustainable research pathway for a nanoengineered interphase design between electrode and electrolyte, which is pivotal for high-performance, thermally stable Li-ion batteries.
It is impossible to address the many complex needs of respiratory virus surveillance with a single system. Therefore, multiple surveillance systems and complementary studies must fit together as tiles in a “mosaic” to provide a complete picture of the risk, transmission, severity, and impact of respiratory viruses of epidemic and pandemic potential. Below we present a framework to assist national authorities to identify priority respiratory virus surveillance objectives and the best approaches to meet them; to develop implementation plans according to national context and resources; and to prioritize and target technical assistance and financial investments to meet most pressing needs.
Early in the 2022 Mpox (MPX) global outbreak, caseloads in the New York Metropolitan area climbed rapidly before other US urban areas. This case series summarizes the authors’ clinical experience detecting and treating MPX, during a quickly evolving outbreak. Clinical outcomes were recorded with a focus on varied clinical presentation and outcomes such as complications and response to experimental tecovirimat therapy. A focal or multifocal rash was the most common presenting symptom in 91% of patients. Almost two thirds (62%) of patients had anogenital involvement. Proctitis was one of the most painful presentations with 75% requiring antiviral treatment and 3 patients needing hospitalization for pain management. Most patients responded promptly to antiviral treatment with tecovirimat. Five out of 10 patients treated with tecovirimat reported symptom resolution within 48 – 72 hours of therapy and another 3 saw resolution within first 96 hours. Two patients had poor response to tecovirimat. This series includes the only reported case of an HIV positive, immunocompetent patient who experienced recurrent anal ulcers due to Mpox and required a second course of tecovirimat. Other unique presentations included urethritis, abscess formation and MPX infection post-vaccination. Control of this current Mpox outbreak was possible due to timely diagnosis and the availability of both a licensed vaccine and an investigational drug.
Herein, we have developed a strategy of Rh(III)-catalyzed C–H activation of N-nitrosoanilines and iodonium ylides to construct novel tetralydrocarbzol-4-one scaffolds, which provided valuable templates for sequential C-H functionalization such as alkylation, alkenyla-tion, amidation and (hetero)arylation at C5-position of tetralydrocarbzol-4-one with different coupling partners. Gram-scale synthesis and further transformation of tetralydrocarbzol-4-one derivatives to Ondansetron and its analogues demonstrated the utility of this protocol, which enabled the concise and diverse construction of biologically active molecules.
A 49-year-old male presented with a gradually progressive loss of vision in both eyes. Funduscopic examination revealed bilateral optic disc swelling and two yellowish elevated choroidal lesions in the LE. Ophthalmic imaging raised suspicion of choroidal metastasis. Adenocarcinoma of the lung was detected in further systemic evaluation.
A key to achieve the goals put forward in the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it will need transformative change to our agrifood systems. We must mount to the global challenge to achieve food security in a sustainable manner in the context of climate change, population growth, urbanization, and depletion of natural resources. Rice is one of the major staple cereal crops that has contributed, is contributing, and will still contribute to the global food security. To date, rice yield has held pace with increasing demands, due to advances in both fundamental and biological studies, as well as genomic and molecular breeding practices. However, future rice production depends largely on the planting of resilient cultivars that can acclimate and adapt to changing environmental conditions. This Special Issue highlight with reviews and original research articles the exciting and growing field of rice-environment interactions that could benefit future rice breeding. We also outline open questions and propose future directions of 2050 rice research, calling for more attentions to develop environment resilient rice especially hybrid rice, upland rice and perennial rice.
A group of viruses, collectively known as Pteropine orthoreoviruses (PRVs), have recently been found in fruit bats and humans in Southeast Asia, Australia, and some African countries. This article intends to briefly discuss what is known about these viruses and their potential significance in public health and to advocate for increased surveillance of these zoonotic viruses to prevent potential future disease outbreaks, as well as to highlight a recent publication on this topic that was selected as an editor’s choice article in the Journal of Medical Virology 1.
The interfacial contacts between the electron transporting layers (ETLs) and the photoactive layers are crucial to device performance and stability for OSCs with inverted architecture. Herein, atomic layer deposition (ALD) fabricated ultrathin Al2O3 layers are applied to modify the ETLs/active blends (PM6:BTP-BO-4F) interfaces of OSCs, thus improving device performance. The ALD-Al2O3 thin layers on ZnO significantly improved its surface morphology, which led to the decreased work function of ZnO and reduced recombination losses in devices. The simultaneous increase in open-circuit voltage (), short-circuit current density () and fill factor (FF) were achieved for the OSCs incorporated with ALD-Al2O3 interlayers of a certain thickness, which produced a maximum PCE of 16.61%. Moreover, the ALD-Al2O3 interlayers had significantly enhanced device stability by suppressing degradation of the photoactive layers induced by the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and passivating surface defects of ZnO that may play the role of active sites for the adsorption of oxygen and moisture.
How changes in biodiversity affect disease, particularly in the face of large-scale land-use change, is a contentious topic in disease ecology that has implications for public health and conservation policy. The ‘dilution effect’ hypothesis argues that declines in biodiversity are associated with increased disease risk, but this can be challenging to demonstrate because many pathogens have complex life cycles such that changes to the species composition and abundance of hosts can influence the density and infection prevalence of vectors via multiple mechanisms. Key to addressing this debate is a quantification of interactions between hosts, vectors, and pathogens. In their recent study published in Molecular Ecology, Kocher et al. (2022) captured thousands of sandflies, some species of which are vectors for the Leishmania protozoan that causes Leishmaniasis, across a human footprint gradient in French Guiana (Fig. 1). By implementing DNA metabarcoding of vectors combined with an innovative modeling approach, they effectively quantified the nuanced relationships between changes in land-use, mammalian host diversity, vector abundance, and parasite prevalence. In support of the dilution effect hypothesis, Kocher et al. found that sites with higher mammal diversity were associated with lower relative abundance of reservoir hosts and higher Leishmania infection prevalence in sandflies. However, while infection prevalence was lower when mammal diversity was high, the density of sandfly vectors was higher, which resulted in a weak overall effect of mammal diversity on the density of infected vectors, the most important indicator of Leishmania transmission risk.
Pneumopericardium is the presence of air in the pericardial sac. Pneumopericardium after pericardiocentesis has been rarely reported in the literature. In the present case, we report a patient who presented with tamponade physiology during COVID-19 and developed pneumopericardium after emergency pericardiocentesis. Immediate recognition and treatment are crucial and chest X-ray, thorax computerized tomography and transthoracic echocardiography are used for diagnosis.