Introduced and invasive species make excellent natural experiments for investigating rapid evolution. Here, we describe the effects of genetic drift and rapid genetic adaptation in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) that were accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes via a single introduction event 31-generations ago. Using whole-genome resequencing for 134 fish spanning five sample groups across the native and introduced range, we estimate that the progenitor population’s effective population size was 146,886 at the time of introduction, whereas the founding population’s effective population size was just 72—a 2040-fold decrease. As expected with a severe bottleneck, we show reductions in genome-wide measures of genetic diversity, specifically a 37.7% reduction in the number of SNPs and an 8.2% reduction in observed heterozygosity. Despite this decline in genetic diversity, we provide evidence for putative selection at 47 loci across multiple chromosomes in the introduced populations, including missense variants in genes associated with circadian rhythm, immunological response, and maturation, which match expected or known phenotypic changes in the Great Lakes. For one of these genes, we use a species-specific agent-based model to rule out genetic drift and conclude that a strong response to selection occurred in a period gene (per2) that plays a predominant role in determining an organism’s daily clock, matching large day length differences experienced by introduced salmon during important phenological periods. Together, these results inform how populations might evolve rapidly to new environments, even with a small pool of standing genetic variation.
Carbon dots (CDs) are an emerging class of nanomaterials with intriguing photophysical properties. Recently, achieving room-temperature phosphores-cence (RTP) for CDs have attracted considerable attention for biomedical and information applications. However, the CDs based RTP materials generally require the use of polymeric and inorganic matrix to provide the rigid environments, which remains a great challenge to obtain matrix-free CDs with RTP. Herein, a novel supramolecular strategy based on strong interparticle interactions has been developed to attain this objective, by covalent decoration of ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy, a multiple hydrogen bonding unit) on the surface of CDs. Structural characterizations validated the core-shell structure of the as-prepared CDs (EDTA-CDs) and demonstrated the successful attachment of UPy via post-modification (UPy-CDs). The presence of UPy recognition units render the strong hydrogen bonding between UPy-CDs, which stabilizes the triplet state via rigidifying effect. As a result, UPy-CDs exhibit matrix-free efficient RTP (λem = 534 nm) with high brightness and long lifetime (33.6 ms) in the solid state. Owing to the dual-emission character, we further explored the application potential of UPy-CDs in information encryption and anti-counterfeiting. Overall, this work provides a new and facile strategy for achieving matrix-free phosphorescent CDs with elegant incorporation of supramolecular chemistry.
A proper allergy work-up, based on the gold standard drug provocation test (DPT), usually rules out suspected drug hypersensitivity in children. These tests are generally open, given their high efficiency compared to double-blind placebo-controlled DPTs. Although their negative predictive value is excellent, no studies have calculated their positive predictive value, highly dependent on the prevalence of the disease. Most studies have found a rate of less than 5% to 10% of true beta-lactam hypersensitivity in children. Given this low prevalence (pre-test probability), a few false positive results can significantly reduce the estimated positive predictive value. False positives may arise from the nocebo effect during the test, including nocebo by proxy, or from observer bias, which depends on professional expertise and organizational circumstances. Some studies have found a high rate of tolerance on a second DPT in children who failed the first, but these results may be affected by the interval between the two tests, of a year or more in most cases, reflecting a loss of hypersensitivity over time. Taking into account the low rate of positive DPTs, with commonly mild reactions, we suggest confirming non-severe positive DPTs with a second provocation performed soon after the first, especially in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics, in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy, de-label more patients, and achieve a better estimation of true drug hypersensitivity prevalence.
A visible-light-induced acyl radical conjugate addition to electron-deficient alkenes with acylsilane was realized by merging photoredox and Lewis acid catalysis under mild reaction conditions. Various tri- and tetra-substituted furans were obtained with good yield (up to 97%) from α,β-unsaturated ketones. Based on the experimental results and spectral analysis, a possible catalytic cycle involving 1,4-conjugate addition/ring-closure/arylation sequence was proposed. Beyond that, 1,6-acyl radical conjugate addition to para-quinone methides was also accomplished to deliver a series of α-aryl ketones by using this synergistic catalysis protocol.
Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the cyclic and torsional fatigue resistance of a new nickel-titanium (Flat File 25.04) instrument on continuous and reciprocating motion. Methods: Sixty instruments of the ProDesign Logic2 25.03 and 25.05 (Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), and MK Flat File 25.04 (n=20) (MK Life, Porto Alegre, Brazil) were used. For the cyclic fatigue test, an artificial stainless steel simulated canal with an angle of 60° and a radius of curvature of 5mm located 5mm from its tip was used. Torque and angle of rotation at failure of instruments on torsional fatigue test was based on the ISO 3630-1 protocol, in which the 3mm tip of each instrument was fixed and connected to an electric motor and a load cell. The fractured surface of each fragment was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test with a significance level of 5%. Results: Flat File 25.04 had lower cyclic fatigue in both kinematics than the Logic instruments (P < .05). Reciprocating motion improved the cyclic fatigue of the tested instruments (P < .05). Flat File 25.04 had similar torque to Logic2 25.05 (P < .05), and both were superior to Logic2 25.03 (P < .05). The angular deflection values were different for the three tested instruments (P < .05), in the decreasing order: Logic2 25.03, 25.05, and Flat File 25.04. Conclusion: Flat File presented acceptable resistance to cyclic and torsional fatigue resistance. Reciprocating motion improved the cyclic fatigue resistance of the instruments and can be considered when using programmable motors.
The semantic segmentation task is a basic task in the field of Mobile Edge Computing, which requires the classification of each pixel in the image, which has higher requirements for classification accuracy than the image classification task. Fine-grained classification tasks requires more detailed information, in addition to classifying according to the semantic information and spatial information of each pixel unit and the surrounding pixels, it is also necessary to distinguish from adjacent pixels, which is one of the main difficulties of the current segmentation task. However, high-resolution input images can bring more detailed information, but they are often accompanied by expensive computing costs, so smaller resolution images will be put in practical applications to ensure computing speed. As another task of computer vision, super-resolution recovery focuses on extracting information from low-resolution pictures and reasoning into higher-resolution feature maps. Its recovered detail features contribute to the high-precision classification of semantic segmentation tasks. Considering the complementarity of the two tasks, considering the use of transformer as a feature extractor, the design algorithm realizes semantic segmentation and super-resolution recovery tasks at the same time, multi-task learning can ensure that the backbone network obtains more common high-dimensional information, and then we use the results of super-resolution recovery branches to guide the semantic segmentation task to provide more detailed information and finally obtain an effective improvement on the original baseline.
This study proposes a fault estimation and tolerant anti-disturbance switching control (ADSC) approach for the switched systems subject to the system fault and multiple disturbances. The fault dose not required to have a model.The disturbances contain the modeled unmeasurable part and the unmodeled measurable part. First, a composite switching estimator is constructed to simultaneously estimate the unavailable system state, fault and modeled disturbance. Then, by means of the estimator, a switching controller is developed to tolerant the fault and complement the modeled disturbance. Further, under the dwell time relevant switching signals, criteria are established to ensure the fault estimation performance and robustness property for the switched systems. Finally, via implementing the presented fault estimation and tolerant ADSC scheme on a switched circuit system to regulate the charge and flux, the reasonability of the established result is verified.
In this paper, we study a time-fractional initial-boundary value problem of Kirchhoff type involving memory term for non-homogeneous materials ( P α ). As a consequence of energy argument, we derive L ∞ ( 0 , T ; H 0 1 ( Ω ) ) bound as well as L 2 ( 0 , T ; H 2 ( Ω ) ) bound on the solution of the problem ( P α ) by defining two new discrete Laplacian operators. Using these a priori bounds, existence and uniqueness of the weak solution to the considered problem is established. Further, we study semi discrete formulation of the problem ( P α ) by discretizing the space domain using a conforming FEM and keeping the time variable continuous. The semi discrete error analysis is carried out by modifying the standard Ritz-Volterra projection operator in such a way that it reduces the complexities arising from the Kichhoff type nonlinearity. Finally, we develop a new linearized L1 Galerkin FEM to obtain numerical solution of the problem ( P α ) with a convergence rate of O ( h + k 2 − α ) , where α (0 1) is the fractional derivative exponent, h and k are the discretization parameters in the space and time directions respectively. This convergence rate is improved to second order in the time direction by proposing a novel linearized L2-1 σ Galerkin FEM. We conduct a numerical experiment to validate our theoretical claims.
Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) have attracted attention as large-scale energy storage systems because of their excellent safety, high capacity, eco-friendliness, and low cost. However, the utilization of acid electrolytes in ZIBs causes non-uniform dendrite growth at the anode, which limits their capacity and cycle life. To solve this issue, an advanced anode with high electrical conductivity and good interfacial stability is required. In this study, for the first time, surface-functionalized graphene was used as a protective layer on the anode surface. The resulting ZIB exhibited superior energy storage performance and reversibility, with an improved specific capacity of 260.0 mA h g−1 at a current density of 0.3 A g–1, and an excellent long-term stability and a specific capacity of 139.0 mA h g-1 during 150 cycles at current density of 2.0 A g-1. The proposed method is an easy and feasible method for addressing the anode issues of ZIBs, thus providing new opportunities for stable and high-performance ZIBs.
Reliable estimates of population size and demographic rates are central to assessing the status of threatened species. However, obtaining individual-based demographic rates requires long-term data, which is often costly and difficult to collect. Photographic data offer an inexpensive, non-invasive method for individual-based monitoring of species with unique markings, and could therefore increase available demographic data for many species. However, selecting suitable images and identifying individuals from photographic catalogues is prohibitively time-consuming. Automated identification software can significantly speed up this process. Nevertheless, automated methods for selecting suitable images are lacking, as are studies comparing the performance of the most prominent identification software packages. In this study, we develop a framework that automatically selects images suitable for individual identification, and compare the performance of three commonly used identification software packages; Hotspotter, I3S-Pattern, and WildID. As a case study, we consider the African wild dog Lycaon pictus, a species whose conservation is limited by a lack of cost-effective large-scale monitoring. To evaluate intra-specific variation in the performance of software packages, we compare identification accuracy between two populations (in Kenya and Zimbabwe) that have markedly different coat colouration patterns. The process of selecting suitable images was automated using Convolutional Neural Nets that crop individuals from images, filter out unsuitable images, separate left and right flanks, and remove image backgrounds. Hotspotter had the highest image-matching accuracy for both populations. However, the accuracy was significantly lower for the Kenyan population (62%), compared to the Zimbabwean population (88%). Our automated image pre-processing has immediate application for expanding monitoring based on image-matching. However, the difference in accuracy between populations highlights that population-specific detection rates are likely and may influence certainty in derived statistics. For species such as the African wild dog, where monitoring is both challenging and expensive, automated individual recognition could greatly expand and expedite conservation efforts.
Metastatic seminoma presenting in kidney and cervical lymph node after a 25-year intervalKeywords: Seminoma, Germ cell tumor, Testicular tumor, Distant metastasisAbstract: Seminoma comprises approximately 50% of testicular germ cell tumors. retroperitoneal lymph nodes being the most common initial metastatic site but Renal metastases are infrequent and the majority of renal tumors represent primary neoplasm. In this study, we present a 48-year-old male with metastases of seminoma to the cervical lymph node and kidney after a 25-year of interval.
Radiative cooling materials continue to underperform compared to their theoretical potential due to parasitic heating from contact with ambient air. Solutions to this problem are expensive or complex to fabricate. Here, a potentially inexpensive, simply fabricated material that improves cooling performance by reducing parasitic heating was created using naturally abundant salts. NaCl and KCl are not typically considered for radiative cooling because of their high hygroscopicity and low mechanical strength; however, these compounds are highly infrared-transparent and can be fabricated into aerogel-like structures to provide thermally insulating properties. Salt aerogels, described herein, scattered (reflected) visible light, transmitted infrared radiation, and provided thermal insulation. They were packaged into mechanical supporting panels to avoid physical disruption and the nanostructure was stabilized to moisture by adding anti-caking agent. The panels were able to keep an underlying surface below ambient temperature for a full 24-hour cycle and reduced parasitic heating rate by more than half (compared to an uncovered surface). The panels were able to cool a variety of underlying surfaces, even highly absorbing surfaces that are normally well above ambient temperature during the day. This work demonstrates an affordable, easily produced, electricity-free cooling technology with potential to be manufactured for large-scale practical applications.
DYT1 dystonia is a form of generalized dystonia associated with abnormalities in striatal dopamine release in mouse models and likely in humans. In the present study, we examined the possibility that ultrastructural changes in the morphology of nigrostriatal dopamine terminals could contribute to this neurochemical imbalance using a Serial-Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscope (SBF/SEM) and three-dimensional reconstruction approach to analyze striatal tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) terminals and their synapses in a DYT1(ΔE) Knockin (DYT1-KI) mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. Furthermore, to study possible changes in vesicle packaging capacity of dopamine, we used transmission electron microscopy to assess possible changes in the size of synaptic vesicles in striatal dopamine terminals between wild type (WT) and the DYT1-KI mice. Quantitative analysis of 80 fully reconstructed TH-IR terminals in the WT and DYT1-KI mice indicate: 1) No significant difference in the volume of TH-IR terminals between WT and DYT1-KI mice, 2) No major change in the proportion of axo-spinous vs axo-dendritic synapses formed by TH-IR terminals between the two groups, 3) No significant change in the post-synaptic density (PSD) area of axo-dendritic synapses, while the PSDs of axo-spinous synapses were significantly smaller in DYT1-KI mice, 4) No significant difference in the mean volume of mitochondria between WT mice and 5) No significant difference in the surface area of synaptic vesicles between the two groups. Altogether, these findings suggest that abnormal morphometric changes of nigrostriatal dopamine terminals and their post-synaptic targets are unlikely to be a major source of reduced striatal dopamine release in DYT1 dystonia.
Background：Despite the challenge of associating childhood risk factors with adult asthma, a systematic synthesis of evidence on the risk factors is lacking. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between childhood risk factors and adult asthma. Methods：We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science electronic databases from the inception to our last search date (10 November 2022). The search strategy included key words for risk childhood risk factors and adult asthma. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Results: Of 16 eligible articles, 16 domains of childhood risk factors were assessed. Bronchiolitis/wheezing (pooled adjusted OR=5.02; 95% CI: 2.88-8.75; I 2=58%; number of outcomes [N] =8), eczema (pooled adjusted OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.44-2.95; I 2=82%; N=7), hay fever (pooled adjusted OR=3.31; 95% CI: 2.26-4.85; I 2=0%; N=2), AHR (pooled adjusted OR=2.73; 95% CI: 1.52-4.88; I 2=0%; N=2) and pool lung function (pooled adjusted OR=2.88; 95% CI: 1.41-5.87; I 2=0%; N=2) during childhood increased the risk of adult asthma and no association were detected for positive reaction of SPT (pooled adjusted OR=1.42; 95% CI: 0.64-3.17; I 2=70%; N=2) and adult asthma risk. There was too little evidence to draw conclusion for childhood asthma, rhinitis, sleep duration patterns, abuse, early menarche, overweight, household income, ever-smoking status during childhood, intense obstructive disease and furry pets at home in infancy. Conclusion: Childhood bronchiolitis/wheezing, eczema, hay fever, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and poor lung function were associated with an increased risk of adult asthma. The identified risk factors need more interventions timely to achieve the goal of preventing adult asthma.
Objective: To investigate programming effects of maternal testosterone on offspring birth anthropometrics. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: University Hospital. Population: 1,486 mother-child dyads from Odense Child Cohort. Methods: Maternal blood samples were collected at gestational week 27-30 and free testosterone (FT) levels were calculated using the Vermeulen equation from total testosterone (TT) analyzed by mass spectrometry and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Associations between FT or TT levels and birth anthropometrics were analyzed with multiple linear regression models according to offspring sex with adjustment for maternal age, parity, smoking and educational level. Analyses were repeated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as exposure for offspring birth anthropometrics. Main outcome measures: Offspring birth weight (BW), birth length, abdominal- and head circumferences. Results: Maternal mean (SD) age was 30.2 (4.5) years and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was 23.5 (5.3) kg/m2. In boys (n=787), higher FT was associated with lower BW (adjusted doubling constant=-65.53, p=0.010), shorter birth length (adjusted doubling constant=-0.43, p<0.001), and lower abdominal circumference (adjusted doubling constant=-0.39, p<0.001); Higher TT was associated with lower abdominal circumference (adjusted doubling constant=-0.25, p=0.028). In girls, no associations were found between maternal FT or TT and offspring anthropometrics. Conclusions: Higher maternal free testosterone exposure was linked to reduced birth weight, length and abdominal circumference in boys, whereas girls were not susceptible to maternal testosterone exposure.
During thyroid surgery fast and reliable intra-operative pathological feedback has the potential to avoid a two-stage procedure and significantly reduce health care costs in patients undergoing a diagnostic hemithyroidectomy (HT). We explored higher harmonic generation (HHG) microscopy, which combines second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), and multiphoton excited autofluorescence (MPEF) for this purpose. With a compact, portable HHG microscope, images of freshly excised healthy tissue, benign nodules (follicular adenoma) and malignant tissue (papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma) were recorded. The images were generated on unprocessed tissue within minutes and show relevant morphological thyroid structures in good accordance with the histology images. The thyroid follicle architecture, cells, cell nuclei (THG), collagen organization (SHG) and the distribution of thyroglobulin and/or thyroid hormones T3 or T4 (MPEF) could be visualized. We conclude that SHG/THG/MPEF imaging is a promising tool for clinical intraoperative assessment of thyroid tissue.