Compared with traditional technology, bonding technology is more suitable for civil structure reinforcement because of its cost-efficiency and superior mechanical properties. As one of the simplest forms of adhesive joints, numerous studies have been conducted on the performance of single-lap joints (SLJs). However, research on the long-term performance of SLJs requires better organization and comprehension. This paper aims to investigate the long-term performance and optimization design of SLJs. The main factors influencing the long-term performance of SLJs from both material and component levels are discussed. The moisture diffusion mechanisms of bulk adhesives and the degradation mechanisms of SLJs are explored. Moreover, the optimization design of SLJs focuses on evaluating the overlap length, adhesive layer thicknesses, and changes in adhesives along the overlap length based on available literature. This paper can be employed to improve the shear strength and long-term performance of SLJs and to provide insights into their challenges and prospects.
Cost effectiveness of support with out-of-pockets costs to prevent treatment abandonment in Malawi and sub-Saharan Africa; lessons learnt and the way forward – a report from CANCaRe Africa Junious Sichali1, Avi Denburg2, Harriet Khofi3, Cecilia Mdoka1, Deborah Nyirenda4, Yamikani Chimalizeni3, George Chagaluka3, Elizabeth Molyneux3, Marc Y. R. Henrion4,5, Sumit Gupta2, Trijn Israels11 Collaborative African Network for Childhood Cancer Care and Research (CANCaRe Africa), 2Division of Haematology/Oncology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada,3 Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (KUHeS), Blantyre, Malawi, 4 Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi, 5Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UKCorresponding author:Dr Trijn Israels, CANCaRe Africa, Department of Paediatrics, Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (KuHES), Blantyre, Malawi. Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgWord count: 1189 wordsNumber of Tables: 0Number of Figures: 0Short running title: Cost-effectiveness of treatment abandonment preventionKey words: childhood cancer, treatment abandonment, cost-effectiveness,LMIC Low- and middle-income countryGICC Global Initiative for Childhood CancerCANCaRe Africa Collaborative African Network for Childhood Cancer Care and ResearchALL Acute lymphoblastic leukaemiaGDP Gross Domestic ProductDALY Disability Adjusted Life Year
Hypochlorite (ClO-) is an important reactive oxygen species produced by the immune system to fight off invading pathogens, but its over-expression can interfere with normal physiological process and induce serious diseases. Although a variety of molecular probes have been reported for detecting ClO-, the development of advanced fluorescent tools with faster response and higher sensitivity to precisely monitor ClO- remains a challenge. In this work, two Hantzsch ester (a derivative of 1,4-dihydropyridine) derived fluorescent probes MeDHP-BCl and MeDHP-PhBCl were constructed based on asymmetric BODIPY-matrix. These probes exhibit significant fluo-rescence turn-on in the ultra-sensitive (detection limit < 1 nM) and ultra-fast response (≤ 5 s) to ClO-, the reaction has determined to be a highly selective N-Chlorination of Hantzsch ester which cannot be activated by various common bioactive species, including nitric ox-ide (NO) that could oxidize Hantzsch ester under aerobic physiological conditions in most reports. MeDHP-PhBCl possess a relatively longer fluorescence emission wavelength and higher quantum yield after activation, while more notably, MeDHP-BCl displayed lower cytotoxicity and more remarkable fluorescence increasement in the response to ClO-, enabling selective and precise visualization of endogenous ClO- over-expression in living RAW264.7 cells.
ABSTRACT The double-spined spruce bark beetle, Ips duplicatus has become an infamous secondary pest of Norway spruce, causing extensive ecological and economic destruction in many Central European countries. Antennae are the primary olfactory organs that play fundamental role in insect-host chemical communication; therefore, understanding morphology is crucial before conducting electrophysiological investigations. Here, we present our analysis of sensilla types on the antennal surface of I. duplicatus for the first time, using high-resolution-scanning electron microscopy. We studied the external morphological characteristics of antennae and the types, numbers, and distribution of the antennal sensilla in males and females. Our results revealed the presence of five different types of morphologically distinct sensilla: sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica, sensilla trichodea, sensilla coeloconica, and Bӧhm’s bristles. We observed two subtypes in sensilla chaetica (SChI and SChII), four subtypes in sensilla basiconica (SBI, SBII, SBIII and SBIV), three subtypes in sensilla trichodea (STrII, STrIII and STrIV) and two subtypes in sensilla coeloconica (SCoI and SCoII), respectively in I. duplicatus males and females. Minor differences in length and numbers between the sexes for some sensilla types were found. Distribution maps for different sensillar types were constructed and specific areas for the respective sensilla were found. Possible functions of observed sensilla types are discussed. The present study provides a basis for future electrophysiological studies aimed at understanding how I. duplicatus detects ecologically important olfactory cues.
All-Polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their inherent advantages over other types of organic solar cells, including superior optical and thermal stability, as well as exceptional mechanical durability. Recently, all-PSCs have experi-enced remarkable advancements in device performance thanks to the invention of polymerized small-molecule acceptors (PSMAs) since 2017. Among these PSMAs, PY-IT has garnered immense interest from the scientific community due to its exceptional perfor-mance in all-PSCs. In this review, we presented the design principles of PY-IT and discussed the various strategies employed in device engineering for PY-IT-based all-PSCs. These strategies include additive and interface engineering, layer-by-layer processing methods, meniscus-assisted coating methods, and ternary strategy. Furthermore, this review highlighted several novel polymeric donor materials that are paired with PY-IT to achieve efficient all-PSCs. Lastly, we summarized the inspiring strategies for further advancing all-PSCs based on PY-IT. These strategies aim to enhance the overall performance and stability of all-PSCs by exploring new materials, optimizing device architectures, and improving fabrication techniques. By leveraging these approaches, we anticipate significant progress in the development of all-PSCs and their potential as a viable renewable energy source.
Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. There are limited prospective long-term data regarding persistency and remission of AR. The objective of this study was to investigate the natural course of pollen-induced AR (pollen-AR) over 20 years, from childhood into early adulthood. Methods Data from 1137 subjects in the Barn/Children Allergi/Allergy Milieu Stockholm Epidemiologic birth cohort (BAMSE) with a completed questionnaire regarding symptoms, asthma, treatment with allergen immunotherapy (AIT) and results of allergen-specific IgE for inhalant allergens at 4, 8, 16 and 24 years were analysed. Pollen-AR was defined as sneezing, runny, itchy, or blocked nose; and itchy or watery eyes when exposed to birch and/or grass pollen in combination with allergen-specific IgE ≥0.35kU A/l to birch and/or grass. Results Approximately 75% of children with pollen-AR at 4 or 8 years had persistent disease up to 24 years, and 30% developed asthma. The probability of persistency was high already at low levels of pollen-specific IgE. The highest rate of remission from pollen-AR was seen between 16 and 24 years (21.5%), however the majority remained sensitized. This period was also when pollen-specific IgE-levels stopped increasing and the average estimated annual incidence of pollen-AR decreased from 1.5% to 0.8% per year. Conclusion Children with pollen-AR are at high risk of persistent disease for at least 20 years. Childhood up to adolescence seems to be the most dynamic period of AR progression. Our findings underline the close cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between sensitization, AR, and asthma.
Structural characterization of protein interactions is essential for our ability to understand and modulate physiological processes. Computational approaches to modeling of protein complexes provide structural information that far exceeds capabilities of the existing experimental techniques. Protein structure prediction in general, and prediction of protein interactions in particular, has been revolutionized by the rapid progress in Deep Learning techniques. The work of Schweke et al. presents a community-wide study of an important problem of distinguishing physiological protein-protein complexes/interfaces (experimentally determined or modeled) from non-physiological ones. The authors designed and generated a large benchmark set of physiological and non-physiological homodimeric complexes, and evaluated a large set of scoring functions, as well as AlphaFold predictions, on their ability to discriminate the non-physiological interfaces. The problem of separating physiological interfaces from non-physiological ones is very difficult, largely due to the lack of a clear distinction between the two categories in a crowded environment inside a living cell. Still, the ability to identify key physiologically significant interfaces in the variety of possible configurations of a protein-protein complex is important. The study presents a major data resource and methodological development in this important direction for molecular and cellular biology.
Urbanization processes are taking place at a very high rate, especially in Africa, these. At the same time, a number of small mammal species, be they native of invasive, take advantage of these human-induced habitat modifications. They represent commensal communities of organisms that cause a number of inconveniences to humans, including as potential reservoirs of zoonotic diseases. We studied via live trapping and habitat characterization such commensal small mammal communities in small villages to large cities of Senegal, to try understand how the species share this particular space. Seven major species were recorded, with exotic invasive house mice (Mus musculus) and black rats (Rattus rattus) dominating in numbers. The shrew Crocidura olivieri appeared as the main and more widespread native species, while native rodent species (Mastomys natalensis, M. erythroleucus, Arvicanthis niloticus and Praomys daltoni) were less abundant and/or more localized. Habitat preferences, compared between species in terms of room types and characteristics, showed differences between house mice, black rats and M. natalensis especially. Niche (habitat component) breadth and overlap were measured. Among invasive species, the house mouse showed a larger niche breadth than the black rat, and overall, all species displayed high overlap values. Co-occurrence patterns were studied at the locality and local scales. The latter show cases of aggregation (between the black rat and native species, for instance) and of segregation (as between the house mouse and the black rat in Tambacounda, or between the black rat and M. natalensis in Kédougou). While updating information on commensal small mammal distribution in Senegal, a country submitted to a dynamic process of invasion by the black rat and the house mouse, we bring original information on how species occupy and share the commensal space, and make predictions on the evolution of these communities in a period of ever-accelerating global changes.
Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) nuts induced anaphylaxis: a case seriesGabrielle Doré-Brabant1, Joëlle Bouchard2, Louis Marois2 and Aubert Lavoie21 Department of Pediatrics, CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Québec, Canada.2 Department of Allergy and Immunology, CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Children’s Oncology Group’s 2023 Blueprint For ResearchDouglas S. Hawkins,1 Lia Gore2Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children’s Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WADepartment of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Children’s Hospital Colorado,, Aurora, CO
Functional connectivity (FC) indicates the interdependencies between brain signals recorded from spatially distinct locations in different frequency bands, which is modulated by cognitive tasks and is known to change with aging and cognitive disorders. Recently, the power of narrow-band gamma oscillations induced by visual gratings has been shown to reduce with both healthy aging and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the impact of aging/MCI on stimulus-induced gamma FC has not been well studied. We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) from a large cohort (N=229) of elderly subjects (>49 years) while they viewed large cartesian gratings to induce gamma oscillations and studied changes in alpha and gamma FC with healthy aging (N=218) and MCI (N=11). Surprisingly, we found that aging and disease changed power and FC in different ways. With healthy aging, alpha power did not change but FC decreased significantly. MCI reduced gamma but not alpha FC significantly compared with age and gender matched controls, even when power was matched between the two groups. Overall, our results show distinct effects of aging and disease on EEG power and FC, suggesting different mechanisms underlying aging and cognitive disorders.
As survival rates for childhood cancer have improved, there has been increasing focus on identifying and addressing adverse impacts of cancer and its treatment on children and their families during treatment and into survivorship. The Behavioral Science Committee (BSC) of the Children’s Oncology Group (COG), comprised of psychologists, neuropsychologists, social workers, nurses, physicians, and clinical research associates, aims to improve the lives of children with cancer and their families through research and dissemination of empirically supported knowledge. Key achievements of the BSC include enhanced interprofessional collaboration through integration of liaisons into other key committees within COG, successful measurement of critical neurocognitive outcomes through standardized neurocognitive assessment strategies, contributions to evidence-based guidelines, and optimization of patient-reported outcome measurement. The collection of neurocognitive and behavioral data continues to be an essential function of the BSC, in the context of therapeutic trials that are modifying treatments to maximize event-free survival, minimize adverse outcomes, and optimize quality of life. In addition, through hypothesis-driven research and multi-disciplinary collaborations, the BSC will also begin to prioritize initiatives to expand the systematic collection of predictive factors (e.g., social determinants of health) and psychosocial outcomes, with overarching goals of addressing health inequities in cancer care and outcomes, and promoting evidence-based interventions to improve outcomes for all children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer.
IntroductionHypercalcemia is one of the most frequent electrolyte disorders in patients with malignant diseases , presenting in about one quarter of these patients . Hypercalcemia could result from osteolytic lesions or from production of humoral substances like parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) or uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of 1-25(OH)2D3 by the tumoral cell or macrophages. Within tumor-related etiologies, multiple myeloma, breast, lung, and kidney cancers are the most frequent [3,4]. In these diseases, hypercalcemia has been reported in 30% and 60% of patients with multiple myeloma and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma .However, hypercalcemia has only been reported in 7-8% of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its prevalence and its prognostic value is unclear .
The fatigue analysis of structural components is a relevant research topic in both scientific and industrial communities. Despite major advances in understanding, fatigue damage remains a significant issue for both metallic and non-metallic components, sometimes leading to unexpected failures of in-service parts. Among the different assessment methodologies, critical plane methods have gained significance as they enable identification of a component’s critical location and direction of early crack propagation. However, the standard plane scanning method for calculating critical plane factors is computationally intensive and, for that, it is only applied when the component critical regions are already known. When critical areas are not easily identifiable due to complex geometries, loads or constraints, a more efficient method for evaluating critical plane factors would be required. This work presents a closed form solution for efficiently evaluating the Fatemi-Socie critical plane factor, in case of linear-elastic material behaviour and proportional loading conditions, based on tensor invariants and coordinates transformation laws. The proposed algorithm was tested on different test cases (i.e. hourglass, notched and welded joint geometries) under different loading conditions (i.e. tensile, bending and torsion) and showed a significant reduction in computation time compared to the standard plane scanning method.