Emerging technologies based on the detection of electro-magnetic energy offer promising opportunities for sampling biodiversity. We exploit their potential bye showing here how they can be used in bat point counts - a novel method to sample flying bats - to overcome shortcomings of traditional sampling methods, and to maximise sampling coverage and taxonomic resolution of this elusive taxon with minimal sampling bias. We conducted bat point counts with a sampling rig combining a thermal scope to detect bats, an ultrasound recorder to obtain echolocation calls, and a near-infrared camera to capture bat morphology. We identified bats with the first dedicated identification key combining acoustic and morphological features, and compared bat point counts to the standard bat sampling methods of mist netting and automated ultrasound recording in three oil palm plantation sites in Indonesia, over nine survey nights. Based on rarefaction and extrapolation sampling curves, we show that bat point counts were the most time-efficient and effective method for sampling the oil palm species pool. Point counts sampled species that tend to avoid nets and those that are not echolocating, and thus cannot be detected acoustically. We identified some bat sonotypes with near-infrared imagery, and bat point counts revealed strong sampling biases in previous studies using capture-based methods, suggesting similar biases in other regions might exist. While capture-based methods allow to identify bats with absolute and internal morphometry, and unattended ultrasound recorders can effectively sample echolocating bats, bat point counts are a promising, and potentially competitive new tool for sampling all flying bats without bias and observing their behavior in the wild.
Seafloor characteristics can help in the prediction of fish distribution, which is required for fisheries and conservation management. Despite this, only 5-10% of the world’s seafloor has been mapped at high resolution as it is a time-consuming and expensive process. Multibeam echo-sounders (MBES) can produce high-resolution bathymetry and a broad swath coverage of the seafloor, but require greater financial and technical resources for operation and data analysis than singlebeam echo-sounders (SBES). In contrast, SBES provide comparatively limited spatial coverage, as only a single measurement is made from directly under the vessel. Thus, producing a continuous map requires interpolation to fill gaps between transects. This study assesses the performance of demersal fish species distribution models by comparing those derived from interpolated SBES data with full-coverage MBES distribution models. A Random Forest classifier was used to model the distribution of Abalistes stellatus, Gymnocranius grandoculis, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Loxodon macrorhinus, Pristipomoides multidens and Pristipomoides typus, with depth and depth derivatives (slope, aspect, standard deviation of depth, terrain ruggedness index, mean curvature and topographic position index) as explanatory variables. The results indicated that distribution models for A. stellatus, G. grandoculis, L. sceleratus, and L. macrorhinus performed poorly for MBES and SBES data with Area Under the Receiver Operator Curves (AUC) below 0.7. Consequently, the distribution of these species could not be predicted by seafloor characteristics produced from either echo-sounder type. Distribution models for P. multidens and P. typus performed well for MBES and the SBES data with an AUC above 0.8. Depth was the most important variable explaining the distribution of P. multidens and P. typus in both MBES and SBES models. While further research is needed, this study shows that in resource-limited scenarios, SBES can produce comparable results to MBES for use in demersal fish management and conservation.
Modification of coronally advanced flap (CAF) by tunneling procedure was applied on four cases of gingival recession. Post-operative follow up, at different time breaks recorded full coverage of almost all receded root surfaces. The technique and the clinical outcome of this technique will be demonstrated in this case series report.
Rationale, aims and objectives The concept of patient or case complexity is relevant – and widely used – at all levels and stages of mental health service provision, but there have been few methodologically robust attempts to define this term. This study aimed to establish a consensus on factors contributing to patient complexity in adult psychological services using Delphi Methodology. Method Applied psychologists in a single urban/suburban UK National Health Service setting took part in a three-round modified Delphi study. Twenty-eight respondents in round one gave qualitative data on factors they considered when assessing complexity, which was subject to thematic analysis. Twenty-five respondents in round two rated how central/peripheral each theme was to their judgement using Likert scales. In a third round, twenty respondents addressed discrepancies and possible utilities of the emerging framework. Results Thirteen factors contributing to patient/case complexity (Active Severe/Enduring Mental Health, Current Coping/Functioning, Engagement, Forensic History, Iatrogenic Factors, Interpersonal Functioning, Neuro-Cognitive Functioning, Physical Health, Problematic Substance Use, Risk, Severity/Chronicity of Presenting Problems, Systemic and Socio-Economic Factors and Trauma) were identified with a high degree of consensus. All were rated as central to complexity. Conclusions We conclude that applied psychologists do have a shared understanding of complexity and make recommendations for further research validating, developing and applying this empirically derived framework. Keywords: psychological, complexity, definition, operationalising, framework development, clinical judgement
Objective: This study investigated maternal and fetal outcomes following warm water immersion (WWI) and/or waterbirth compared with land birth for women with moderate obstetric risk factors. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Maternity hospital, Australia, 2019-2020 Population: 1665 participants, some with ‘risk factors’ for adverse perinatal outcomes requiring continuous electronic fetal monitoring (CEFM) during labour. Method: Multivariate logistical regressions were used to determine the odds of neonatal and maternal outcome measures between three groups: waterbirth, WWI and land birth Main outcome measures: Neonatal morbidity and mortality, including neonatal unit admission (NNU). Maternal clinical outcome measures, including mode of birth, perineal injury, postpartum haemorrhage, length of labour and morbidity. Results: NNU admissions for a suspected infectious condition were significantly higher in the land birth group (p=0.035). After accounting for labour duration, epidural use, previous birth mode, and labour onset, no significant difference was detected between land births and WWI/water births in the odds of NNU admission (p=0.200). No babies were admitted to NNU with signs of water inhalation or drowning. Women birthing on land had a higher mean blood loss (p=0.036) and were more likely to be febrile (2% v 0%; p=0.007); Obstetric anal sphincter injury was similar between groups. Pharmacological analgesia use was lower in the WB/WWI group (p<0.001). There was 1 cord avulsion in the waterbirth group (0.41%). Mode of birth was similar between groups (p=0.697). Conclusion: Despite moderate obstetric risk factors such as oxytocin administration and induction of labour; maternal and neonatal outcomes were similar between groups.
Thrombotic events are common during COVID-19 infection. Aspirin might be beneficial. Objective: Systematic review and meta-analysis of deaths in users and non-users of aspirin. Data sources: Pubmed Medline, Google scholar, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane, to June 8, 2021, Study selection: Studies providing adjusted or matched evaluation of association of exposure to aspirin and death in COVID-19 patients were included. Data extraction and synthesis: Data were used as published, as Odds ratio, hazard ratio or relative risks and 95% CI from which log(OR) and SE were recalculated. These were entered in an inverse variance odds ratios random-effects model, using RevMan 5.4 (the Cochrane Collaboration). Main outcomes and measure: The prespecified outcome studied was death. Results: Nine studies (8 observational, one interventional) included 14989 patients exposed to aspirin and 15857 unexposed. Overall Odds Ratio of death in aspirin exposed patients in a random effects model was 0.63, 95% confidence interval [0.40-0.99], I2 94%. Using a fixed-effect model did not change much the result (0.76 [0.71-0.81], removing the Recovery trial (OR 0.43 [0.38-0.49], I271%, or the two largest studies (0.66 [0.47-0.93], I2 38%) reduced heterogeneity without materially altering the results. The funnel plot showed no evident publication bias Conclusion: this meta-analysis suggests that the use of aspirin may be associated with a lower risk of death in COVID-19. Considering the results of the Recovery Study, it would appear preferable to continue aspirin in patients who have a non-covid indication, but possibly useless to add it if they don’t.
The main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (called Mpro or 3CLpro) is essential for processing polyproteins encoded by viral RNA. Macromolecules adopt several favored conformations in solution depending on their structure and shape, determining their dynamics and function. Integrated methods combining the lowest-frequency movements obtained by Normal Mode Analysis (NMA), and the faster movements from Molecular Dynamics (MD), and data from biophysical techniques, are necessary to establish the correlation between complex structural dynamics of macromolecules and their function. In this article, we used a hybrid simulation method to sample the conformational space to characterize the structural dynamics and global motions of WT SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and 48 mutants, including several mutations that appear in P.1, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.525 and B.1.429+B.1.427 variants. Integrated Hybrid methods combining NMA and MD have been useful to study the correlation between the complex structural dynamics of macromolecules and their functioning mechanisms. Here, we applied this hybrid approach to elucidate the effects of mutation in the structural dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, considering their flexibility, solvent accessible surface area analyses, global movements, and catalytic dyad distance. Furthermore, some mutants showed significant changes in their structural dynamics and conformation, which could lead to distinct functional properties.
Maxillary sinus melanoma is a rare mucosal melanoma difficult to diagnose in the absence of pigmentation. Intranasal masses presenting with the features of occult malignancy and rapid progression should always be investigated in the line of melanoma irrespective of pigmentation. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination helps to confirm the diagnosis.
Climate change (CC) can alter the configuration of marine ecosystems, however ecosystem response and resilience to change are usually case-specific. The effect of CC on the demersal resources of the Aegean Sea (east Mediterranean Sea) was investigated during the past six decades applying a combination of multivariate analysis, non-additive modelling and the Integrated Resilience Assessment (IRA) framework. We focused on the study of: (i) the biological ‘system’ complex, using proxies of biomass (landings per unit of capacity) for 12 demersal taxa and (ii) the environmental ‘stressor’ complex, described by 12 abiotic variables. Pronounced changes have occurred in both the environmental and biological system over the studied period. The majority of the environmental stressors exhibited strikingly increasing trends (temperature, salinity, primary production indices) with values started exceeding the global historical means during late 1980s-early 1990s. It is suggested that the biological system exhibited a discontinuous response to CC, with two apparently climate-induced regime shifts occurring in the past 25 years. There is evidence for two fold bifurcations and four tipping points in the system, forming a folded stability landscape with three basins of attraction. The shape of the stability landscape for the Aegean Sea’s biological system suggests that while the initial state (1966-1991) was rather resilient to CC, absorbing two environmental step-changes, this was not the case for the two subsequent ones (intermediate: 1992-2002; recent: 2003-2016). Given the current trajectory of environmental change, it is highly unlikely that the biological system will ever return to its pre-1990s state, as it is entering areas of unprecedented climatic conditions and there is some evidence that the system may be even shifting towards a new state. Our approach and findings may be relevant to other marine areas of the Mediterranean and beyond, undergoing climate-driven regime shifts, and can assist to their adaptive management.
Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of integrase inhibitors in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in patients coinfected with tuberculosis (TB). Methods: Clinical trials or observational studies were included. The searches were performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, COCHRANE, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL databases using the terms “HIV”, “AIDS”, “tuberculosis”, “raltegravir potassium”, “dolutegravir”, “elvitegravir”, “bictegravir”, “integrase inhibitor”, and their respective synonyms. The methodological quality of the studies was independently assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias and Newcastle Ottawa scales. Results: Reports from three randomised clinical trials and a historical cohort were included. Patients coinfected with TB and HIV/AIDS showed a good response to TB treatment, which was above 85% in all arms of the evaluated studies. As a primary outcome, the HIV viral load suppression rates at week 48 were greater than 60% in all arms. The therapies evaluated in patients coinfected with TB and HIV/AIDS were also proven to be safe. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficacy outcomes between the efavirenz and integrase inhibitor arms, and regarding safety outcomes, there were few events compared with the total. Furthermore, the certainty of the evidence of the outcomes assessed was low, indicating that future research is likely to have an important impact on this estimate. Conclusion: Integrase inhibitors are effective and well tolerated, being an alternative to efavirenz in clinical protocols. However, more studies with high quality evidence are needed on the use of this treatment in health systems.
Interoceanic canals can facilitate biological invasions as they connect the world’s oceans and dissolve dispersal barriers between bioregions. As a consequence, multiple opportunities for biotic exchange arise and the resulting establishment of migrant species often causes adverse ecological and economic impacts. The Panama Canal is a key region for biotic exchange as it connects the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in Central America. In this study, we used two complementary methods (environmental DNA (eDNA) and gillnetting) to survey fish communities in this unique waterway. Using COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) metabarcoding, we detected a total of 142 taxa, including evidence for the presence of sixteen Atlantic and eight Pacific marine fish inside different sections of the Canal. Of these, ten are potentially new records of marine taxa detected in the freshwater segment of the Canal. Molecular data did not capture all species caught with gillnets, but generally provided a more complete image of the fish fauna. Diversity indices based on eDNA surveys revealed significant differences across different sections of the Canal reflecting in part the prevailing environmental conditions. The observed increase in the presence of marine fish species in the Canal indicates a growing potential for interoceanic exchange of fishes across the Isthmus. Monitoring using eDNA is a rapid and efficient way to assess potential changes in the fishes of this important waterway.
Introduction: Pulmonary agenesis is a complete absence of the pulmonary parenchyma, bronchi beyond the bifurcation, and pulmonary vasculature unilaterally or bilaterally. Because of the rare occurrence, its pathophysiology and outcome remain elusive. We evaluate the clinical features and risk factors for mortality due to pulmonary agenesis. Methods: Two patients we experienced are presented as index cases. All reported cases of pulmonary agenesis were collected from online and publication databases between 1955 and 2020. We assessed the impact of comorbidity and intervention on the survival outcome. Results: We identified 230 patients—138 (60%) with right-sided, and 14 (6%) with bilateral agenesis—among 164 articles and our cases. There were 93 (40%) cardiovascular, 70 (30%) skeletal, and 48 (21%) gastrointestinal anomalies; 47 (20%) tracheal stenoses; and 33 (14%) genitourinary anomalies. Fifty-two (23%) patients had isolated pulmonary agenesis. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 66% and there was no subsequent death until 13 years of age. The right agenesis was significantly associated with a lower 2-year OS rate (58% vs. 78%, p=0.019) or more frequent tracheal stenosis (28% vs. 12%, p=0.006) than left-sided disease. A multivariable analysis indicated that tracheal stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-4.1, p=0.004) and gastrointestinal anomaly (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3, p=0.018) were prognostic factors for mortality. Conclusions: The poor prognostic factors were tracheal stenosis, right agenesis and gastrointestinal anomaly. Tracheal and gastrointestinal controls are targeted at birth and in infancy for the improved survival of unilateral pulmonary agenesis.
COVID-19 patients are prone to co-infections during their hospitalization. These co-infections are challenging as they involve longer hospital stays, high costs, and higher mortality risk. Here we present a case of a patient with multi-infection by resistant parasites, fungi, and bacteria during his hospitalization in a Peruvian hospital
Host switching allows parasites to expand their niches. However, successful switching may require suites of adaptations and also may decrease performance on the old host. As a result, reductions in gene flow accompany many host switches, driving speciation. Because host switches tend to be rapid, it is difficult to study their demographic parameters in real-time. Fundamental factors that control subsequent parasite evolution, such as the size of the switching population or the extent of immigration from the original host, remain largely unknown. To shed light on the host switching process, we explored the history of independent switches by two ectoparasitic honey bee mites (Varroa destructor and V. jacobsoni). Both switched to the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) after it was brought into contact with their ancestral host (Apis cerana), ~70 and ~12 years ago, respectively. Varroa destructor subsequently caused worldwide collapses of honey bee populations. Using whole-genome sequencing on 63 mites collected in their native ranges from both the ancestral and novel hosts, we were able to reconstruct the known temporal dynamics of the switch. We further found multiple previously undiscovered mitochondrial lineages on the novel host, along with the genetic equivalent of tens of individuals that were involved in the initial host switch. Despite being greatly reduced, some gene flow remains between mites adapted to different hosts. Our findings suggest that while reproductive isolation may facilitate the fixation of traits beneficial for exploitation of the new host, ongoing genetic exchange may allow genetic amelioration of inbreeding effects.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is widely distributed in Sudan where outbreaks occur on an annual basis especially during the winter months (December-February). This study aimed to increase our understanding of the epidemiological patterns of FMD in Sudan and connections to neighbouring countries by characterising the genetic sequences of FMD viruses (FMDV) collected from seven Sudanese states over a 10-year period (between 2009 and 2018). FMDV was detected in 91 of the 265 samples using an antigen-detection ELISA. Three serotypes were detected: O (46.2%), A (34.1%), and SAT 2 (19.8%). Fifty-three of these samples were submitted for sequence analyses, generating sequences that were characterised as belonging to O/EA-3 (n=18), A/AFRICA/G-IV (n=23) and SAT 2/VII/Alx-12 (n=12) viral lineages. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence that FMDV lineages were maintained within Sudan, and also highlighted epidemiological connections to FMD outbreaks reported in neighbouring countries in East and North Africa (such as Ethiopia and Egypt). This study motivates continued FMD surveillance in Sudan to monitor the circulating viral lineages and broader initiatives to improve our understanding of the epidemiological risks in the region.
This article aims to investigate the numerical study of electroosmotic flow of the Eyring Powell fluid under the peristaltic mechanism with the influence of the porous medium in the micro-channel. The modified system is applied externally to an electrical field in the horizontal direction and to a magnetic field in the transverse direction. The flow of nanofluids is considered in the computation. The governing equations in the nano-fluid flow are modulated. Influence of lubrication theory approximation longequations are shortened. Reduced coupled nonlinear partial differential equations like velocity and energy equations are numerically solved using the powerful and well-known mathematical software MATHEMATICA by built in NDSolve command. The influence of various important parameters on the velocity and temperature profile is summarised by graphs.
In this study, via the Bernoulli sub-equation, the analytical traveling wave solution of the (2+1)-dimensional resonant Davey-Stewartson system is investigated. In the beginning, Based on the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, the time-fractional imaginary (2+1)-dimensional resonant Davey-Stewatson equation by using travelling wave is changed into a nonlinear differential system. The homogeneous balance method between the highest power terms and the highest derivative of the ordinary differential equation is authorized on the resultant outcome equation, and finally, the ordinary differential equations are solved to obtain some new exact solutions. Different cases, as well as different values of physical constants to investigate the optical soliton solutions of the resulting system, are used. The outcomes results of this study are shown in 3D dimensions graphically via Wolfram Mathematica Package.
In this paper, speed selection of the time periodic traveling waves for a three species time-periodic Lotka-Volterra competition system is studied via the upper-lower solution method as well as the comparison principle. Through constructing specific types of upper and lower solutions to the system, the speed selection of the minimal wave speed can be determined under some sets of sufficient conditions composed of the parameters in the system.