Abstract The planet earth is composed of one-fourth of the land with a total geographical area of India as 328.2M ha. Due to various reasons, 14.64% of the land resource falls under wastelands. Rapid industrialization, intensive agricultural practices, and unsustainable urbanization lead to the degradation of land resources. Most of the time, the biophysical composition of the soil determined its utilization and productivity rate. Some are highly productive on the other hand some are less or unproductive, India has roughly 328 million hectares of land area and the land utility pattern been 43.6% agricultural, 4.6% grazing lands, 12.2% marshlands, 10.7% woodlands, 8.4% desolate land, 5.3% municipal land. The continuous increase of the population leads to pressure for uptown land. The area under non-agricultural land is used for the roads, buildings, railways, industrial establishments. In this connection, non-agricultural land is increasing which is a major concern about land degradation. Based on the secondary data this review paper discussed the contaminated land in India, respective case studies, and its remediation technologies. Many physical, chemical, and biological methods were adopted for cleaning the contaminated lands in them some are tough and some are expensive to handle.
A 73-year-old woman with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) had very thick left ventricular papillary muscles (PAMs) kissing each other. The PVC origin at the septal side of the anterolateral PAM that faced the posteromedial PAM, rendered mapping confusing. This case illustrated an unusual challenge in catheter ablation of PAM PVCs.
In this article, we aim to investigate the regularity of statistical solution for the 2D non-autonomous magneto-micropolar fluid equations as well as the relationship between invariant measures and statistical solutions. Firstly, to get the regularity of the statistical solution, we prove the existence and regularity of the pullback attractor for the equations. Then we prove the statistical solution possesses some regularity properties by using regularity of the pullback attractor. Finally, we prove the statistical solution is actual an invariant measure for the equations.
1. Teleost fishes occupy a range of ecosystem and habitat types subject to large seasonal fluctuations. Temperate fishes in particular, survive large shifts in temperature, light availability, and access to certain habitats across seasons. Yet, there is limited understanding of how behavioral responses to a seasonally shifting environment might shape, or be shaped by, the nervous system. 2. Here we quantified variation in relative brain size and the size of five externally visible brain regions in a freshwater top predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), across six consecutive seasons in two different lakes. Acoustic telemetry data from one of our study lakes was collected during the study period from a different subset of individuals and used to infer relationships between brain size and seasonal behaviors (habitat use and movement rate). 3. Our results indicated that lake trout relative brain size was larger in the fall and winter compared to the spring and summer in both lakes. Larger brains coincided with increased use of nearshore lake habitats and increased horizontal movement rates by lake trout in the fall and winter based on acoustic telemetry. The telencephalon followed the same pattern as whole brain size, while the other brain regions (cerebellum, optic tectum, olfactory bulbs, hypothalamus) were only smaller in the spring. 4. Seasonal shifts in total brain size might reflect greater underlying changes in the size of the telencephalon. These findings provide evidence that flexibility in brain size could underpin shifts in behavior which could subserve functions associated with differential habitat use during cold and warm seasons and allow fish to succeed in seasonally variable temperate environments.
Pulsed amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll a fluorescence provides information about photosynthetic energy transduction. When reliably measured, chlorophyll a fluorescence provides detailed information about critical in vivo photosynthetic processes. Such information has recently provided novel and critical insights into how yield potential of crops could be improved. While PAM chlorophyll a fluorometers measure fluorescence intensity per se, herein we articulate the criteria by which instrumentally detected intensities can be assumed to assess fluorescence yield, a phenomenon quite different than fluorescence intensity and one that provides critical insight about how solar energy is variably partitioned into the biosphere. An integrated mathematical, phenomenological, and practical discussion of many useful chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters is presented. We draw attention to, and provide examples of, potential uncertainties that can result from incorrect methodological practices and potentially problematic instrumental design features. Fundamentals of fluorescence measurements are discussed, including the major assumptions underlying the signals and the methodological caveats about taking measurements during both dark- and light-adapted conditions. Key fluorescence parameters are discussed in the context of recent applications under environmental stress. Nuanced information that can be gleaned from intracomparisons of fluorescence-derived parameters and intercomparisons of fluorescence-derived parameters with those based on other techniques is elucidated.
Three dimensional printable formulation of self-standing and vascular-supportive structures using multi-materials suitable for organ engineering is of great importance and highly challengeable, but, it could advance the 3D printing scenario from printable shape to functional unit of human body. In this study, the authors report a 3D printable formulation of such self-standing and vascular-supportive structures using an in-house formulated multi-material combination of albumen/alginate/gelatin (A-SA-Gel)-based hydrogel. The rheological properties and relaxation behavior of hydrogels were analyzed prior to the printing process. The suitability of the hydrogel in 3D printing of various customizable and self-standing structures, including a human ear model, was examined by extrusion-based 3D printing. The structural, mechanical, and physicochemical properties of the printed scaffolds were studied systematically. Results supported the 3D printability of the formulated hydrogel with self-standing structures, which are customizable to a specific need. In vitro cell experiment showed that the formulated hydrogel has excellent biocompatibility and vascular supportive behavior with the extent of endothelial sprout formation when tested with human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the suitability of the extrusion-based 3D printing technique for manufacturing complex shapes and structures using multi-materials with high fidelity, which have great potential in organ engineering.
Aberrant autoantibody production is characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells potentially can suppress this abnormality. We investigate functional changes in TFR cells from SLE patients. Circulating TFR cells were collected from 19 SLE patients and 14 healthy controls (HC) to compare molecular expression and in vitro suppressive capacity of follicular helper T (TFH) cell proliferation. To reveal the stability of Foxp3 in TFR, pyrosequencing of conserved non-coding sequence (CNS) 2 at the Foxp3 gene locus was performed. We then tested IL-2 in SLE-TFR cells to check restoration of suppressor function. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression in SLE-TFR cells was positively correlated with anti-DNA antibody levels and disease activity. These cells had impaired suppressive function for TFH cells with decreased expression of suppression mediators forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), and IL-2 receptor alpha (IL2Rα). Pyrosequencing identified hyper-methylation in CNS2 region of SLE-TFR cells comparing to HC. With In vitro IL-2 stimulation, PD-1 expression of TFR cells significantly decreased along with increased expression of Foxp3 and CTLA-4, especially in low-dose. Thus, SLE-TFR cells have functionally defective to TFH suppression, but low-dose IL-2 therapy might be useful to restore this ability.
The mechanisms of adaptive radiation with phenotypic diversification and further adaptive speciation have been becoming clearer through a number of studies. Natural selection is one of the primary factors that contribute to these mechanisms. It has been demonstrated that divergent natural selection acts on a certain trait in adaptive radiation. However, it is not often known how natural selection acts on the source of a diversified population, although it has been detected in phylogenetic studies. Our study demonstrates how selection acts on a trait in a source population of diversified population using the Japanese land snail Euhadra peliomphala simodae. This snail’s shell colour has diversified due to disruptive selection after migration from the mainland to islands. We used trail-camera traps to identify the cause of natural selection on both the mainland and an island. We then conducted a mark-recapture experiment on the mainland to detect natural selection and compare the shape and strength of it to previous study in an island. In total, we captured and marked around 1,700 snails, and some of them were preyed on by an unknown predator. The trail-camera traps showed that the predator is the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus, but this predation did not correlate with shell colour. A Bayesian approach showed that the stabilising selection from factors other than predation acted on shell colour. Our results suggest that natural selection was changed by migration, which could explain the ultimate cause of phenotypic diversification in adaptive radiation that was not due to predation.
Background High power short duration (HPSD) radiofrequency-ablation (RFA) is highly efficient and safe while reducing procedure and RF time in pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The QDot-catheter is a novel contact-force ablation catheter that allows automated flow and power adjustments depending on the local tissue temperature to maintain a target temperature during 90watts/4seconds lesions. We analysed intraprocedural data and periprocedural safety using the QDot-catheter in patients undergoing PVI for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Methods We included n=48 patients undergoing PVI with the QDot-catheter with a temperature controlled HPSD ablation mode with 90watts/4seconds (TC-HPSD). If focal reconnection occurred besides repeat ablation the ablation mode was changed to 50watts/15seconds (QMode). N=23 patients underwent cerebral MRI to detect silent cerebral lesions. Results Mean RF-time was 8.1+/-2.8min, procedure-duration was 84.5+/-30min. The overall maximal measured catheter-tip temperature was 52.0°C +/- 4.6°C, mean overall applied current was 871mA +/-44mA and over all applied energy was 316J +/-47J. The mean local impedance-drop was 12.1 +/- 2.4 Ohms. During Adenosine challenge n=14 (29%) patients showed dormant conduction. A total of n=24 steam pops were detected in n=18 patients (39.1%), while no pericardial tamponade occurred. No periprocedural thromboembolic complications occurred, while n=4 patients (17.4%) showed silent cerebral lesion. Conclusion TC-HPSD ablation with 90watts/4seconds using the QDot-catheter led to a reduction of procedure and RF time, while no major complications occurred. Despite optimized temperature control and power adjustment steam pops occurred in a rather high number of patients, while none of them lead to tamponade or to clinical or neurological deficits.
Context - DICER1-associated sarcomas are rare. These are currently described under a wide variety of appellations; morphologic characterizations in reported cases and sites of occurrence have also been disparate. Design – We aimed to review pediatric sarcomas associated with DICER1-mutation reported at our center, along with literature review, to identify histologic hallmarks for diagnosis. Results - A 12 year old girl with intracranial sarcoma mimicking mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a 16 year old girl with broad ligament sarcoma mimicking fibrosarcoma and a 5 month old girl with vaginal sarcoma mimicking embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma showed DICER1-mutation. All three tumors though seemingly diverse, had an uncanny resemblance, comprising of a primitive mesenchyme-like spindle cell component with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation on immunohistochemistry. Primitive blastema, chondroid differentiation and foci of anaplasia mimicking pleuropulmonary blastoma histology were variably present. One case showed primitive neuroblastic differentiation. Though the constellation of features reported in literature is quite varied, rhabdomyoblastic differentiation has been ubiquitously reported in tumours across sites. Molecular testing showed gain of chromosome 8 in 2 cases. All 3 cases responded to alternating Vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide / Cisplatin, etoposide and ifosfamide (VDC/PEI) backbone followed by maintenance chemotherapy. Conclusion - We highlight this morphologic hallmark of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with or without chondroid differentiation, in primitive appearing pediatric sarcomas, especially of female genital tract and brain, which should raise a flag to test for DICER1 pathogenic variation. This is crucial in low / middle income countries where sequencing is not done routinely. Timely diagnosis can ensure appropriate treatment and implementation of surveillance protocols for those with germline mutation.
Aims: Limited information is available about the efficacy and adverse events of COVID-19 vaccines introduced into public use with Emergency Usage Licences without completing phase-3 trials. Data refer to healthy and mostly younger people, with lacking evidence about the protectivity. This study aimed determining seroconversion rates and levels specific to anti-S-RBD IgG and total anti-spike/anti-nucleocapsid IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after the administration of two doses of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in Turkey, comparing three types of antibodies. It was also aimed to assess short-term adverse events due to the vaccine. It is intended to answer the questions about efficacy and safety, which lack in phase trials, especially at community level. It is also aimed to collect data, which will form the basis for assessing whether antibodies are protective at different community settings. Methods: The study carried out in Turkey, comprised 282 healthcare workers who received two doses of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administered in two 3µg doses, 28 days apart. In day-28 after the second dose, anti-S-RBD IgG and total anti-spike/anti-nucleocapsid IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected by in-vitro chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: At day 28 after the second dose, the seroconversion rates were found to be 92.9% for total anti-spike/anti-nucleocapsid IgG and 15.2% for IgM and 98.2% for anti-S-RBD IgG antibodies. The immunogenicity was affected by pre-vaccination natural COVID-19 history and age. The incidence of at least one adverse event was found as 29.8% after the first dose and 24.1% after the second dose, with the most common events being pain at the injection site, weakness, fatigue and headache. Conclusion: A high rate of seroconversion was observed with no serious adverse events. Prior natural COVID-19 history and age significantly contributed to strong immunogenicity. A booster dose appears required for older ages and individuals without immune response.
Cardiac lipoma is extremely rare. Here we presented a unique illustrative case of interatrial septal lipoma protruding into right atrial causing symptoms in a 54-year-old male. Echocardiogram and computed tomography showed a well-shaped, giant and fixed occupying located in interatrial septum and right atrium. The only manifestation was palpitation though the mass filled almost all atrium and compressed superior vena cava. The patient received resection of the large-sized lipoma sizing 87mm in diameter and weighing ~1000g. Pathological exam demonstrated mature lipocytes and substantiated the diagnosis of lipoma. The patient did well postoperatively and symptoms were resolved.
Background: The impact of physical activity (PA) on immune response is a hot topic in exercise immunology, but studies involving asthmatic children are scarce. We examine the level of PA and TV attendance (TVA) in asthmatic children to assess the role on asthma control and immune response to various stimulants. Methods: Weekly PA and daily TVA were obtained from questionnaires at inclusion of the PreDicta study. PBMC cultures were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), R848, poly I:C and zymosan. Cytokines were measured and quantified in cell culture supernatants using luminometric multiplex immunofluorescence beads-based assay. Results: Asthmatic preschoolers showed significantly more TVA than their healthy peers (58.6% vs. 41.5% 1-3h daily and only 25.7% vs. 47.2% ≤ 1h daily). Poor asthma control was associated with less frequent PA (75% no or occasional activity in uncontrolled vs. 20% in controlled asthma; 25% ≥ 3x weekly vs. 62%). Asthmatics with increased PA exhibited elevated cytokine levels in response to stimulants, suggesting a readiness of circulating immune cells for type-1, -2 and -17 cytokine release compared to low-PA and high-TVA subjects. Low PA and high TVA were associated with increased proinflammatory cytokines. Proinflammatory cytokines were correlating with each other in in-vitro immune responses of asthmatic children, but not healthy controls. Conclusion: Asthmatic children show more sedentary behavior than healthy subjects, while poor asthma control leads to a decrease in PA. Asthmatic children profit from exercise, as elevated cytokine levels in stimulated conditions indicate an immune system prepared for a strong response in case of infection.
Epidermoid, dermoid and teratoid cysts are nonodontogenic benign lesions derived from the germinative epithelium, appearing any where of the body. In the oral cavity, these are uncommon and account for less than 0.01% of all the oral cysts. These cysts often remain asymptomatic for years however can become acutely symptomatic.
Cytokine Filter Application in COVID-19 Patients; Island of Hope for Crash and Burn Patients or Future Solution for All Septic Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) PatientsAli Ghodsizad MD, PhD, FACC, FETCS, FACSThe COVID-19 pandemic crisis certainly has challenged the scientific community as well as entire world. While incidence numbers have decreased following expedited vaccination and precautions, still some patients present with COVID 19 related pneumonia and ARDS requiring Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VV ECMO) support to survive.In COVID-19 patients a cytokine release syndrome concomitant with ARDS can lead to overwhelming clinical scenario. Geraci and colleagues report on their single center feasibility study looking at application of the CytosorbTM hemadsorption device which was used as a parallel circuit within the VV ECMO circuit.The authors give evidence for safety and feasibility of the CytosorbTM hemadsorption device use in 10 patients with COVID-19 related ARDS in combination with VV ECMO. They show a reduction of inflammatory markers and cytokines following hemadsorption treatment. The cytokine storm can cause a critical clinical picture of septic shock. Only under high vasopressor and inotropic support end organ perfusion can be maintained. The required invasive pressure ventilation with high PEEP and peak pressure can decrease the intrathoracic venous return further and contributes more to the shock physiology (1). We have to look at inspiring results from current single center experience carefully understanding the evolving nature of COVID-19 related ARDS. Other groups have used plasmapheresis and CVVH modifications in COVID-19 cases. Dominik et al have shown a significant benefit only using hemadsorption comparing to other used protocols (2).We have shown successful application of somatic stem cells in COVID-19 patients on VV ECMO at our center. We could observe a reduction of inflammatory markers following somatic stem cell application (3). COVID 19 ARDS patients who required VV ECMO support, underwent a Pulmonary Artery (PA)-catheter placement and allogenic human stem cell injection into the PA using the PA-catheter as part of our expanded access protocol (3,4).Brouwer and colleagues, another group working with hemadsorption, have actually shown reduced survival in patients undergoing hemadsorption therapy (5). Geraci and colleagues describe their overall VV ECMO survival for COVID 19 related respiratory failure to be > 90%. Others including our center have experienced a much lower survival in that patient population. So patient selection clearly is a key point. The results presented by Geraci and colleagues have to be taken as a pioneering step, which can help in ARDS and septic clinical scenarios with different pathology in future.
This clinical case represents an unusual manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia which started as arterial hypertension as well as the development of post-viral inflammatory complications and long-covid syndrome. Several factors such as hypertension, bile duct disease, and age can affect the duration of COVID which can lead to long COVID
Biofilms are ubiquitous and notoriously difficult to eradicate and control, complicating human infections, industrial and agricultural biofouling. Current biofilm studies are commonly performed with the biofilm cultured on mono-interface and generally have neglected to consider more realistic biofilm, where diverse interfaces are involved. In our study, a reusable dual-chamber microreactor with interchangeable membranes was developed to establish multiple interfaces for biofilm culture and test. Protocol for culturing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) on the air-liquid interface (ALI) and liquid-liquid interface (LLI) under static environmental conditions for 48h was optimized using this novel device. This study shows that LLI model biofilms are more susceptible to physical disruption compared to ALI model biofilm. SEM images revealed a unique ‘mushroom-shaped’ microcolonies morphological feature, which is more distinct on ALI biofilms than LLI. Furthermore, the study showed that ALI and LLI biofilms produced a similar amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As differences in biofilm structure and properties may lead to different outcomes when using the same eradication approaches, the antimicrobial effect of an antibiotic, Ciprofloxacin (CIP), was chosen to test the susceptibility of 48h-old ALI and LLI biofilms. Our results show that the minimum eradication concentration (MBCE) of CIP using our dual-chamber device reached 1600μg/ml, which is significantly higher than the conventional microtiter plate method (64μg/ml). The results highlight the importance of having a model that can closely mimic in-vivo conditions to develop more effective biofilm management strategies.
Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare various parameters during surgery and postoperative cognitive functions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery using different levels of perioperative oxygen. Methods: One hundred patients scheduled for elective CABG surgery were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to arterial oxygen levels during surgery. In the normoxia group (NG) (n = 50), PaO2 was between ≥100mmHg and <180mmHg with at least 40% FiO2 mechanical ventilation (MV), and in the hyperoxia group (HG) (n = 50), PaO2 was ≥180 mmHg with 100% FiO2 MV. Hemodynamic parameters, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured from bilateral sensors, and blood gas values were recorded at the planned measurement times. Mini-mental state examination test (MMSE) was applied to the patients before and at the 12th, 24th hours; on the 1st, 3rd, 6th months after surgery. Results: Extubation time was found to be shorter in NG (p <0.05). Between the groups, rSO2 and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were found to be significantly lower in HG at the time of T4 measurement (p = 0.042, p = 0.038, respectively). MMSE values of the groups at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months were found to be significantly higher in NG (respectively p = 0.017, p = 0.014, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Hyperoxemia application during CABG may be associated with worse postoperative late-term cognitive functions. Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass; hyperoxia; postoperative complications; cognitive function; spectroscopy, near-infrared.