In this work, we demonstrate a chiral dual-core strategy for the design of high-performance organic circularly polarized aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens), which features of connecting two thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) luminophore with chiral linkage that allows efficient through-space coupling (TSC) to occur. Using this strategy, a pair of dual-core enantiomers, R/S-DNKP, were designed and synthesized by linking two benzophenone derivatives with a 1,1’-bi-2-naphthol unit. Compared to the mono-core counterpart NKP, the dual-core emitters exhibited a much higher photoluminescence quantum yields of 94%. Moreover, benefited from their chiral helical folding configurations, the R/S-DNKP enantiomers exhibited a high luminescence dissymmetry factor (|glum|) value up to 1.3×10-3 in film states. Notably, the electroluminescence devices based on the R/S-DNKP enantiomers achieved external quantum efficiency values of 21.5% and 19.7% with little roll-off. It is believed that this molecular design strategy will pave new routes for the development of high-performance chiral emitters for future organic photonic devices.
A 1D multifluid population balance model approach is presented as a compromise between computational effort and accuracy. The approach is used to test process scenarios, perform sensitivity analysis, and provide a reliable scale-up and optimization tool. The study focuses on a mini-plant batch bubble column, where the scale-up behavior in terms of bubble column height, gas flux, and composition of the liquid phase is investigated. Although simplifications were made, the model requires calibration to experimental data using different calibration methods. An optimal calibration procedure is found that minimizes experimental effort while maximizing scalability. The model was tested on various liquid-phase compositions, and it was found to reproduce experimental data accurately. However, the model cannot reproduce flow regime changes and does not perform well outside the calibrated concentration. The study shows that the applied 1D multifluid populations balance approach is a valuable and reliable tool in multiphase reactor scale-up and optimization.
Bisphenol A [2,2-bis(4hydroxyphenyl) propane, BPA], one of the endocrine disruptors, is of great concern due to its widespread use throughout the world. Several studies have shown that BPA has toxic effects when ingested, making contact with this substance a risk factor for the development of diseases in various organs, including the intestine and associated lymphoid tissue. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the morphology of Peyer’s patches in young rats supplemented with selenium and exposed to BPA. The study was approved by the UFPI Animal Use Ethics Committee, with protocol number 583/19. 28 male Wistar rats ( Rattus novergicus albinus) were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control (CT), BPA, Se and BPA+Se. The pups were weaned on the 21st day and, from the 22nd postnatal day, the animals in the BPA group received daily doses of 5 mg/kg of BPA diluted in 0.3 ml of corn oil, administered orally. The Se group received 10 μg/kg of Se, the BPA+Se group received 5 mg/kg of BPA and 10 μg/kg of Se and the CT group did not receive any substance but was subjected to the oral gavage process. After 4 weeks of exposure, the puppies were anesthetized and euthanized for intestinal collection and subsequent histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis. Our results showed that BPA caused damage to the epithelial layer of Peyer’s patches, there was a structural disarray in the architecture of the follicular region of the BPA and BPA+Se groups, zones of inflammation with the presence of vacuoles in the tissue. A reduction in Ki-67 expression in Peyer’s patches was also observed in the BPA group, as well as a significant reduction in the number of defense cells in the group. Animals exposed to BPA, but supplemented with Se, showed no damage to the epithelial layer and there was no reduction in Ki-67 expression. BPA, when ingested above the safe level, altered Peyer’s patches tissue, and reduced cell proliferation. Additionally, BPA reduced the immune cell population in Peyer’s patches. Se was able to reverse the observed damage, suggesting antioxidant potential.
Recent advances in computing power triggered the use of Artificial Intelligence in image analysis in life sciences. To train these algorithms, a large enough set of certified labelled data is required. The trained neural network is then capable of producing accurate instance segmentation results, that will then need to be re-assembled into the original dataset: the entire process requires substantial expertise and time to achieve quantifiable results. To speed-up the process, from cell organelle detection to quantification across modalities, we propose a deep learning based approach for Fast AutoMatic Outline Segmentation (FAMOUS), that involves organelle detection combined with image morphology, and 3D meshing to automatically segment, visualize and quantify cell organelles within volume electron microscopy datasets. From start to finish, FAMOUS provides full segmentation results within a week on previously unseen datasets. FAMOUS was showcased on a dataset acquired using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIBSEM), and on yeast cells acquired by transmission electron microscopy.
Treatment for childhood solid tumors may lead to an increased risk for gonadal dysfunction/infertility. Discussion of risk should occur at diagnosis, any changes in therapy, and during survivorship. Gonadotoxic therapies were abstracted from 32 Children’s Oncology Group (COG) phase III, frontline solid tumor protocols, in use from 2000-2022. Risk for gonadal dysfunction/infertility was assessed based on gonadotoxic therapies, sex, and pubertal status and assigned as minimal, significant, and high following the Oncofertility Consortium Pediatric Initiative Network (PIN) risk stratification. Most protocols (65.6%, 21/32) contained at least one therapeutic arm with a high level of increased risk. Solid tumor therapies present challenges in risk stratification due to response-adjusted therapy and the need to account for radiation field in the risk assessment. This guide hopes to serve as a tool to assist in standardizing gonadotoxic risk assessments across disciplines and improve referral for fertility services and reproductive health counseling for patients receiving COG based solid tumor therapy.
A Rare Case Report of Marjolin Ulcer of the Lower Limb Managed with AmputationDr Suraj KC1*, Dr Rakesh Kumar Gupta1, Dr Abhijeet Kumar1, Dr Bhawani Khanal1, Dr Samiksha Lamichhane2 ,Dr Sanjok Bartaulla1 , Dr Raghav jindal1, Dr Injmamul Haque Raki1* Corresponding Author: Dr Suraj KCDepartment of General Surgery, BPKIHS, [email protected] Rakesh Kumar Gupta:Department of General Surgery, BPKIHS, [email protected] Abhijet Kumar:Department of General Surgery, BPKIHS, [email protected] Bhawani Khanal:Department of General Surgery, BPKIHS, [email protected] Samiksha Lamichhane:Department of Radiodiagnosis and imaging, BPKIHS, [email protected]. Rahul Shrestha:Department of General Surgery, BPKIHS, [email protected]. Sanjok Bartaulla:Department of General Surgery, BPKIHS, [email protected] Injmamul Haque Raki:Department of General Surgery, BPKIHS, [email protected] Raghav JindalDepartment of General Surgery, BPKIHS, [email protected]:Marjolin ulcers are known to develop on chronic wounds and ulcers. Biopsy is indicated for chronically suspicious ulcers with no signs of healing. Metastatic workup is necessary before considering any type of surgery. Amputation, as in our case, is indicated when wide local excision or Mohs surgery cannot be performed. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are reserved for advanced disease and patients who are not fit for surgery. Introduction: Post-burn wounds or scars have the potential to become chronic and may progress into Marjolin ulcers. While rare, it is important to be vigilant with suspicious wounds that do not show signs of healing. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman who developed a non-healing ulcer on the back of her right foot, covering the Achilles tendon, which ultimately required below knee amputation.Case Report:A 55-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and a flame burn on her right foot two years ago presented to the General Surgery Outpatient Department with a non-healing ulcer and foul-smelling discharge. The ulcer had grown from the size of a coin to 5cm x 5cm, located on the posterior aspect of her right ankle. The ulcer was painless with minimal bleeding, and she had intact distal neurovascular function. She denied any respiratory symptoms, chest pain, cough, or similar ulcers elsewhere on her body. Physical examination and vitals were stable. Upon local examination there was 5 x 5cm ulcer over the lateral malleolus and mass on the posterior aspect of the right Achilles tendon ( figure 1). Routine tests were normal, and a biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Imaging showed no signs of metastasis. The patient underwent a right below knee amputation, and the postoperative period was uneventful (figure2). She was discharged on the 4th post-operative day. The margins were negative for squamous cell carcinoma. On a follow up, stump was healthy, and she was referred for a prosthesis and rehabilitation. Regular follow-ups were advised under the General Surgery Department.\sout
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are important factors controlling biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and significantly affect the decomposition process of litter. However, N and P addition effects on litter decomposition, especially biological pathways in alpine grassland in northwest Sichuan, remain unclear. Therefore, this study explored the response mechanism of Salix cupularis litter decomposition and soil enzyme activity to different exogenous nitrogen and phosphorus additions and the inner relationship, combined with field in situ experiments and laboratory analysis methods. The results showed that: (1) In general, N, P and NP treatments significantly promoted the decomposition of litter, lignin and cellulose, and the addition of NP had a stronger effect in the same concentration level. P addition could alleviate the inhibitory effect of litter decomposition by high N concentration. (2) Litter C, N and P basically showed a sustained release pattern, and NP treatment had the strongest promoting effect. (3) Each treatment significantly increased the activities of soil invertase, cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, urease and phosphatase, and the NP treatment had the best effect. The rate of litter decomposition was significantly influenced by nutrient content as well as soil enzyme activity, where cellulose content and invertase activity may be a key factor controlling the rate of litter decomposition.
Aging brain undergoes multiple structural and functional changes. These may contribute to an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease (NDD) and other age-related diseases, highlighting the importance of assessing deviations from healthy brain aging trajectory. In this human brain study, 50 healthy adults were investigated by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A resting state single channel multiwavelength fNIRS was measured from the forehead in a supine position. The subjects were divided into four age groups. A machine learning approach was utilized for age group classification by using support vector machine and random forest learners with nested cross-validation. The results suggest brain aging effects being more distinct in the oldest age group and a difference in the brain aging for the subjects of the in-between groups. Our study shows high potential for the use of fNIRS in the analysis of brain aging.
Biologists increasingly rely on computer code to collect and analyze their data, reinforcing the importance of published code for transparency, reproducibility, training, and a basis for further work. Here we conduct a literature review examining temporal trends in code sharing in ecology and evolution publications since 2010, and test for an influence of code sharing on citation rate. We find that there is wide room for improvement in sharing code, as scientists are overwhelmingly (95%) failing to publish their code and that there has been no significant improvement over time. We also determined that there is a significant incentive to share, as we additionally find that code sharing can considerably improve citations, particularly when combined with open-access publication.
Composite nanoparticles with a gold core enveloped by cobalt ferrite nanoparticles show potential for enhanced photothermal therapy. Determining the optimal gold-to-cobalt ferrite nanoparticle ratio, dependent on size, is vital for improving treatment efficiency. We address the urgent need for advancing photothermal therapy through utilising combined plasmon-magnetic composites with potential of controlled directional delivery. Our computational modeling and experimental absorption spectra analysis reveal that adjusting the cobalt ferrite nanoparticle content redshifts the plasmon resonance frequency in gold nanoparticles, which is accompanied by increase in the extinction cross-section. As a result, cobalt ferrite nanoparticle absorption dominates. Our experiments on photothermal response in aqueous solutions of composite nanoparticles of various concentrations demonstrate that 100 μg/ml solution yields a significant temperature increase of ~8.2 K and a photothermal conversion efficiency of ~51%. At this concentration, the composite nanoparticles effectively heat the cell culture medium under photothermal conditions, leading to 22% reduction in cell viability.
This journey traces the transition from a brief dentistry stint to a neuroimmunology exploration. The narrative unfolds through academic pursuits at the University of São Paulo, Brazil, and subsequent doctoral studies, reflecting on the initial idealism that shaped the pursuit of academia. An unexpected postdoctoral experience at the Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan in France introduced me to immunology, leading to an unexpected passion. Here, I explore uncertainties, decisions, and a pivotal move to Belgium, where collaboration with Adrian Liston at VIB-KU Leuven marked a maturity phase. Amid personal milestones like pregnancy and the challenges of balancing parenthood with a burgeoning career, I would like to highlight the crucial role of support systems and a thriving research environment. My journey so far culminates in the establishment of a lab, the pursuit of a permanent position, and the appointment as an assistant professor at KU Leuven.
The rapid expansion of impermeable surfaces in cities has a major impact on urban hydrology. Infiltration of rainwater is reduced and water runs off faster with higher runoff peaks. Urban trees as stormwater management tools are becoming more relevant to reduce flood risks in addition to other ecosystem services. An in-situ field experiment to measure throughfall on Norway maple ( Acer platanoides) and small-leaved lime ( Tilia cordata) was conducted to determine the interception of solitary urban trees with different degrees of surface sealing in the city of Freiburg, Germany. The relationships between rainfall characteristics, tree morphological traits, and the interception behavior were investigated with eight trees per species. 76 recorded rainfall events were evaluated from April to September 2021. Average interception values were higher for small-leaved lime (70.3 ± 6.6%) than for Norway maple (54.8 ± 10.3%) and hence much higher than in a typical forested environment. The average interception loss of all recorded events was 2.58 ± 0.60 mm for Norway maple and 3.73 ± 0.29 mm for small-leaved lime. For both tree species, significant linear correlations were found between the relative interception and other factors like rainfall depths, the leaf area index (LAI), and the plant area index (PAI) (adj.R 2 > 0.45). In contrast to Norway maple, small-leaved lime also showed significant relationships of several tree morphological parameters with the interception (adj.R 2 > 0.43). LAI, which also effects the interception, of both tree species significantly decreased with the degree of surface sealing. Our results provide a better understanding of the interception process of solitary trees for different urban sites and allows to parameterize interception based on measurable properties. However, further field experiments with various tree species need to be conducted to obtain a larger database for typical parameters in models and to support urban planners in managing stormwater runoff.
Emerald ash borer (EAB) ( Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an invasive, phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, has killed millions of ash ( Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since it was detected in southeast Michigan in 2002. Consistently high mortality of black ash ( Fraxinus nigra) and green ash ( F. pennsylvanica) which often occur in riparian forests is a concern given their role in regulating soil moisture and shallow groundwater levels. We monitored hydrologic processes in a riparian forest in southwest Michigan to assess impacts of EAB invasion and subsequent ash mortality. From 2018-2022, we recorded soil moisture, depth to groundwater and meteorological variables at 15-min intervals throughout the growing season in a canopy gap following EAB-caused ash mortality and in adjacent, unaffected forest in the Augusta Creek riparian zone. Groundwater contributions to evapotranspiration (ET G) were estimated using a groundwater level fluctuation (WLF) method. Significant differences in volumetric soil moisture content (16-26% higher in the gap than forest), average depth to water (10 cm in the gap vs 70 cm below land surface in the forest) and mean daily ET G (0.6 in the gap vs 3.0 mm per day in the forest) persisted across four growing seasons. Within the gap, prolonged saturation of the near surface may be contributing to a shift from a forested riparian ecosystem to herb and sedge-dominated wetland. These differences have implications for an array of riparian zone ecosystem services, a concern given the extent of ash mortality already sustained in much eastern North America.
Capercaillie in Scotland have declined in number and contracted in range since the 1970s, most remaining in Strathspey on the northwest flank of the Cairngorm mountains. Strathspey, however, is popular for recreation and suffers anthropogenic disturbance from visitors and their use of new forest tracks and remote, off-track areas. Disturbance reduces the area of forest available to Capercaillie. Refuge areas wherein the creation of new tracks is not allowed, and in which recreation is not encouraged, are a management option that might mitigate such effects. We simulate this possibility for the area covered by Forest and Land Scotland’s Strathspey Land Management Plan. Spatially explicit, stage-based matrix models assessed the potential of protecting this population with refuges under ‘optimistic’, ‘central’ and ‘pessimistic’ scenarios based on observed demographic data. Fifteen potential refuges comprised less-disturbed areas of forest still used by Capercaillie. We simulated population growth using combinations of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 and the full complement of 15 refuge areas. An increasing Capercaillie population could be sustained by a network of refuges, but refuges could not arrest a wider population decline due to causes other than disturbance. This suggests that refuges could play a role in mitigating the increasingly damaging effects of disturbance on Capercaillie in the Strathspey LMP but that the birds’ long-term prospects will depend upon improving their performance more widely.
Singlet Oxygen (SO) is among the most potent reactive oxygen species, and readily oxidizes proteins, lipids, and DNA. It can be generated at the plant surface by phototoxins in the epidermis, acting as a direct defense against pathogens and herbivores (including humans). SO can also accumulate within mitochondria, peroxisomes, cytosol, and the nucleus through multiple enzymatic and non-enzymatic processes. However, the primary location of SO in plants is in the chloroplast, where it results from transfer of light energy from PhotosystemII to triplet oxygen. SO accumulates in response to diverse stresses that perturb chloroplast metabolism, and while its short half-life precludes exiting the chloroplast, it participates in retrograde signaling through the EXECUTER1 sensor, generation of carotenoid metabolites, and possibly other unknown pathways. SO thereby reprograms nuclear gene expression and modulates hormone signaling and programmed cell death. While SO signaling has long been known to regulate plant responses to high-light stress, recent literature also suggests a role in plant interactions with insects, bacteria, and fungi. The goals of this review are to provide a brief overview of SO, summarize evidence for its involvement in biotic stress responses, and discuss future directions for the study of SO in signaling and defense.
Reactive oxygen species are important signaling molecules that influence many aspects of plant biology. One way in which ROS influence plant growth and development is by modifying intercellular trafficking through plasmodesmata (PD). Viruses have evolved to use plasmodesmata for their local cell-to-cell spread between plant cells, so it is therefore not surprising that they have found ways to modulate ROS and redox signaling to optimize plasmodesmata function for their benefit. This review examines how intracellular signaling via ROS and redox pathways regulate intercellular trafficking via PD during development and stress. The relationship between viruses and ROS-redox systems, and the strategies viruses employ to control PD function by interfering with ROS-redox in plants is also discussed.
Due to their stationery nature, plants are exposed to a diverse range of biotic and abiotic stresses, of which heavy metals stress poses as one of the most detrimental abiotic stresses, targeting crucial and vital processes. Heavy metals instigate the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in order to mitigate the adverse effects of ROS, plants induce multiple defence mechanisms. Besides the negative implications of overproduction of ROS, these molecules play a multitude of signaling roles in plants, acting as a central player in the complex signaling network of cells. One of the signaling mechanisms it is involved in is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, a signaling pathway used to transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses. Plant MAPKs have been implicated in signaling of stresses, phytohormones and cell cycle cues. However, the influence of various heavy metals on MAPKs activation has not been well documented. In this review, we will attempt to address and summarize several aspects related to various heavy metal-induced ROS signaling, how these signals activate the MAPK cascade and the downstream transcription factors that instigates the plants response to these heavy metals. Moreover, we will highlight a modern research methodology that could characterize the novel genes associated with MAPKs and their roles in heavy metal stress.