Human activities have increased the intensity and frequency of natural stressors and created novel stressors, altering host-pathogen interactions, and changing the risk of emerging infectious diseases. Despite the ubiquity of such anthropogenic impacts, predicting the directionality of outcomes has proven challenging. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis to determine the primary mechanisms through which stressors affect host-pathogen interactions and to evaluate the impacts stress has on host fitness (survival and fecundity) and pathogen infectivity (prevalence and intensity). We assessed 891 effect sizes from 71 host species (representing seven taxonomic groups) and 78 parasite taxa from 98 studies. We found that infected and uninfected hosts had similar sensitivity to stressors and that responses varied according to stressor type. Specifically, limited resources compromised host fecundity and decreased pathogen intensity, while abiotic environmental stressors (e.g., temperature and salinity) decreased host survivorship and increased pathogen intensity, and pollution increased mortality but decreased pathogen prevalence. We then used our meta-analysis results to develop Susceptible-Infected theoretical models to illustrate scenarios where infection rates are expected to increase or decrease in response to resource limitation or environmental stress gradients. Our results carry implications for conservation and disease emergence and reveal areas for future work.
AUTHORSDr. Saroj Poudel Clinical Pharmacist Critical Care Medicine, Nepal Mediciti Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgDr. Rupak Chalise Anesthesiologist Critical Care Medicine, Nepal Mediciti Email: email@example.comDr. Manoj Bist Medical Officer Critical Care Medicine, Nepal Mediciti Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgDr. Ashim Regmi Junior Consultant Critical Care Medicine, Nepal Mediciti Email: email@example.comDr. Anup Ghimire Junior Consultant Critical Care Medicine, Nepal Mediciti Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgDr. Kishor Khanal Intensivist and ICU Coordinator Critical Care Medicine, Nepal Mediciti Email: email@example.com
Carbonate-rich soils limit plant performance and crop production. Previously, local adaptation to carbonated soils was detected in wild Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, allowing the selection of two demes with contrasting phenotypes: A1 (carbonate tolerant, c+) and T6 (carbonate sensitive, c-). Here, A1 (c+) and T6 (c-) seedlings were grown hydroponically under control (pH 5.9) and bicarbonate conditions (10 mM NaHCO 3, pH 8.3) to obtain ionomic profiles and conduct transcriptomic analysis. In parallel, A1 (c+) and T6 (c-) parental lines and their progeny were cultivated on carbonated soil to evaluate fitness and segregation patterns. To understand the genetic architecture beyond the contrasted phenotypes a bulk segregant analysis sequencing (BSA-Seq) was performed. Transcriptomics revealed 208 root and 2503 leaf differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in A1 (c+) vs T6 (c-) comparison under bicarbonate stress, mainly involved in iron, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, hormones, and glycosylates biosynthesis. Based on A1 (c+) and T6 (c-) genome contrasts and BSA-Seq analysis, 69 genes were associated with carbonate tolerance. Comparative analysis of genomics and transcriptomics discovered a final set of 18 genes involved in bicarbonate stress responses that may have relevant roles in soil carbonate tolerance.
Centrifugal and shear forces are produced when solids or liquids rotate. Rotary systems and devices that use these forces, such as dynamic thin-film flow technology, are evolving continuously, improving material structure-property relationships at the nanoscale, representing a rapidly thriving and expanding field of research high with green chemistry metrics, consolidated at the inception of science. The vortex fluidic device (VFD) provides many advantages, with fluidic waves causing high shear and producing large surface areas for micro-mixing as well as rapid mass and heat transfer, enabling reactions beyond diffusion control in the processing. Combining these abilities allows for a green and innovative approach to altering materials for various research and industry applications by controlling small-scale flows and regulating molecular and macromolecular chemical reactivity, self-organization phenomena, and the synthesis of novel materials. This review highlights the aptitude of the VFD as clean technology, with an increase in efficiency for a diversity of top-down, bottom-up, and novel material transformations, benefiting from effective vortex-based processing for the transformation of material structure-property relationships.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major incurable health burden, ranking as the 3rd leading cause of death worldwide, mainly driven by cigarette smoking. COPD is characterised by persistent airway inflammation, lung function decline, and premature aging with the presence of pulmonary senescent cells. This review proposes that cellular senescence, a state of stable cell cycle arrest linked to ageing; induced by inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD, extends beyond the lungs and impacts the systemic circulation. This “spill over” of senescent cells contributes to brain inflammation and damage, increasing the risk of neurological comorbidities, such as stroke, cerebral small vessel disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. The review explores the role of cellular senescence in COPD-associated brain conditions and investigates the relationship between cellular senescence and circadian rhythm in COPD. Additionally, it discusses potential therapies, including senomorphic and senolytic treatments, as novel strategies to halt or improve COPD progression.
With the increasing demand for homoallylic silanes and allylic silanes, the highly efficient and regioselective hydrosilylations of conjugated dienes are urgently needed. Herein, we developed a Ni-catalyzed regiodivergent hydrosilylation of aromatic conjugated dienes by adjusting the temperature and ligands. Under low temperature (-30 oC), an eternal-ligand-free system (Ni/t-BuOK) can efficiently facili-tate the 3,4-anti-Markovnikov hydrosilylation to provide homoallylic silanes via electrophilic activation process; under room temperature (25 oC), a ligand-controlled system (Ni/t-BuOK/PPh3) can eventuate the 3,4-Markovnikov hydrosilylation to produce allylic silanes via Chalk-Harrod process. Both systems are compatible with various conjugated dienes and primary silanes in excellent yields and regioselec-tivities.
Manufacturing thin-film components is crucial for achieving high-efficiency and high-power thermal batteries (TBs). However, developing binders with low gas production at the operating temperature range of TBs (400−550 °C) has proven to be a significant challenge. Here we report the use of acrylic acid derivative terpolymer (LA136D) as a low-volatile binder for thin-film cathode fabrication and studied the chain scission and chemical bond-breaking mechanisms in pyrolysis. It is shown LA136D defers to random-chain scission and cross-linking chain scission mechanisms, which gifts it with a low proportion of volatile products (ψ, ψ=39.2wt%) at even up to 550 °C, well below those of the conventional PVDF (77.6wt%) and SBR (99.2wt%) binders. Surprisingly, LA136D contributes to constructing a thermal shock-resistant cathode due to the step-by-step bond-breaking process. This is beneficial for the overall performance of TBs. In a 130 s pulse discharging test, the thin-film cathodes exhibited a remarkable 440% reduction in polarization and 300% enhancement in the utilization efficiency of cathode materials, while with just a slight increase of 0.05 MPa in gas pressure compared with traditional “thick-film” cathode. Our work highlights the potential of LA136D as a low-volatile binder for thin-film cathodes and shows the feasibility of manufacturing high-efficiency and high-power TBs through polymer molecule engineering.
Simple dilution of semen is the oldest method to process semen for artificial insemination with either fresh or cooled. This was developed prior to the optimization centrifugation techniques for semen through a combination of trial and error and research. Simple dilution and is a faster method to process semen, is easy to use and works in many circumstances. For on farm semen use a 1:1 (v/v) semen to extender ratio is used. A variety of other techniques have been developed, such as cushion centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation and sperm filtration. Cushion centrifugation is used to concentrate the sperm and allows higher centrifugation speeds than centrifugation alone. This allows for improved recovery rates of sperm. Density gradient centrifugation has been used to select for morphologically normal sperm but suffers from low recovery rates. Processing sperm with this technique can result in improved motility and improved DNA integrity of sperm. Sperm filtration is another method to concentrate sperm without the use of centrifugation; however, this technique has lower recovery rates compared to cushion centrifugation. This review will discuss these techniques in the application of processing equine semen for either fresh or cooled-shipped use.
Standard management of pediatric Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) patients have included an initial assessment of the disease at presentation to establish it’s extent. This “staging” process has historically assigned patients using traditional classifications which were established decades ago when, like other pediatric malignancies, the more extensive involvement of the cancer for a patient directly correlated with the patient’s long term survival[](#ref-0001). Advances in radiologic technology have evolved in the way the disease extent was evaluated, moving from conventional radiographs, to computerized tomography (CT) to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to most recently positron emission tomography (PET)[](#ref-0002). Despite the development and use of PET scans for decades for various cancer diagnoses, the role of PET scans for NHL remains unclear[](#ref-0003). Indeed, its value for many conditions is its ability to assess the response to initial therapy and establish the patient’s risk stratification guiding the remaining treatment plan[](#ref-0004). Such efforts have not occurred in clinical trials of NHL and thus we are left to examine case series and try to discern its value for this disease.
Contaminants derived from consumables, reagents, and sample handling often negatively affect LC-MS data acquisition. In proteomics experiments, they can markedly reduce identification performance, reproducibility, and quantitative robustness. Here, we introduce a data analysis workflow combining MS1 feature extraction in Skyline with HowDirty, an R-markdown-based tool, that automatically generates an interactive report on the molecular contaminant level in LC-MS data sets. To facilitate the interpretation of the results, the HTML report is self-contained and self-explanatory, including plots that can be easily interpreted. The R package HowDirty is available from https://github.com/DavidGZ1/HowDirty. To demonstrate a showcase scenario for the application of HowDirty, we assessed the impact of ultrafiltration units from different providers on sample purity after filter-assisted sample preparation (FASP) digestion. This allowed us to select the filter units with the lowest contamination risk. Notably, the filter units with the lowest contaminant levels showed higher reproducibility regarding the number of peptides and proteins identified. Overall, HowDirty enables the efficient evaluation of sample quality covering a wide range of common contaminant groups that typically impair LC-MS analyses, facilitating taking corrective or preventive actions to minimize instrument downtime.
This Perspective argues that the NHS in the UK is facing a critical ‘tipping point’ which means that its very survival is at stake. The article considers the political responses to this crisis - (briefly) from the Conservative government; (briefly) from the ‘anti-NHS’ Right in politics; (briefly) from the ‘centre’ in politics in the form of the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change; and (in depth) from the left-of-centre, the Labour Party. Labour is likely to form the next government, which is why its approach (in terms of both political strategy and the substance of health policy) is considered in depth. It is argued that Labour’s approach, derived from an understandable desire by leader Sir Keir Starmer to disown its ‘unelectable’ recent past, is currently inadequate for the task of putting the NHS on a secure footing for the future.
In the last few years novel ablative technologies featuring several devices incorporating different energy sources and catheter design for ensuring an effective PVI have been proposed. In particular, two prominent technologies, such as the non-thermal ablation modality based on pulsed field ablation (also defined as “electroporation”) and radio frequency balloon-based catheter has been introduced in the clinical practice. The adoption of such technologies aims at simplifying PVI procedures, improving efficacy, and increasing safety. Furthermore, the evaluation of the extension of area of lesion promoted by the two technologies might affect the clinical outcome
Considering difficulties of achieving vertical incidence of beam in different positions of skin, it’s significant to study potential effects of incidence angles of laser on incisions. Surgical platform with a 1064nm continuous fiber laser was established. Incident angle was adopted and real-time temperature fluctuations in laser operating area could be monitored. The rats were treated with laser at day 0 and day 3 after incision modeling, and H&E, Masson, Sirius Red and Immuno-histochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were adopted at day 3,7,14 to analyze the performance of healing. Laser with energy density of 67.54J/mm 2 can effectively accelerate wound healing in vivo, in which laser with incident angle around 60° can effectively avoid scar hyperplasia. Therefore, the use of low energy laser with small deflection angle has a good clinical application prospect in promoting wound healing.
Enteroliths, faecaliths, ingested foreign bodies, and bezoars are examples of focal intraluminal obstructions that can lodge in inaccessible parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Pneumatic lithotripsy, as described in the accompanying article, is an option to manage obstructions caused by mineralized concretions. However, pneumatic lithotripsy may not be safe or effective for all intraluminal obstructions. Awareness of other strategies or secondary abdominal approaches to address these challenging presentations can help improve the surgeon's ability to problem solve in these situations and achieve successful resolution of the obstruction.