Due to recent advances in computational power and sophisticated software, modeling many complex systems has come within reach for the first time, promising understanding these systems better than ever before. A prime example of the impact of these advances is on the use computational models to construct performance landscapes. As interpretive tools, performance landscapes are incredibly powerful for interrogating evolutionary trends, competitive dynamics in an ecosystem, and even niche partitioning. If carefully crafted, these landscapes can lead to important insights in the evolutionary systems that they model. In this synthesis, we cover best practices for constructing performance landscapes, including: selecting parameter inputs and outputs, building morphospaces, constructing physical models, parameter spaces and surrogates, and performance space analysis. We conclude with a call for additional work linking biology and mathematics around the unique challenges presented by performance-space construction and validation.
Acute thrombus formation on the delivery sheath is rare condition during percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion. We presented two cases that TEE showed a floating thrombus attached to the tip of delivery sheath during the procedure. Cerebral embolic protection devices were used to prevent neurological events after thrombus was detected. The
Background and Purpose: Our previous study reported that erythroferrone (ERFE), a newly identified hormone produced by erythroblasts, responded to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) sensitively but its dynamics was complicated by double peaks and circadian rhythm. This study intends to elucidate the underlying mechanisms for the double peaks of ERFE dynamics, and further determine whether early ERFE measurements can predict hemoglobin (HGB) responses to rHuEPO. Experimental Approach: By expressing recombinant rat ERFE protein and investigating its deposition in rats, the production of ERFE was deconvoluted. To explore the role of iron in ERFE production, we monitored short-term changes of iron status after injection of rHuEPO or deferiprone (DFP). Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling was used to confirm the mechanisms and examine the predictive ability of ERFE for long-term HGB responses. Key Results: The rRatERFE protein was successfully expressed and purified. The production of ERFE was deconvoluted and showed two independent peaks (2 h and 8 h). Transient iron decrease was observed at 4h after rHuEPO injection and DFP induced significant increases of ERFE. Based on this mechanism, the PK/PD model could characterize the complex dynamics of ERFE. In addition, the model predictions further revealed a stronger correlation between ERFE and HGB peak values than that for observed values. Conclusions and Implications: The complex dynamics of ERFE should be composited by an immediate release and transient iron deficiency-mediated secondary production of ERFE. The early peak values of ERFE, which occur within a few hours, can predict HGB responses several weeks after ESA treatment.
Accurate flow prediction is a primary goal of hydrological modeling studies, which can be affected by the use of varying rainfall datasets, autocalibration methods, and performance indices. The combined effect of three rainfall datasets — Fifth generation of European ReAnalysis (ERA-5), Gridded meteorological data (gridMET), Global Precipitation Measurement Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals (GPM IMERG) — and three autocalibration techniques — Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS), Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) — on SWAT+ river flow prediction was measured using three evaluation metrics — Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), Kling Gupta Efficiency (KGE) and coefficient of determination (R 2) — for two watersheds in North Carolina (Cape Fear, Tar Pamlico) using the Soil Water Assessment Tool Plus (SWAT+) model. Five parameters in the SWAT+ model, cn2, revap_co, flo_min, revap_min, and awc, were found to be significantly sensitive under all combinations for both watersheds. Simulated flow varied more with the change in rainfall than the calibration technique used. We discovered that GPM IMERG gave the best results of the rainfall datasets, followed by ERA-5 and gridMET. We observed that the NSE score is more sensitive to different combinations of rainfall datasets and calibration techniques than the KGE scores. SWAT+ underperformed in the prediction of base flow for the groundwater-driven watershed. Overall, we recommend using the GPM IMERG rainfall dataset with the GLUE optimization technique and KGE performance index for optimal flow simulations. The results from this study will help hydrological modelers choose an optimal combination of rainfall dataset, autocalibration technique, and performance index depending on watershed characteristics.
Reservoir is a vital tool for human utilization of water resources, and the deterioration of its water quality can seriously threaten the water cycle and sustainable urban development. However, there are relatively few studies in academia that analyze and evaluate the water quality of multiple reservoirs at the same time. To address this knowledge deficit, we collected 108 water samples from three different reservoirs in Chuzhou City for 36 months (from 2019 to 2021), explored the drivers of changes in water quality parameters over time and the extent of eutrophication. Our results indicated that the water quality of the reservoirs was deteriorating during the study period, among which Huanglishu Reservoir and Shahe Reservoir reached mild eutrophic status, and both had higher eutrophication levels than Chengxi Reservoir. Secchi Depth (SD), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) were the principal factors inducing eutrophication. The biased utilization of reservoir functions was the major contributor to the discrepancy in the degree of eutrophication. Furthermore, Pearson Correlation Analysis revealed that there are significant correlations between many water quality parameters. Cluster Analysis (CA) grouped the 12 months of each year into three clusters (stable water level period, rainy season high flow period, and winter low flow period). Based on this, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that most water quality parameters varied considerably between the clusters. Collectively, this study identified the actual water quality conditions of three reservoirs in Chuzhou City and provided guidance for local water quality management and environmental protection.
Multi module isolated converters (MMICs) find extensive application in various DC-DC applications due to their remarkable features of galvanic isolation, bi-directional power flow, high power density and enhanced efficiency. However, voltage and current sharing among the converter modules are the most significant issues in MMICs. This paper proposes Multi-port Integrated-Magnetics Transformers (MpIMTs) which address the input-output DC-link voltage imbalances within an ISOS converter. The proposed transformers ensure the input voltage sharing (IVS) and output voltage sharing (OVS) through balancing windings within their structures, thus substitutes the complicated active control scheme with the balancing winding. Besides, the input side and output side modules are decoupled from each other, thus the impact of parameters variation and inter-module energy transfer during a transient of one side does not reflect to the other side. These properties are achieved by proposing a custom-designed core and an off the shelf available U core assembled MpIMTs. The magnetic and electrical equivalent along with the design criteria of the balancing winding are also presented. Furthermore, the paper includes the comparative analysis of the proposed transformers which reveals that while the U-core MpIMT offers simplified construction, it comes at the expense of slightly reduced efficiency compared to the custom-designed MpIMT. Finally, the proposed U core MpIMT is validated through a laboratory prototype.
Aim The reference nutrient intake for vitamin D in people aged ≥4 years is 10 μg/day (400 IU/day) in the UK, but the recommended daily allowance is 15 μg/day (600 IU/day) for people aged 1-70 years in the US. Here, we aim to compare the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) serum concentration profiles between the two doses. Methods With adult trial data, we constructed a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model of serum concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 using nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) modelling. We used this model to forecast the mean, 5% and 95% percentiles for serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Results Our final model uses bodyweight to adjust volume of each compartment and maximum clearance of 25(OH)D. No other covariate was identified. The model accurately predicted data from trials of a broad range of dose regimens. We simulated subjects of the average UK male and female weights with baseline 25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L. Simulation suggests circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in >5% of men and women taking 10 μg/day for a year might fail to reach 50 nmol/L, while those on 15 μg/day were predicted to attain this threshold. Conclusion The two doses generate significant difference in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. This needs to be considered for choosing the right dose for the public health guideline.
The National Confectionery Association (NCA) and the Chocolate Manufacturers Association (CMA) jointly developed a method for measuring the yield value and plastic viscosity of chocolates. The NCA/CMA method covers details including sample preparation, viscometer calibration, viscosity measurement, yield value and plastic viscosity calculation. The author recently had an opportunity to closely evaluate this method and has encountered a few issues in its application. After extensive research, the author concludes that the method has mistakenly introduced three parameters including a value, K value, and Xcorr factor. Those values are not only unnecessary but also may introduce artificial errors particularly in calculating the yield value of chocolate. This article shares those findings and intends to inspire more discussion to further improve the NCA/CMA method for viscosity.
Animal tracking has undergone a technological revolution providing insight into biological details that were impossible to address until now. However, the increasing ease of access to tracking devices (biologgers) may lead to trivializing this technology. Consequently, many projects may not extract as much scientific knowledge as possible and neglect the ethical duties towards the tagged animals. Here we demonstrate this process of trivialization empirically on a local and global scale and propose some guidelines to avoid it.
Subdural Empyema -A Rare Complication of Chronic Otitis Media: A Case ReportEmnet Tekeste1*+, Genet Tekeste2+, Nahom Daniel3, Samuel Tekle Mengistu41. General practitioner, Barentu Military Hospital, Barentu, Eritrea, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8820-85642. Surgical resident, Orotta National Referral Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea, Email: ORCID:, 3. General practitioner, Mendefera Zonal Referral Hospital, Medefera, Eritrea, Email: email@example.com. Nakfa Hospital, Ministry of Health Northern Red Sea branch, Nakfa, Eritrea. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2817-1421*Correspondence: Emnet Tekeste MD, General practitioner, Barentu Military Hospital, Barentu, Eritrea. Tel +291-1-7205051, Email email@example.comIf any equal contribution of authors that you want to acknowledge+: These authors contributed equally to this work
IntroductionHowever, nasal reconstruction has always been challenging to the otolaryngologists, various nasal reconstruction methods have been introduced.These reconstruction techniques depend on various factors including defect etiology, size, location, and depth.1Recently, the forehead flap and the radial forearm free flap are recommended in nasal complex defects.2Our patient had a complex defect involving nasal tip, columella, septum, and a portion of upper lip after MOHS surgery for squamous cell carcinoma. Restoration of a nasal and lip function and contour are the main goals of reconstruction in this case.This report details a two stage approach to repairing such a defect using bilateral inferiorly based malar transposition flaps with auricular cartilage graft for more support and contour.
Objectives: Congenital ventricular outpouching (CVO) is a rare cardiac malformation that can manifest as congenital ventricular aneurysm (CVA) and/or congenital ventricular diverticula (CVD). In this study, we describe the prenatal features and postnatal follow-up of 27 cases of CVO. Methods: The clinical data of 27 patients with CVO who attended Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital Affiliated to the Medical College of Zhejiang University (Zhejiang Province, China) and Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University (Zhejiang Province, China) from April 2013 to October 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were also followed up by telephone. The prenatal characteristics and postnatal outcomes of the patients with CVO were evaluated. Results: CVO was detected in 26 cases prenatally,, 14 (51.85%) were diagnosed with CVA, 9 (33.33%) were diagnosed with CVD, 3 (11.11%) were equivocal for CVA/CVD, and 1 (3.70%) was detected with CVA postnatally. Six patients underwent follow-up fetal echocardiography approximately 4 weeks after the initial echocardiography examination, and a significant difference in CVO size was observed between the two examinations ( P = 0.02). Eight patients (29.63%) demonstrated cardiovascular dysfunction, and the median CVO size in fetuses with and without cardiovascular dysfunction was 205 (range: 169–396) mm 2 and 124 (range: 92–154.5) mm 2, respectively ( P = 0.01). Eight patients (29.63%) had cardiac/extracardiac defects. Thirteen patients were live born, 12 were terminated pregnancies, and 2 were lost to follow-up. The postpartum size of the CVOs remained stable in six patients, decreased in two patients, dissolved in three patients, and were surgically removed in two patients. With the exception of one patient with CVA complicated with complex congenital cardiac malformation who underwent surgical treatment after birth and who had postoperative left ventricular dysfunction (Case 1), the prognosis of all of the patients was good. Conclusion: Most cases of fetal CVO have typical echocardiographic manifestations of CVA or CVD, while some cases manifest as a mixture of the two. The size of fetal CVO can increase with the increase in gestational age. The occurrence of cardiovascular dysfunction is related to the CVO size. Prenatal echocardiography should examine changes in CVOs and the occurrence of cardiovascular dysfunction. In general, the postpartum prognosis of fetal CVO is good.
Many corporations and nations have pledged to reach net-zero emissions within a few decades. Meeting such targets for greenhouse gases, plastics, etc. requires systematic methods to guide investment in technologies and value-chain alternatives, and develop roadmaps. The proposed framework is a multi-period planning model to guide optimal reforms in cradle-to-cradle life-cycle networks across the time horizon. It aims to meet environmental targets while minimizing the total annualized marginal cost of natural resources and the investment cost associated with adoption of novel technologies. This considers the evolution of technology readiness levels as S-curves or continuous time Markov-chains. Integrated Assessment models account for climate change, decarbonization due to energy mix changes, and carbon taxes. Multiple climate change scenarios and shared socioeconomic pathways are used to model the future. In addition to providing roadmaps, the outputs can also be used to identify technologies that will be robust to future scenarios.
Swelling granular media can experience size-induced percolation phenomena giving rise to segregation. In this work, the Discrete Element Method is employed to investigate the effects of size ratio and swelling kinetics on the segregation. The numerical analysis was carried out on a binary mixture consisting of coarse and fine particles and several mixing indices found in literature were adapted and tested for evaluating the mixing of expanding systems. Additionally, a relative percolation velocity was employed to quantify the percolation of fine particles. The results show that the percolation of fine particles becomes more significant as the size ratio increases. Additionally, results showed that the swelling kinetics has no impact on the segregation tendency. This research provides valuable insight into the effect of size ratio and swelling kinetics on the segregation behaviour of swelling granular materials, which can contribute to understanding percolation phenomena in various fields.
The term ‘habitat fragmentation’ is frequently associated with the biologically-destructive activities of human development, but an important evolutionary hypothesis posits that much of the biodiversity we see today was generated by episodic, natural habitat fragmentation. This hypothesis suggests that fragmentation can serve as a ‘crucible of evolution’ through the amplifying feedbacks of colonization, extinction, adaptation, and speciation. Interrogating the generality of this hypothesis requires measuring the repercussions of fragmentation at intra- and interspecific levels across entire communities. We use DNA metabarcoding to capture these repercussions from the scales of intraspecific differentiation to community composition in a megadiverse, ecologically foundational group, arthropods, using a natural habitat fragmentation experiment on patches of wet forest isolated by contemporary Hawaiian lava flows (kīpuka). We find a pronounced effect of area in kīpuka cores, where the taxonomic richness supported by a kīpuka scales with its size. Kīpuka cores exhibit higher intra- and interspecific turnover over space than continuous forest. Additionally, open lava, kīpuka edges, and the cores of small kīpuka (which are essentially entirely “edge”) host lower richness, are more biologically homogeneous, and have higher proportions of non-native taxa than kīpuka cores. Our work shows how habitat fragmentation isolates entire communities of habitat specialists, paving the way for genetic differentiation. Parsing the extent to which differentiation in kīpuka is driven by local adaptation versus drift provides a promising future avenue for understanding how fragmentation, and the different isolated communities created through this process, may lead to speciation in this system.