Background We used data from a prospective cohort to explore two-year trajectories of “long COVID” (persistent symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection) and their association with illness perception. Methods RECoVERED participants (adults; prospectively enrolled following laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, May 2020-June 2021) completed symptom questionnaires at months 2-12, 18 and 24, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) at months 1, 6, and 12. Using group-based trajectory models (GBTM), we modelled symptoms (mean total numbers and proportion with 4 specific complaints), including age, sex, BMI and timing of infection as covariates. In a multivariable linear mixed-effects model, we assessed the association between symptom trajectories and repeated B-IPQ scores. Results Among 292 participants (42% female; median age 51 [IQR=36-62]), four trajectories were identified, ranging from Trajectory 4 (8.9%; 6+ symptoms) to Trajectory 1 (24.8%; no symptoms). The occurrence of fatigue and myalgia increased among 23% and 12% of participants, respectively. Individuals in Trajectory 4 experienced more negative adjusted B-IPQ scores over time than those in Trajectories 1-3. Conclusions We observed little fluctuation in the total number of symptoms but individual symptoms may develop as others resolve. Reporting a greater number of symptoms was congruent with more negative illness perception over time.
TITLE PAGEArticle TypeClinical pictureTitlePOUNDing score of Intracranial LipomasAuthorsYuta Aikawa, Takanobu Sato, Ryo IchibayashiAffiliationsDivision of Emergency Medicine Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University Medical Center, Sakura Hospital, Chiba, JapanCorresponding AuthorRyo Ichibayashi, MD, PhDORCID iD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1273-4875Division of Emergency Medicine Department of Internal MedicineToho University Medical Center, Sakura Hospital564-1 ShimosizuSakura-shi, Chiba 285-8741, JapanPhone: +81-43-462-8811Fax: +81-43-462-8835e-mail: email@example.comRunning titleIntracranial LipomasKeywordsLipomas, Headache, Intracerebroventricular, Diagnostic imagingConflict of interestThe authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.Financial supportThe author(s) received no financial support for this article’s research, authorship, and/or publication.Patient consentWritten informed consent was obtained from the patient to publish this report by the journal’s patient consent policy.Author contributionTS wrote and drafted the manuscript. YA, KI, and RI helped draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.Data availability statementThe data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy and ethical considerations.AcknowledgmentsNone.Key clinical messageMost intracranial lipomas are asymptomatic, but headache is the most common symptom. The POUNDing score is sometimes high. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor imaging findings in parallel with the treatment of migraine.Clinical pictureA 29-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-month-old headache. Her headache was a unilateral throbbing headache like she had never experienced before. Her headache lasted more than 4 hours and was accompanied by vomiting. Otherwise, she had no abnormal neurological findings. She has a history of obsessive-compulsive disorder. She is on regular oral paroxetine hydrochloride and cloxazolam. She gained 30 kg weight in 4 years. So far, she has not seen a doctor because of her headache, although she has acknowledged it many times. She was conscious, had blood pressure 120/80 mmHg, pulse 60/beat, body temperature 35.0°C, pupil 5 mm/5 mm, and bilateral light reflex. No neck stiffness or unconsciousness was noted in her. Her blood tests showed no abnormalities. She underwent a head CT to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Her head CT showed no intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. However, she had bilateral lateral ventricles and low-density structures in the right ventricle. CT values ranged from -20 to -80. When the head CT was set to the condition of the lung field, it was visually confirmed that it was not air (Fig. 1A). As a result, she was diagnosed with an intraventricular lipoma. The POUNDing score was 5 points, suggesting the possibility of migraine.1 After her symptoms improved with analgesics, she was sent home for outpatient follow-up. Intracranial lipoma is a rare benign tumor. Most are located in the midline within the cranium. Lipomas around the corpus callosum are associated with the hypomorphic and amorphic of the corpus callosum. Many cases are asymptomatic, with headache being the most common symptom. It is often found incidentally on head CT. Intracranial lipomas with headaches are found not only in the ventricle but also in other sites.2 At first glance, it can be mistaken for air mixed in the skull. When the CT value is measured, it shows a numerical value from 0 to -100 and is diagnosed as adipose tissue. It is rarely removed by surgery and is observed. The pounding score is a scale for diagnosing migraine. There are no reports of its use for intracranial lipoma. In our case, lipomas were found in the proper and third ventricles, and the right ventricle was more significant than the left (Fig. 1B). Headache due to intracranial lipoma was also considered. Still, from the result of the POUNDing score, it was diagnosed as a headache due to a migraine. Intracranial lipomas that have complained of headaches may include cases of migraine. Therefore, even if the intracranial lipoma is diagnosed, measuring the POUNDing score and differentiating migraine is necessary. On the other hand, the causal relationship between intracranial lipoma and headache has not been elucidated. For this reason, even if symptoms improve with analgesics, follow-up imaging is necessary when ventricular laterality, giant lipoma, and unexplained headache persist.References1. M. Tejero Mas, R. Burgos Blanco, J.J. Aguirre Sánchez, F. Buitrago Ramírez. The mnemonic POUNDing rule in the diagnosis of patients with migraine. Rev Clin Esp . 2018; 218(7): 388-389. doi: 10.1016/j.rce.2018.05.0042. Bilir O, Yavasi O, Ersunan G, Kayayurt K, Durakoglugil T. Incidental Finding in a Headache Patient: Intracranial Lipoma. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine . 2014;15(4):361-2. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2014.4.21298Figure １A・B Head CTUpper row： A is a lipoma in the right ventricle and B in the third ventricle. （white arrow）Lower row： It can be confirmed that both A and B are not air under lung field conditions. （black circle）
Advances in proteogenomic technologies have revealed hundreds to thousands of translated small open reading frames (sORFs) that encode microproteins in genomes across evolutionary space. While many microproteins have now been shown to play critical roles in biology and human disease, a majority of recently identified microproteins have little or no experimental evidence regarding their functionality. Computational tools have some limitations for analysis of short, poorly conserved microprotein sequences, so additional tools are needed to determine the role of each member of this recently discovered polypeptide class. A currently underexplored avenue in the study of microproteins is structure prediction and determination, which delivers a depth of functional information. In this review, we provide a brief overview of microprotein discovery methods, then examine examples of microprotein structures (and, conversely, intrinsic disorder) that have been experimentally determined using crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, and NMR, which provide insight into their molecular functions and mechanisms. Additionally, we discuss examples of predicted microprotein structures that have provided insight or context regarding their function. Analysis of microprotein structure at the angstrom level, and confirmation of predicted structures, therefore, has potential to identify translated microproteins that are of biological importance and to provide molecular mechanism for their in vivo roles.
The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Rare Tumor committee includes the Infrequent Tumor and Retinoblastoma subcommittees, encompassing a wide range of extracranial solid tumors that don’t fall within another COG disease committee. Current therapeutic trial development focuses on nasopharyngeal carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, colorectal carcinoma, melanoma, and thyroid carcinoma. Given the rarity of these tumors, novel strategies and international collaborative efforts are necessary to advance research and improve outcomes.
Word Count: 1,075Key Clinical Message: Despite emphasis for emergent surgical treatment of Stanford Type A aortic dissections, pregnant patients that are clinically stable may safely receive a staged approach instead, with delivery followed by delayed dissection repair.Keywords: Cardiothoracic Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynecology, Anesthesia, Cardiovascular Disorders
Compared with traditional technology, bonding technology is more suitable for civil structure reinforcement because of its cost-efficiency and superior mechanical properties. As one of the simplest forms of adhesive joints, numerous studies have been conducted on the performance of single-lap joints (SLJs). However, research on the long-term performance of SLJs requires better organization and comprehension. This paper aims to investigate the long-term performance and optimization design of SLJs. The main factors influencing the long-term performance of SLJs from both material and component levels are discussed. The moisture diffusion mechanisms of bulk adhesives and the degradation mechanisms of SLJs are explored. Moreover, the optimization design of SLJs focuses on evaluating the overlap length, adhesive layer thicknesses, and changes in adhesives along the overlap length based on available literature. This paper can be employed to improve the shear strength and long-term performance of SLJs and to provide insights into their challenges and prospects.
Cost effectiveness of support with out-of-pockets costs to prevent treatment abandonment in Malawi and sub-Saharan Africa; lessons learnt and the way forward – a report from CANCaRe Africa Junious Sichali1, Avi Denburg2, Harriet Khofi3, Cecilia Mdoka1, Deborah Nyirenda4, Yamikani Chimalizeni3, George Chagaluka3, Elizabeth Molyneux3, Marc Y. R. Henrion4,5, Sumit Gupta2, Trijn Israels11 Collaborative African Network for Childhood Cancer Care and Research (CANCaRe Africa), 2Division of Haematology/Oncology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada,3 Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (KUHeS), Blantyre, Malawi, 4 Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi, 5Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UKCorresponding author:Dr Trijn Israels, CANCaRe Africa, Department of Paediatrics, Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (KuHES), Blantyre, Malawi. Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgWord count: 1189 wordsNumber of Tables: 0Number of Figures: 0Short running title: Cost-effectiveness of treatment abandonment preventionKey words: childhood cancer, treatment abandonment, cost-effectiveness,LMIC Low- and middle-income countryGICC Global Initiative for Childhood CancerCANCaRe Africa Collaborative African Network for Childhood Cancer Care and ResearchALL Acute lymphoblastic leukaemiaGDP Gross Domestic ProductDALY Disability Adjusted Life Year
Hypochlorite (ClO-) is an important reactive oxygen species produced by the immune system to fight off invading pathogens, but its over-expression can interfere with normal physiological process and induce serious diseases. Although a variety of molecular probes have been reported for detecting ClO-, the development of advanced fluorescent tools with faster response and higher sensitivity to precisely monitor ClO- remains a challenge. In this work, two Hantzsch ester (a derivative of 1,4-dihydropyridine) derived fluorescent probes MeDHP-BCl and MeDHP-PhBCl were constructed based on asymmetric BODIPY-matrix. These probes exhibit significant fluo-rescence turn-on in the ultra-sensitive (detection limit < 1 nM) and ultra-fast response (≤ 5 s) to ClO-, the reaction has determined to be a highly selective N-Chlorination of Hantzsch ester which cannot be activated by various common bioactive species, including nitric ox-ide (NO) that could oxidize Hantzsch ester under aerobic physiological conditions in most reports. MeDHP-PhBCl possess a relatively longer fluorescence emission wavelength and higher quantum yield after activation, while more notably, MeDHP-BCl displayed lower cytotoxicity and more remarkable fluorescence increasement in the response to ClO-, enabling selective and precise visualization of endogenous ClO- over-expression in living RAW264.7 cells.
ABSTRACT The double-spined spruce bark beetle, Ips duplicatus has become an infamous secondary pest of Norway spruce, causing extensive ecological and economic destruction in many Central European countries. Antennae are the primary olfactory organs that play fundamental role in insect-host chemical communication; therefore, understanding morphology is crucial before conducting electrophysiological investigations. Here, we present our analysis of sensilla types on the antennal surface of I. duplicatus for the first time, using high-resolution-scanning electron microscopy. We studied the external morphological characteristics of antennae and the types, numbers, and distribution of the antennal sensilla in males and females. Our results revealed the presence of five different types of morphologically distinct sensilla: sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica, sensilla trichodea, sensilla coeloconica, and Bӧhm’s bristles. We observed two subtypes in sensilla chaetica (SChI and SChII), four subtypes in sensilla basiconica (SBI, SBII, SBIII and SBIV), three subtypes in sensilla trichodea (STrII, STrIII and STrIV) and two subtypes in sensilla coeloconica (SCoI and SCoII), respectively in I. duplicatus males and females. Minor differences in length and numbers between the sexes for some sensilla types were found. Distribution maps for different sensillar types were constructed and specific areas for the respective sensilla were found. Possible functions of observed sensilla types are discussed. The present study provides a basis for future electrophysiological studies aimed at understanding how I. duplicatus detects ecologically important olfactory cues.
All-Polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their inherent advantages over other types of organic solar cells, including superior optical and thermal stability, as well as exceptional mechanical durability. Recently, all-PSCs have experi-enced remarkable advancements in device performance thanks to the invention of polymerized small-molecule acceptors (PSMAs) since 2017. Among these PSMAs, PY-IT has garnered immense interest from the scientific community due to its exceptional perfor-mance in all-PSCs. In this review, we presented the design principles of PY-IT and discussed the various strategies employed in device engineering for PY-IT-based all-PSCs. These strategies include additive and interface engineering, layer-by-layer processing methods, meniscus-assisted coating methods, and ternary strategy. Furthermore, this review highlighted several novel polymeric donor materials that are paired with PY-IT to achieve efficient all-PSCs. Lastly, we summarized the inspiring strategies for further advancing all-PSCs based on PY-IT. These strategies aim to enhance the overall performance and stability of all-PSCs by exploring new materials, optimizing device architectures, and improving fabrication techniques. By leveraging these approaches, we anticipate significant progress in the development of all-PSCs and their potential as a viable renewable energy source.
Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. There are limited prospective long-term data regarding persistency and remission of AR. The objective of this study was to investigate the natural course of pollen-induced AR (pollen-AR) over 20 years, from childhood into early adulthood. Methods Data from 1137 subjects in the Barn/Children Allergi/Allergy Milieu Stockholm Epidemiologic birth cohort (BAMSE) with a completed questionnaire regarding symptoms, asthma, treatment with allergen immunotherapy (AIT) and results of allergen-specific IgE for inhalant allergens at 4, 8, 16 and 24 years were analysed. Pollen-AR was defined as sneezing, runny, itchy, or blocked nose; and itchy or watery eyes when exposed to birch and/or grass pollen in combination with allergen-specific IgE ≥0.35kU A/l to birch and/or grass. Results Approximately 75% of children with pollen-AR at 4 or 8 years had persistent disease up to 24 years, and 30% developed asthma. The probability of persistency was high already at low levels of pollen-specific IgE. The highest rate of remission from pollen-AR was seen between 16 and 24 years (21.5%), however the majority remained sensitized. This period was also when pollen-specific IgE-levels stopped increasing and the average estimated annual incidence of pollen-AR decreased from 1.5% to 0.8% per year. Conclusion Children with pollen-AR are at high risk of persistent disease for at least 20 years. Childhood up to adolescence seems to be the most dynamic period of AR progression. Our findings underline the close cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between sensitization, AR, and asthma.
Structural characterization of protein interactions is essential for our ability to understand and modulate physiological processes. Computational approaches to modeling of protein complexes provide structural information that far exceeds capabilities of the existing experimental techniques. Protein structure prediction in general, and prediction of protein interactions in particular, has been revolutionized by the rapid progress in Deep Learning techniques. The work of Schweke et al. presents a community-wide study of an important problem of distinguishing physiological protein-protein complexes/interfaces (experimentally determined or modeled) from non-physiological ones. The authors designed and generated a large benchmark set of physiological and non-physiological homodimeric complexes, and evaluated a large set of scoring functions, as well as AlphaFold predictions, on their ability to discriminate the non-physiological interfaces. The problem of separating physiological interfaces from non-physiological ones is very difficult, largely due to the lack of a clear distinction between the two categories in a crowded environment inside a living cell. Still, the ability to identify key physiologically significant interfaces in the variety of possible configurations of a protein-protein complex is important. The study presents a major data resource and methodological development in this important direction for molecular and cellular biology.