The linkage of stomatal behavior with photosynthetic processes is critical to understanding water and carbon cycles under global change. The slope ( g1) of stomatal conductance ( gs) versus CO 2 assimilation ( Anet) serves as a proxy of the marginal water cost of carbon acquisition and the trade-off between carbon gain and water loss. Here we use g1 to assess species differences in the response of stomatal behavior to experimental climate change manipulations, asking whether generalizable patterns exist across species and climate contexts. A total of 17,727 Anet- gs measurements made in a long-term open-air experiment under ambient and +3.3°C warming, and ambient and ~40% summer rainfall reduction provided > 2,700 estimates of g1 across 21 boreal and temperate tree species. All species became more conservative in their water use (lower g1) in warming and/or reduced rainfall treatments because of lower soil moisture. In contrast to these phenotypic responses, species from warmer and drier habitats tended to have slightly higher g1 and to be the least sensitive to the decrease in soil water. Overall, both warming and rainfall reduction consistently made stomatal behavior more conservative in terms of water loss per unit carbon gain across 21 species and a decade of experimental observation.
Abstract: Throughout evolutionary history, animals are finely tuned to adjust their behaviors corresponding to environmental variations. Behavioral flexibility represents an important component of a species’ adaptive capacity in the face of rapid anthropogenetic environmental change, and knowledge of animal behaviours is increasingly recognized in conservation biology. In aquatic ecosystem, variation of water depth is a key factor affecting the availability of food, thus the foraging behaviours of many waterbirds, especially piscivores. In this study, we compared the foraging behaviours of Scaly-sided Merganser (Mergus squamatus), an endangered migratory diving duck endemic to east Asia, in habitats with different water depth, using video camera records obtained from the known wintering sites during three winters from 2018-2020. Further, the energy expenditure of foraging behavior profile and energy intake based on fish sizes were calculated to study the foraging energetics. In total, 200 effective video footages that contained 1,086 minutes with 17,995 behaviours and 163 events of catching fish were recorded. Results showed that 1) time length for fishing (including eye-submerging, head-dipping, diving and food handling) of Mergus squamatus in shallow waters was significantly more than in deep waters; 2) Mergus squamatus spent significantly more time for preparing (including vigilance, preening and swimming) in deep waters than in shallow waters; 3) the mean catch rate was 0.28 fish/minute in shallow waters, which is significantly higher than the value of 0.13 fish/minute in deep waters; 4) despite the distinct foraging behaviour profiles and energy intakes, Mergus squamatus showed similar energetics in shallow and deep waters. We concluded that Mergus squamatus is a good example of behavioural flexibility that aligns with expectations of optimum foraging theory, in that it behaves in accordance to resource availability in different environments, resulting in high foraging efficiency. The behavioural flexibility can be related to its evolution history.
After establishing secondary contact, recently diverged populations may remain reproductively isolated or hybridize to a varying extent depending on factors such as hybrid fitness and the strength of assortative mating. Replicated contact zones between hybridizing taxa offer a unique opportunity to explore how different factors interact to shape patterns of hybridization. Here, we used genomic and phenotypic data from three independent contact zones between subspecies of the Variable Seedeater (Sporophila corvina), to examine how coloration and genetic divergence shape patterns of hybridization. We found that plumage coloration has limited introgression across contact zones, but the degree of plumage divergence does not explain overall patterns of introgression. Across two parallel contact zones between populations with divergent phenotypes (entirely black vs. pied plumage) populations hybridized extensively across one contact zone but not the other, suggesting that plumage divergence is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation. Where subspecies hybridized, hybrid zones were wide and formed by later-generation hybrids, suggesting that hybrids present similar or higher fitness than parental subspecies. Moreover, contemporary gene flow has played an important role in shaping patterns of genetic diversity between populations. Overall, our results demonstrate that divergence in plumage coloration is important in reducing gene flow but insufficient in maintaining reproductive isolation in this clade, and that other factors such as divergence in song and time since secondary contact may also play an important role in driving patterns of reduced hybridization and gene flow.
This is a 200 patient retrospective single-centre study focused on evaluating the contribution of echocardiography (Echo) findings as an initial screening tool in selecting intensive care unit (ICU) patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) for further diagnostic evaluation with ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy. A total of 200 patients with suspected PE were referred for a V/Q scan. Of these 24 had Еcho findings of a dilated right ventricle (RV). 8 of these 24 patients (33%) had a positive V/Q scan for PE. Seven of those 8 patients (88%) had large pulmonary emboli. Of the remaining 176 patients (without dilated RV) the V/Q scan was positive for pulmonary emboli in 39 cases (22%). If evaluating only the patients positive for pulmonary emboli on V/Q scan (47 patients), 8 of them (17%) had a dilated RV, and 39 (83%) did not have a dilated RV. Thus, we found Еcho mainly contributed to identifying patients with life threatening large pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease. In contrast to the above, echocardiography was non-contributory in the presence of small PE. This was in congruence with the existing literature.
Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains a curative option for patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies. Procedure: We present our ten-year experience (October 2012-October 2021) of consecutive allo-HCT in patients with myeloid malignancies treated on the pediatric HCT service and conditioned with myeloablative targeted dose-busulfan (BU), fludarabine (FLU) and melphalan (MEL). Twenty-three children, adolescents, and young adult patients (CAYA) (median age 15.4yr) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n=17), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, n=4), or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, n=2) underwent allo-HCT post-BU-FLU-MEL. Four patients had treatment-related AML/MDS. Donor/stem cell source was MSD PBSC (n=7), MUD PBSC (n=2), UCB (n=3) or haploidentical-BMT (n=11). Risk stratification was low (n=2), intermediate (n=15), high (=3) and very high risk (n=1). The two patients with CML had failed tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies. Results: With a median follow-up of 39.6 months the relapse rate is only 4.5% with an OS 100%, PFS 95.5% and graft-versus-host-free-relapse-free survival (GRFS) 67.8%. The donor source and the GvHD prophylaxis regimen significantly impacted grades II-IV aGvHD 66.7% versus 19.2% ( P=0.039) and cGvHD 66.7% versus 0% ( P=0.002) in the patients receiving matched sibling (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) PBSC compared to haplo-BMT respectively, resulting in improved GRFS in haplo-BMT, 83.3% compared to 40% matched donor PBSCT ( P=0.025). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that BU-FLU-MEL is efficacious conditioning for disease control in young patients with myeloid malignancies undergoing MSD or alternative donor allo-HCT but in the setting of PBSC grafts with CSA-MTX GvHD prophylaxis it results in an unacceptably high incidence of GvHD.
Childhood and adolescent/young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience poor health outcomes in adulthood. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) also portend poor health outcomes for the general population. Resilience can mitigate effects of ACEs. We examined the feasibility of assessing ACEs and resilience in childhood/AYA cancer patients. We also described occurrences of ACEs, resilience, and poor health outcomes. Of 52 participants, most rated their study experience favorably, with privacy in answering sensitive questions. Half reported ACEs, and those with ACEs had lower resilience, X2(3,N=52)=9.39, p=0.02. Further investigations of ACEs and resilience in larger cohorts are warranted to delineate associations with long-term health outcomes.
Background: Pediatric CNS tumors are the leading cause of pediatric cancer mortality. Research addressing genomic biomarkers and clinical outcomes is needed to inform therapeutic decision making. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of pediatric patients (age <21) diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor at four upstate New York hospitals from 2008 to 2021. Clinical and histopathologic data were identified from each patient, including genomic analysis of somatic mutations and tumor mutation burden (TMB) where available. These variables were each compared with overall survival using cox-regression analyses. Multivariable analysis was conducted to identify patient characteristics that may independently predict survival. Results: We identified 119 patients. Common tumor types included low-grade glioma (N=51), high-grade glioma (N=29), and medulloblastoma (N=11). Common driver-mutations included TP53 inactivation (N=16), BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion (N=16), FGFR1 amplification (N=12), BRAF V600E mutation (N=12), NF1 loss (N=12), and H3F3A K28M mutation (N=6). Median TMB was 1 mutation/megabase (mut/Mb, range=0-132). Overall survival was 79.9%. Variables associated with poorer survival on univariable analysis were higher TMB (p=0.002, HR 4.97), high grade tumors (p=0.009, HR 84.3), and high-grade glioma histology (p=0.021, HR 3.14). Multivariable analyses further identified TMB (p=0.011, HR 4.46) and high-grade histology (p=0.015, HR 5.28) as independently predictive of worse survival. Tumor progression was more common in high TMB (N=15, 44%) than in low TMB tumors (N=19, 35%). Conclusions: High TMB is correlated with higher rates of progression and death as compared to low TMB tumors. These findings may help identify patients who may benefit from alternative treatments, such as immunotherapies.
DNA barcoding has been used worldwide to identify biological specimens and to delimit species. It represents a cost-effective, fast and efficient way to assess biodiversity with help of the public Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) accounting for more than 236,000 animal species and more than ten million barcode sequences. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of available barcode data of central European Coleoptera to detect intraspecific genetic patterns among ecological groups in relation to geographic distance with the aim to investigate a possible link between infraspecific variation and species ecology. We collected information regarding feeding style, body size as well as habitat and biotope preferences. Mantel tests and two variants of Procrustes analysis, both involving the Principal Coordinates Neighborhood Matrices (PCNM) approach, were applied on genetic and geographic distance matrices. However, significance levels were too low to further use the outcome for further trait investigation: these were in mean for all ecological guilds only 7.5, 9.4, or 15.6 % for PCNM+PCA, NMDS+PCA, and Mantel test, respectively, or at best 28% for a single guild. Our study confirmed that certain ecological traits were associated with higher species diversity and foster stronger genetic differentiation. Results suggest that increased numbers of species, sampling localities, and specimens for a chosen area of interest may give new insights to explore barcode data and species ecology for the scope of conservation on a larger scale.
Background Surgical treatment for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) may affect future fertility and pregnancy outcomes, therefore alternative therapies are desirable. Objectives To determine the efficacy of topical imiquimod in treatment of high-grade CIN (defined as regression CIN 1 or less), and to determine the clearance rate of high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), compared to surgical treatment and placebo. Search strategy Cohort studies and trials up to July 2022 were searched with the terms imiquimod, cervical dysplasia, and HPV. Selection criteria Studies evaluating the efficacy of imiquimod in CIN lesions. Data collection and analysis The study followed the PRISMA checklist. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy of imiquimod treatment. Main results Five studies involving 463 women with high-grade CIN were included. Imiquimod was associated with histological regression to CIN1 or less in 55% of cases versus 29% for placebo, and 93% for surgical treatment. Imiquimod-treated women had a greater odds ratio of histological regression to CIN1 or less than placebo-treated women (ORs 4.17, 95% CI 2.03-8.54). In comparison to imiquimod, surgical treatment had an odds ratio of 14.81 (95% CI 6.59-33.27) for histological regression to CIN1 or less. The hr-HPV clearance rate was 53.4% after imiquimod treatment and 66% after surgical treatment (ORs 1.53, 95% CI 0.62-23.77). Conclusions: Histological regression is higher in imiquimod treatment than placebo. Surgical treatment, which is currently the golden standard, shows a higher regression rate than imiquimod. Future studies should focus on patient selection and further development of alternative treatments.
Objective Assess whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination impacts menstrual bleeding quantity. Design Retrospective cohort Setting Five global regions Populations Vaccinated and unvaccinated regularly cycling individuals using the digital fertility-awareness application “Natural Cycles”. Methods We used prospectively collected menstrual cycle data and multivariable longitudinal Poisson GEE models, multivariable multinomial logistic regression models, and calculated the adjusted difference between vaccination groups. All regression models were adjusted for confounders. Outcome measures Mean number of heavy bleeding days (fewer, no change, more) and changes in bleeding quantity (less, no change, more) at three time points (first dose, second dose, and post-exposure menses). Results We included 9,555 individuals (7,401 vaccinated, 2,154 unvaccinated). About 2/3 of individuals reported no change in the number of heavy bleeding days regardless of vaccination status. After adjusting for confounders, there were no significant differences in the number of heavy bleeding days by vaccination status. A larger proportion of vaccinated individuals experienced an increase in total bleeding quantity (34.5% unvaccinated, 38.4% vaccinated; 4.0% [0.7, 7.2%] adjusted difference). This translates to an estimated 40 additional people per 1,000 normally cycling individuals who experience more total bleeding quantity following the first vaccine dose due to vaccination. Differences resolved in the cycle post-exposure. Conclusion A small increase in the probability of more total bleeding quantity occurs following the first COVID-19 vaccine dose which resolved the cycle post-vaccination cycle. Total number of heavy bleeding days did not differ by vaccination status. Our findings can reassure the public that any changes are small and transie
Objectives: To estimate the association between estimated fetal weight (EFW) percentiles on the INTERGROWTH-21st and WHO fetal growth charts and kindergarten-age childhood development, and identify the charts’ percentile cut-offs that best predict kindergarten-age developmental challenges. Design: Retrospective cohort linkage study. Setting: Obstetrical ultrasound department of BC Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada. Population or Sample: Non-anomalous, singleton fetuses scanned ≥ 28 weeks’ gestation, 2000-2011 (n=3418). Methods: We classified EFWs into percentiles using the INTERGROWTH-21st and WHO charts. We used generalized additive modelling to link EFW percentile with routine province-wide kindergarten readiness test results. We calculated the AUC, as well as other measures of diagnostic accuracy with 95% confidence intervals (CI) at select percentile cut-points of the charts. Main Outcome Measures: Total Early Development Instrument (EDI) score (/50). Secondary outcomes: EDI sub-domain scores for language and cognitive development, and for communication skills and general knowledge; designation of ‘developmentally vulnerable’ or ‘special needs’. Results: Fetuses with lower EFW percentiles had systematically lower EDI scores and increased risks of developmental vulnerability. However, the clinical significance of differences was modest in magnitude: e.g., total EDI score -2.8 [95% CI: -5.1, -0.5] in children with an EFW 3-9th percentile of INTERGROWTH chart (vs. reference of 31-90th). The charts’ predictive abilities for adverse child development were limited (e.g., AUC<0.53 for both charts). Conclusions: Lower EFW percentiles on the INTERGROWTH-21st and WHO charts indicate increased risks of adverse kindergarten-age child development at the population level, but are not accurate individual-level predictors of adverse child development.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers that metastasize to the bone. bone metastasis is usually osteoblastic, and diffuse osteolytic lesion on presentation is unusual. Here, we are reporting MRI image of patient presented with diffuse osteolytic lesion and found to have metastatic prostate cancer.
Introduction: Brain tumors in children are the main cause of cancer related death in the pediatric population. Brainstem tumors incidence comprises 10.9% of all brain tumors having the Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG) a fatal prognosis. Some countries have developed a national and international register database, to characterize their population. This study provides a retrospective population-based data to describe the epidemiology of children with DIPG in México from 2001-2021, and assesses the proposed prognostic factors previously described for survival outcome. Methods: Health Institutions from México were invited to fill in a retrospective registry of DIPG patients. Epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, histopathologic and treatment variables were described. Fisher exact test was used to compare long, and short-term survivors and overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier Method. Differences between survival curves were evaluated using the Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results: One-hundred and ten patients were included in the analysis. Median age at diagnosis was 7 years. Sixty patients (54.5%) presented with symptoms in less than 6 months being the most frequent ataxia (56.4%). Treatment was offered to 90 patients (81.8%), overall survival at 160 weeks (4 years) was 11.4%, and 16 patients (14.5%) arrived at clinical centers to die. We found no significant survival differences in any of the prognostic factors. Conclusion: This study highlights the need to develop improvement strategies to streamline healthcare processes and enhance quality of care to strengthen our situational diagnosis in Mexico.
Flower-visiting insects have co-evolved with flowering plants. While it has been shown that floral traits and environmental factors influence insect visitation during the day, it is still unclear how these factors influence their visitation at night. We sampled a montane meadow located near Jilin in northeastern China in July and August of 2019, for 4 nights each month, and two time periods each night. We sampled 94 flower-visiting insect species in total and documented floral traits and ambient factors. We first allocated all the insects to three functional groups (pollination, predation, and herbivory). Most nocturnal insects exhibited predation behavior, and had the highest species turnover rate. We then focused on environmental factors and found that ambient temperature and relative humidity strongly influenced the diversity of flower-visiting insects. In addition, variation partitioning analysis suggested that ambient temperature had a stronger effect on the flower-visiting insects during the early night hours, whereas relative humidity had a stronger effect on them in the later night hours. Finally, focusing on floral traits, most insects preferred flowers with moderately sized corolla diameters (20 to 30 mm). Furthermore, display size had a strong linear correlation with flower-visiting insect species richness and frequency of presence. In sum, our findings suggest that ambient temperature, relative humidity and floral display size strongly regulate the behavior of nocturnal flower-visiting insects.
Leaf litter decomposition is a key ecosystem process that serves as a source of energy in stream ecosystems. However, land use change from forest to agricultural land has been reported to negatively affect stream ecosystem functions. Streams exhibit heterogeneity in terms of physical, chemical, biological characteristics and human-related influences. This may in turn affect stream ecosystem functions (e.g., leaf litter decomposition). However, information on the effects of land use and streambed topography on the functioning of many tropical stream ecosystems is still limited. This study assessed the influence of land use (i.e., forest vs agriculture) and streambed topography (i.e., riffles vs pools) on the decomposition rates of Syzygium guineense and Eucalyptus saligna leaf litter in the Kamweti River, Kenya. A total of 400 coarse-mesh litter bags were used to enclose 5 (± 0.05) g of each plant species leaf litter. The leaf litter was incubated in the selected study sites and litter bags were retrieved after 1, 3, 8, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days of incubation. Physico-chemical parameters were also measured in all the sites. Decomposition rates were estimated using the negative exponential decay model. Linear Mixed-effect Models were used to evaluate the effect of land use, streambed topography and plant species on leaf litter decomposition rates. Physico-chemical water parameters differed significantly between the two land uses (all p < 0.05), except for pH and total nitrogen concentration ( p> 0.05). Forested sites ( Syzygium = 0.03 ± 0.004, Eucalyptus = 0.04 ± 0.004) had relatively higher mean leaf litter decomposition rates than agricultural sites ( Syzygium = 0.02 ± 0.004, Eucalyptus = 0.03 ± 0.006), although not significantly different. On the other hand, riffle habitats had significantly higher decomposition rates ( p<0.05) than pool habitats across the two land uses. Streambed topography had a significant effect on decomposition rates of leaf litter, as opposed to land use. Therefore, local scale factors are more important in the decomposition process than catchment scale factors in the Kamweti River. Stream conservation and management efforts should be directed to the local scale factors as opposed to only riparian and catchment factors.
Cesarean section by a transverse uterine fundal incision is applied for patients with placenta previa to reduce blood loss. We describe a case of uterine rupture in a pregnant women with previous cesarean section by its procedure who had recovered from cardiac arrest by multidisciplinary management.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are chronic pulmonary conditions. In this review we focus on neuropsychological aspects of CF and PCD in children. Since studies conducted on children with asthma, sleep disturbed breathing (SBD), and studies on animal models describe specific cognitive impairments and suggest that intermittent hypoxia might be the pathophysiological mechanism. Main question of this systematic review is following: “Is neuropsychological functioning of children with CF and PCD specific?”. The database MedlineComplete was searched during September 2021 for each condition using specified key word combinations. We included studies in English, dealing only with pediatric population and papers published in academic journals within the last 10 years (2011-2021). We excluded case reports and studies using non-valid psychological methods or focusing on specific socio-economic populations. Applying these criteria, we acquired 5 studies in CF and 3 studies in PCD, out of them one study examined the association between cognitive impairment and oxygen desaturation levels. Five studies were scored high, and three studies were scored moderate level of evidence according to PRISMA and COCHRANE quality criteria. It can be concluded that the overall IQ of CF and PCD pediatric patients remains intact. However, impairments in specific cognitive functions, e.g., attention, memory or executive function have been described. Number of studies exploring neuropsychological functioning, especially in association with somatic aspects, in CF and PCD patients is not robust and further investigation is needed.