Single-stage endovascular treatment of cardiac and vascular diseases with combined endovascular techniques has bee increasingly reported in the contemporary literature. Although more complex cases are currently being treated with such techniques, there are still crucial issues regarding their safety and efficacy.silmutaneous
We describe the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of children with COVID 19 in comparison with those of not-laboratory-confirmed cases. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics, and outcome of 422 children (aged 0–18 years) with suspected and confirmed COVID 19 admitted to the pediatric emergency department from March 23rd to July 23rd, 2020. Of the 422 children with suspected COVID-19 included in this study, COVID-19 was PCR-confirmed in 78 (18.4%). Fever (51.2%) and cough (43.5%) were the most prominent symptoms in children with confirmed cases. The clinical status of the patients with confirmed COVID-19 was significantly milder than that of those with suspected COVID-19. The proportion of COVID-19 pneumonia cases was 44.4%, 5.5%, 18.7%, and 8.5% for the age groups of ≤ 1, 2–6, 7–12, and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Of the 422 children, 128 (30.3%) underwent nasopharyngeal PCR testing for other respiratory viral pathogens; 21 (16.4%) were infected with viral pathogens other than severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2. Only one patient (4.7%) with confirmed COVID-19 had coinfection with respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves were 0.812 for WBCs, 0.752 for neutrophils, 0.717 for lactate dehydrogenase, and 0.708 for lymphocyte for predicting COVID-19 (p ≤ 0.001). Fever and cough or other clinical symptoms or signs should not be considered hallmarks of COVID 19. In this study, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were predictive of COVID-19 positivity.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic organism. We report a young, healthy, immunocompetent female with no apparent cardiovascular risk factors presenting with acute myocardial infarction. She had CMV viremia and went on to develop CMV-colitis and hepatitis. This report highlights that CMV can cause clinically significant multi-organ disease in immunocompetent-patients
Objective: To analyze the effect of a novel second-line escalating treatment strategy (high-dose dexamethasone (HDD), low-dose rituximab to eltrombopag) for children with severe chronic immune thrombocytopenia (SCITP). Materials and Methods: This study was a single-center, retrospective cohort study. The second-line escalating strategy included 3 steps: Step I (6 courses high-dose dexamethasone: HDD), Step II (HDD combined with low-dose rituximab), and Step III (eltrombopag). Results: A total of 30 cases (18 males and 12 females) were included; the median age was 8.83 (1.42-13.9) year-old, the duration time of ITP was 20.5 (12.0-96.0) months, and the platelet counts were 15 (3-29) ×109/L. After the median 14 (12-37) months’ treatment, the remission rate was 36.7% (11/30), and the sustained response (SR) rate was 68.2% (15/22). In eltrombopag (step III) cases, 47.5% (8/17) maintained platelet ≥50×109/L, 37.5% (3/8) dose tapering, and 25% (2/8) were successfully discontinued from medication. The number of patients at 12th, 24th, and 36th months was 30, 7, and 2, with the total response (TR) and remission rates of 80% (36.7%), 57.1% (28.6%), and 50% (50%), respectively. The total relapse rate was 26.7% (8/30)，three cases(75%, 3/4)from Step II and 5 cases (41.7% ,5/12)from Step III, none in Step I. Conclusion: The new second-line escalating strategy for children SCITP has an effective improving rate with 36.7% remission and 68.2% SR; 30% could benefit and retain stable response from HDD treatment. Combined treatment with eltrombopag can reduce the relapse rate of low-dose rituximab.
Reproductive isolation is often achieved when genes that are neutral or beneficial in their genomic background become functionally incompatible in a foreign genome, causing inviability, sterility or low fitness in hybrids. Recent studies suggest that mitonuclear interactions are among the initial incompatibilities to evolve at early stages of population divergence across taxa. Yet, it is unclear whether mitonuclear incompatibilities involve few or many regions in the nuclear genome. We employ an experimental evolution approach starting with unfit F2 interpopulation hybrids of the copepod Tigriopus californicus, in which compatible and incompatible nuclear alleles compete in a fixed mitochondrial background. After about nine generations, we observe a generalized increase in population size and in survivorship, suggesting efficiency of selection against maladaptive phenotypes. Whole genome sequencing of evolved populations showed some consistent allele frequency changes across the three replicates of each reciprocal cross, but markedly different patterns between mitochondrial background. In only a few regions (~6.5% of the genome), the same parental allele was overrepresented irrespective of the mitochondrial background. About 33% of the genome shows allele frequency changes consistent with divergent selection, with the location of these genomic regions strongly differing between mitochondrial backgrounds. The dominant allele matches the mitochondrial background in 87 and 89% of these genomic regions, consistent with mitonuclear coadaptation. These results suggest that mitonuclear incompatibilities have a complex polygenic architecture that differs between populations, potentially generating genome wide barriers to gene flow between closely related taxa.
Aims: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common clinical lung cancer. Polymorphonuclear-myeloid derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs), which are the major population of MDSCs, are involved in NSCLC progression. Recently, it was found that lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) could identify humsn PMN-MDSCs. However, the role of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs in NSCLC early diagnosis has not been revealed. Here, we tried to confirm the application of the newly-identified CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs in the early diagnosis of NSCLC. Methods: Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the proportion of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs in the peripheral blood (PB) of healthy controls (HC) and NSCLC patients. The correlation of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSC frequency with levels of cytokeratin 19-fragments (CYFRA21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to estimate the diagnostic efficacy of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs for NSCLC. Additionally, the association of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSC frequency with NSCLC prognosis/recurrence after surgery was explored. Results: The proportion of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs increased in PB of NSCLC patients. CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSC proportion was positively correlated with levels of CEA and CYFRA21-1. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PMN-MDSC percentage was higher than CYFRA21-1, CEA and CA125. The proportion of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs decreased in patients after surgery. The frequency of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs was lower in NSCLC patients without recurrence compared to those with recurrence after surgery. Conclusions: Circulating CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs are a potential diagnostic marker for NSCLC, and are associated with NSCLC prognosis and recurrence after surgery.
Aim Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is known as one of the most effective treatment methods in plantar fasciitis (PF). Low-dye taping, which is the most preferred method of banding treatments, provides an analgesic effect by correcting biomechanics. It was aimed to compare the efficacy of adjuvant low-dye kinesio-taping (KT), sham-taping, or extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) alone in plantar fasciitis (PF). Methods In this double-blind, sham-controlled study, forty-five patients with PF were randomized to 3-group (Group 1: ESWT plus low-dye KT, n=15; Group 2: ESWT plus Sham-taping, n=15; and Group 3: ESWT only, n=15) five-session ESWT were administrated. KT was performed and changed every 1-week for the ESWT sessions in Groups 1 and 2. The main outcome measures were the visual analog scale (VAS) change, the heel tenderness index (HTI), foot function index (FFI). The patients were evaluated at the beginning and end of the treatment and the 4-week follow-up. Results The demographic characteristics and baseline outcomes between groups were similar (p>0.05). VAS and HTI changes were observed in all three groups, there was no difference between groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction between the time and the groups in FFI-total (F3.919= 2.607; p=.043). At the 4-week follow-up, when Groups 1 and 2 were evaluated, the lower FFI-total, FFI-disability, and FFI-activity limitation were statistically significant in Group 1 (p=0.027; p=0.026; p=0.029, respectively). When Group 1 and 3 were compared, the decrease in FFI-pain and FFI-activity limitation were significant in Group 1 (p=0.042; p=0.035, respectively). Conclusions Low-dye KT, in addition to ESWT, is more effective than sham-taping and ESWT in pain relief and foot function improvement due to PF at a 4-week follow-up.
Purpose: To investigate the prediction values of the preoperative NLR, LMR, PLR, MPV, RDW for recurrence and progression of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods: In this prospective study, 94 consecutive patients, newly diagnosed with NMIBC between July 2017 - August 2018 were included. The blood samples were collected from patients before transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) and NLR, LMR, PLR, RDW, MPV values were calculated. The effect of these preoperative inflammatory parameters and other clinicopathological parameters on recurrence and progression rates were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify significant prognostic variables. Results: The mean follow-up was 11 ± 6.4 months. Recurrence was observed in 35.1% and progression was detected in 7.4% of the patients. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was statistically significantly associated with both recurrence (p = 0.01) and progression (p = 0.035) whereas lymphocyte-monocyte ratio was only associated with recurrence (p = 0.038). In the survival analyses, the relationship between recurrence and LMR was confirmed in both univariate (p = 0.021) and multivariate (p = 0.022) analyses. The relationship between NLR and recurrence was confirmed in univariate analysis (p = 0.019), however in multivariate analysis was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.051). Conclusions: Lymphocyte-monocyte ratio might be an easy obtainable, non-invasive and cost-effective method for predicting recurrence of disease in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
OBJECTIVE. For many years, functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) was considered negligible after treatment of left-sided heart valve surgery. The aim of the present network meta-analysis is to summarize the results of four approaches in order to establish the possible gold standard. METHODS A systematic search was performed to identify all publications reporting the outcomes of four approach for FTR, not tricuspid annuloplasty (no TA), suture annuloplasty (SA), flexible (FRA), rigid rings (RRA). All studies reporting at least one the four endpoints (early and late mortality, early and late moderate or more TFR) were included in a Bayesian network meta-analysis. RESULTS There were 31 included studies with 9,663 patients. Aggregate early mortality was 5.3% no TA, 7.2% SA, 6.6% FRA and 6.4% RRA; Early TR moderate-or-more was 9.6%, 4.8%, 4.6% and 3.8%; Late mortality was 22.5%, 18.2%, 11.9% and 11.9%; Late TR moderate-or-more was 27.9%, 18.3%, 14.3% and 6.4%. Rigid or semirigid ring annuloplasty was the most effective approach for decreasing the risk of late moderate or more FTR (–85% vs. no TA; –64% vs. SA; –32% vs. FRA). Concerning late mortality, no significant differences were found among different surgical approaches, however, flexible or rigid rings reduced significantly the risk of late mortality (78% and 47%, respectively) compared with not performing TA mortality. No differences were found for early outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Ring annuloplasty seems to offer better late outcomes compare to either suture annuloplasty or not performing TA. In particular rigid or semirigid rings provides more stable FTR across time.
In this paper, we consider the generalized approximate boundary synchronization for a coupled system of wave equations with Dirichlet boundary controls. We analyse the relationship between the generalized approximate boundary synchronization and the generalized exact boundary synchronization, give a sufficient condition to realize the generalized approximate boundary synchronization and a necessary condition in terms of Kalman's matrix, and show the meaning of the number of total controls. Besides, by the generalized synchronization decomposition, we define the generalized approximately synchronizable state, and obtain its properties and a sufficient condition for it to be independent of applied boundary controls.
Cardiac arrythmia is a major complication of COVID-19. This occurs often in patients with severe COVID-19 with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases. We report an unusual case of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in an adult male with low cardiovascular risk factor who presented with a moderate form of COVID-19.
Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) and Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) primarily affect the lungs. Both diseases present with fever, cough, and shortness of breath and possess thrombotic potential as well. Therefore in COVID 19 pandemic, PTB must be taken into consideration for suspected cases in order to avoid fatal consequences.
Background and objectives: Shared decision making (SDM) prior to non-urgent tracheostomy in a child with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) is recognized as the standard of care, but has proven challenging to implement in practice. We hypothesize that utilization of the microsystem model for analysis of the complex ecosystem in which SDM occurs will yield insights that enable formation of a reproducible, measurable SDM process. Methods: Retrospective chart review of a case series of children with CRF in whom a SDM process was pursued. The process included a palliative care consult, a validated decision aid and 12 key questions designed to elucidate information integral to an informed decision. Investigators reviewed a single hospital admission for each child, focusing on the 3 core elements of a medical microsystem- the patient, the providers, and information. Results: 29 patients who met inclusion criteria ranged in age from 0 to 19 years (median 1.7) and remained in the hospital from 10 to 316 days (median 38). Patients were medically complex with multiple and varied respiratory diagnoses, multiple and varied comorbidities, and varying psychosocial environments. 14/29 children received tracheostomies. Each child encountered a mean of 6.2 medical specialties, 1.9 surgical specialties and 8.5 non-physician led services. Answers to 12 key questions were not documented systematically and often not found. Conclusion: A unique SDM microsystem is formed around each child but not optimally utilized. Explicit recognition of these microsystems would enable team formation and an SDM process comprised of measurable steps and communication patterns.
Mitral commissural prolapse or flail, either isolated or combined with more extensive degenerative valve disease imposes several challenges both on its diagnosis and management whilst being a risk factor for valve reoperation after mitral valve repair. Accurate identification of the prolapsing segment is often not feasible with transthoracic 2D echocardiography, with transesophageal 3D imaging then required for correct diagnosis and surgical planning. Various surgical techniques employed alone or in combination, have yielded good results in the repair of commissural prolapse. Herein, we analyze the specific characteristics of commissural disease focusing our attention on 2D and 3D echocardiographic findings and we briefly comment on techniques employed for surgical correction of the disease.
Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of uterine tamponade devices for atonic refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal birth, and the effect of including uterine tamponade devices in institutional protocols. Search strategy: databases in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and POPLINE. Study selection: randomised and non-randomised comparative studies. Outcomes: composite outcome including surgical interventions (artery ligations, uterine compressive sutures or hysterectomy) or maternal death, and hysterectomy. Results: all four included studies were at high risk of bias. The certainty of evidence rated as very low to low. One randomised study measured the effect of the the condom-catheter balloon compared to standard care and found unclear results for the composite outcome (RR 2.33, 95%CI 0.76-7.14) and hysterectomy (RR 4.14, 95%CI 0.48-35.93). Three comparative studies assessed the effect of including UBTs in institutional protocols. A stepped-wedge study suggested an increase in the composite outcome (RR 4.08, 95%CI 1.07-15.58), and unclear results for hysterectomy (RR 4.38, 95% CI 0.47-41.09) with the use of the condom-catheter or surgical glove balloon. One non-randomised study showed unclear effects on the composite outcome (RR 0.33, 95%CI 0.11-1.03) and hysterectomy (RR 0.49, 95%CI 0.04-5.38) after the inclusion of Bakri balloon. The second non-randomized study found unclear effects on the composite outcome (RR 0.95, 95%CI 0.32-2.81) and hysterectomy (RR 1.84, 95%CI 0.44-7.69) after the inclusion of Ebb or Bakri balloon. Conclusions: the effect of uterine tamponade devices for the management of atonic refractory PPH after vaginal delivery is unclear, as is the role of the type of device and the setting.
• The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has estimated a 70% increase in demand resulting from the 2019 modification to cochlear implant criteria • We modelled the projected increase using our large database of pure tone audiometry results, and adjusted for frailty as a marker of risk of general anaesthesia • Our results suggest an overall 79% increase in demand, with most of this for adult implantation, and in particular for those over the age of 65 • Our findings are important for those planning delivery of cochlear implant services