Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) are regarded as the promising candidates for large-scale energy storage systems owing to low cost and high safety; however, their applications are restricted by their poor low-temperature performance. Herein, a low-temperature electrolyte for low-temperature AZIBs is designed by introducing low-polarity diglyme (DGM) into an aqueous solution of Zn(ClO4)2. The DGM disrupts the hydrogen-bonding network of water and lowers the freezing point of the electrolyte to -105 °C. The designed electrolyte achieves ionic conductivity up to 16.18 mS cm-1 at -45 °C. The DGM and ClO4- reconfigure the solvated structure of Zn2+, which is more favorable for the desolvation of Zn2+ at low temperatures. In addition, the DGM effectively suppresses the dendrites, hydrogen evolution reaction, and by-products of the zinc anode, improving the cycle stability of the battery. At -20 °C, a Zn||Zn symmetrical cell is cycled for 4,500 h at 1 mA cm-2 and 1 mA h cm-2, and a Zn|| polyaniline (PANI) battery achieves an ultra-long cycle life of 10,000 times. This study sheds light on the future design of electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and easy desolvation at low temperatures for rechargeable batteries.
With continued global warming, plants are forecast to increasingly experience abiotic stress(es). Stomata on leaf surfaces are the gatekeepers to plant interiors, regulating gaseous exchanges that are crucial for both photosynthesis and outward water release. To optimise future productivity, accurate modelling of how stomata govern plant-environment interactions will be crucial. Here, we synergise optical and thermal imaging data to enhance transpiration modelling during water and/or nitrogen stress. By utilising hyperspectral data and partial least squares regression analysis of six plant traits and fluxes in wheat ( Triticum aestivum), we have developed a new spectral vegetation index; the combined nitrogen and drought index (CNDI), which can be used to detect both water stress and/or nitrogen deficiency. Upon full stomatal closure during drought, CNDI reduces as leaf biochemistry changes unfold, and during a combined stress experiment (drought and nitrogen deficiency), this is reflected in CNDI showing a strong relationship with leaf relative water content ( r2 = 0.70). By incorporating CNDI transformed with a sigmoid function into thermal-based transpiration modelling, we have increased the accuracy of modelling water fluxes during abiotic stress. If employed using future remote sensing technologies, our findings have the potential to markedly improve agricultural water usage and yields.
Mitonuclear interactions have been proposed as evolutionary drivers of sexual reproduction, sexual selection, adaptation, and speciation. We investigated the role of pre-mating isolation in maintaining functional mitonuclear interactions in a wild population with divergent sets of proposed co-adapted mitonuclear genotypes. Two lineages have been identified in the eastern yellow robin Eopsaltria australis - putatively climate-adapted to ‘inland’ and ‘coastal’ climates. The lineages differ by ~7% of mitochondrial DNA positions, whereas nuclear genome differences are concentrated into a sex-linked region enriched with mitochondrial genes. This pattern can be explained by female-linked selection accompanied by male-mediated gene flow across the narrow hybrid zone in which the two lineages coexist. It remains unknown whether lineage divergence is driven by intrinsic incompatibilities (particularly in females, under Haldane’s rule), extrinsic incompatibilities, or both. We tested whether non-random mating with respect to partners’ mitolineages or Z-linked variation could facilitate lineage divergence. We used field data, Z-linked and mitolineage genetic markers from two locations where the lineages hybridize, to test whether females choose to mate with (1) males of their own mitolineage and/or bearing similar Z-linked variation, as might be expected if hybrids experience intrinsic incompatibilities, or (2) putatively locally-adapted males, as expected under environmental selection. Comparisons of field observations and simulations present no evidence of non-random mating: the observed reduced female gene flow likely operates via post-mating isolation. Future studies testing for female-biased mortality at different life stages and female habitat selection should clarify the mechanisms of selection.
IntroductionInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a collection of chronic, idiopathic inflammatory/autoimmune disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by relapsing and remitting episodes(1). The two main types of IBD are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis which lead to a various type of debilitating symptoms such as abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and diarrhea. The precise mechanisms underlying IBD pathogenesis remain unclear but are thought to involve a dysfunctional interplay between host genetics, the intestinal immune system, and environmental factors(2). Current evidence suggests IBD results from an aberrant immune response directed against commensal gut bacteria in genetically susceptible individuals(3). Multiple genetic loci have been implicated in IBD risk, including genes involved in epithelial barrier function, microbial sensing, and immunoregulation. However, genetics alone cannot explain IBD’s rising incidence, highlighting the likely contribution of environmental risk factors like diet, smoking, medications, stress, and the microbiome. Ongoing research aims to better delineate the complex immunopathogenesis of IBD in order to identify improved diagnostic markers, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic targets(4). Moreover, Individuals diagnosed with IBD frequently encounter an array of difficulties that extend beyond the gastrointestinal system. One such challenge is the emergence of mononeuritis multiplex. This association between ulcerative colitis and mononeuritis multiplex underscores the intricate and multifaceted nature of these autoimmune disorders. The occurrence of symptoms of one condition in individuals afflicted by the other warrants careful examination by medical specialists. This necessitates a thorough investigation into the underlying reasons and the implementation of preventive measures. In this case report, we will report a patient who has encountered ulcerative colitis related to mononeuritis multiplex.
A 40-year-old male with a history of smoking, which had ceased 10 years ago, was evaluated for typical precordial pain of 10 hours of evolution. EKG showed ST elevation on anterior an inferior leads. Coronary angiography performed after 14 hours showed coronary ectasia with aneurysms in the anterior descending and right
In order to screen out the high-oil Acer truncatum germplasm resources so as to improve the yield and value of seed oil, this experiment was carried out by analyzing and evaluating a total of 70 samples from natural populations of A. truncatum in nine Central Plains of China, the results were subjected to nested ANOVA and correlation analyses, as well as a comprehensive evaluation of the various groups using principal component analysis and the affiliation function method. The findings demonstrated that the 70 samples ranged in seed kernel oil content from 14.43% to 50.11% (average 33.11%), and that the major fatty acid fractions had coefficients of variation that ranged from 24.13% to 33.40%, with differences between them being significant. According to correlation analysis, latitude, temperature, and precipitation had a greater impact on the seed kernel oil content than they did on the relative content of fatty acid fractions. Altitude, temperature, and precipitation were the primary causes of changes in the content of fatty acid fractions. The principal component analysis reduced the nine indexes to two principal components with a cumulative contribution rate of 84.29%, and ranked them according to the comprehensive evaluation value obtained from the principal component analysis and the transformation of the affiliation function. The analysis screened out the ten germplasm samples with the highest comprehensive quality and the three samples with the highest comprehensive evaluation value.
We address the problem of existence, uniqueness and approximation of the solution of a large class of fractional integral differential equations with boundary conditions. Based on fixed point techniques with Boyd-Wong type conditions, the existence and uniqueness of the solution is investigated. This, together with the use of certain types of biorthogonal systems, allows us to propose a method to approximate the solution which is tested with several examples.
Gamete traits can vary widely among species, populations and individuals, influencing fertilisation dynamics and overall reproductive fitness. Sexual selection can play an important role in determining the evolution of gamete traits with local environmental conditions determining the strength and direction of sexual selection. Here we test for signatures of post-mating selection on gamete traits in relation to population density, and possible interactive effects of population density and sperm concentration on sperm motility and fertilisation rates among natural populations of mussels. Our study shows that males from high density populations produce smaller sperm compared with males from low density populations, but we detected no effect of population origin on egg size. Our results also reveal that females from low density populations tended to exhibit lower fertilisation rates across a range of sperm concentrations, although this became less important as sperm concentration increased. Variances in fertilisation success were higher for females than males and the effect of gamete compatibility between males and females increases as sperm concentrations increase. These results suggest that local population density can influence gamete traits and fertilisation dynamics but also highlight the importance of phenotypic plasticity in governing sperm-egg interactions in a highly dynamic selective environment.
Background: Vitamin D may contribute to the balance in between regulatory and suppressive functions of T cells to modulate the inflammatory process in asthma. Objective: To assess serum vitamin D levels and their relationship with asthma control, asthma severity and its anti-inflammatory effect in children. Methods: This systematic review was based on articles published between 2009 and August 2022. Children under 18 years old with asthma were included. Results: The initial database search identified 2,015 manuscripts. Through screening identified only 25 eligible articles, but only eight studies met criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The analysis revealed that in six studies involving 588 participants, mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in children with uncontrolled asthma compared to those with controlled asthma, with a mean difference of -5.07 (-8.57, -1.57) and a high rate of heterogeneity I 2 = 89%. In five studies comprising 362 patients, the relationship between vitamin D and asthma severity was assessed. Lower levels of vitamin D were associated with a higher risk of severe asthma in children, with a mean difference of -6.00 (-8.09, -3.90) and substantial heterogeneity (90%, p<0.00001). In most patients, no significant correlation was found between vitamin D and lung function. Furthermore, serum vitamin D showed an association with interleukins and with regulatory T lymphocytes. Conclusion: Vitamin D plays a critical role in reducing asthma attacks. However, more randomized studies are necessary for a thorough evaluation and definitive recommendation for vitamin D supplementation.
ABSTRACTAcute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is rare autoimmune neurological multifocal disorder characterised by inflammatory demyelination of brain and spinal cord usually in response to infection or sequelae of immunisation, most commonly affecting the children.Though a rare one it is estimated that 1 in 125,000-250,000 population is affected by ADEM each year. And such a case of 15 years old girl presented with acute onset of fever and headache and single episode of seizure followed by unconsciousness with GCS 6(E2V2M2).signs of meningeal irritation like neck rigidity, Kernig’s sign and Brudzinski’s sign were positive. investigation report showed Hb-11.4 g/dl ,neutrophlic leukocytosis , normal range of serum electrolytes ,ICT for malaria was negative and MRI of brains showed multiple abnormal T2 hyperintense signal in both parieto-frontal white matter. so she was diagnosed a case of ADEM and treated with intravenous methylprednisolone for 5 days followed by oral corticosteroid in tapering dose for 6 weeks.IntroductionADEM also known as post -infectious encephalomyelitis is a rare autoimmune inflammatory neurological disorder of nervous system mainly central which is characterised by demylination of the brain and spinal cord as a result of infection or sequelae of immunisation. Children are the most affected one but adult case of ADEM occurs following vaccination against Mumps,Measles and rubella(1)(2) . Though rare one estimated of 1 in 125,000-250,000 individuals are affected by ADEM each year(1). More commonly male are the most affected one with a male and female ratio of 1.3 to 1.The risk factors for ADEM include genetics, exposure to infectious organisms,immunization exposure and lighter skin pigmentation. All the ethnic groups are affected globally. The majority of cases follow either viral or bacterial infection and in majority of cases causative pathogen is unidentified(1). The pathogenesis is not fully understood but antigentic exposure in genetically susceptible individuals may cause ADEM either through molecular mimicry and or due to T cell mediated immune mechanism. It has also been suggested that ADEM may occur due to CNS injury secondary to generalised inflammation of brain and spinal cord(4).ADEM patients usually have presentation like rapid onset of fever, headache ,nausea or vomiting confusion, fatigue and neurological features like numbness, difficulty swallowing, vision, seizure, difficult in coordinating voluntary movements such as walking and some degree of impairment of consciousness(1)(3). Though there is no diagnostic criteria for ADEM but presence of signs and symptoms and radiological findings can help in diagnosis of ADEM. In patients with ADEM T2-Weighted and FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) of brain shows bilateral,hyperintense lesion that are diffuse and poorly demarcated(4).ADEM being a autoimmune disease treatment includes I/v Methyl prednisolone at dosage of 20 to 30 mg/kg (max 1g/day) for 3 to 5 days followed by oral corticosteroids in a tapering dose for 4 to 6 weeks.(5). Full recovery is seen in 50 to 70% of cases and ranging of 70 to 90% with some minor residual disability. In some case severity ranges to 8 to 30% with ataxia and hemiparesis.(6)Case report;We hereby present a case of 15 years old girl brought to the Mymensingh Medical College by her parents with the complaints of fever and headache for 3 days. Fever was high grade ,acute in onset without any chills and rigor with no evening rise of temperature . Headache was severe and prolonged for 3 days following which she suddenly developed single episode of seizure followed by unconsciousness for which she was brought to the hospital.On examination she had altered consciousness with GCS 6(E2V2M2),Temperature was raised, blood pressure was 100/80 mm of Hg and signs of meningeal irritation like neck rigidity, Kernig’s sign and Brudzinski’s sign were positive and bilateral planter extensor was found.Other systematic examination findings were normal. As per the clinical findings she was treated for meningoencephalitis with Inj.Ceftriaxone 1g I/V BD, inj. Acyclovir 250mg 1 vial I/v BD ,inj.dexamethasone 1 amp i/v TDS and investigation showedHb-11.4 g/dl with increased sedimentation, neutrophilic leukocytosis with WBC Count 25000/mm^3 and 87% of neutrophils, Serum electrolytes and blood glucose were within the normal limit.ICT for malaria was negative .MRI OF BRAIN revealed. -Multiple abnormal T2 hyperintense signal in both parieto-frontal white matter suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis(ADEM)
The advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has been revolutionary for the field of evolutionary biology. This technology has led to an abundance of available genomes and transcriptomes for researchers to mine. Specifically, researchers can mine for various types of molecular markers that are vital for phylogenetic, evolutionary, and ecological studies. Numerous tools have been developed to extract these molecular markers from NGS data. However, due to an insufficient number of well-annotated reference genomes for non-model organisms, it remains challenging to obtain these markers accurately and efficiently. Here, we present GeneMiner, an improved and expanded version of our previous tool, Easy353. GeneMiner combines the reference-guided de Bruijn graph assembly with seed self-discovery and greedy extension. Additionally, it includes a verification step using a parameter-bootstrap method to reduce the pitfalls associated with using a relatively distant reference. Our results using both experimental and simulation data showed GeneMiner can accurately acquires phylogenetic molecular markers for plants using transcriptomic, genomic, and other NGS data. GeneMiner is designed to be user-friendly, fast, and memory efficient. Further, it is compatible with Linux, Windows, and macOS. All source codes are publicly available on GitHub for easy accessibility and transparency (https://github.com/yyscu/GeneMiner).
Understanding population dynamics requires estimation of demographic parameters like mortality and productivity. Because obtaining the necessary data for such parameters can be labour-intensive in the field, alternative approaches that estimate demographic parameters from existing data can be useful. High-resolution biologging data are now frequently available for large-bodied bird species, and can be used to estimate survival and productivity. We build on existing approaches to develop a new tool (‘NestTool’) that uses GPS tracking data at hourly resolution to estimate important productivity parameters such as territory acquisition, breeding propensity and breeding success. We developed NestTool with data from 258 individual red kites (Milvus milvus) from Switzerland tracked for up to 7 years. NestTool first extracts 42 movement metrics such as time within a user-specified radius, number of revisits, home range size, and distances between most frequently used day and night locations from the raw tracking data for each individual breeding season. These variables are then used in three successive random forest models to predict whether individuals exhibited home range behaviour, initiated a nesting attempt, and successfully raised fledglings. The models achieved > 95% accurate classification of home range and nesting behaviour in cross-validation data, but slightly lower (> 80%) accuracy in classifying the outcome of nesting attempts, because some individuals frequently returned to nests despite having failed. NestTool provides a graphical user interface to manually annotate those individual seasons for which model predictions fall below a user-defined threshold of certainty. When applied to tracking data from different red kite populations in Germany, NestTool yielded accurate predictions with > 80% accuracy in all parameters. NestTool is available as R package at https://github.com/Vogelwarte/NestTool and we encourage ornithologists to adapt it for different populations and species. NestTool will facilitate the more widespread estimation of demographic parameters from tracking data to inform population assessments
Neural correlates of decisions under risk and under ambiguity have been examined for several decades. In the current study, we focus on a neglected aspect that is a potential confounding of the average risk of alternatives in a trial, the average magnitude of the outcomes, and the difference in risk between the two alternatives. We present an experimental approach to solve this problem here and explicitly separate risk and ambiguity. In the present fMRI-study with 20 participants, we created different levels of risk and ambiguity to investigate their effects on behavior and brain activation. In a first experimental block, decisions with mixed-risk options (one high-risk option paired with one low-risk option) were compared to decisions with two high-risk or two low-risk options in terms of the effects on decision-making and neural activity. The second block consisted of the same risk levels crossed with high and low ambiguity by withholding information about the probabilities of the outcomes. During mixed-risk trials participants made cautious decision significantly more often. This effect was strongest during mixed trials with high ambiguity in the second block. In addition, risk behavior of subjects was correlated with the subjective importance of the amount of potential monetary losses or wins and the related probabilities. The fMRI results revealed activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the insula, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) during mixed risk trials without ambiguity. In contrast, activation of the amygdala was specifically present during mixed-risk trials with high ambiguity.
In this article, we attempt to provide a more general method based on Petryshyn’s fixed-point theorem to ensure the existence of solutions to implicit functional equations. These implicit functional equations include fractional, non-fractional, (fractional) stochastic integral equations, etc., and any combination of them in C( I). Some results regarding the existence of fixed points in implicit functional integral equations will be reviewed in the literature. We show that this general result unifies and improves many of the main results in the literature. To illustrate that our approach is more general than other methods, we present some concrete examples. Also, we apply our method to create new functional equations in practice and check the existence of solutions.
An 80-year-old man had a secondary prevention defibrillator in place for treatment of sustained ventricular tachycardia. After a generator replacement several years later, he developed a series of apparent pulse generator infections requiring extraction. Each purulent appearing pocket eruption was culture negative. Eventually, he was diagnosed with a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to triclosan, an antibacterial that is commonly impregnated in surgical sutures. The evaluation for this is difficult and can be misleading. This entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with culture negative CIED infections.
The rise of psychedelics in contemporary medicine has sparked interest in their potential therapeutic applications. While traditionally associated with countercultural movements and recreational use, recent research has shed light on the potential benefits of psychedelics in various mental health conditions. In this review, we explore the emerging role of psychedelics in the management of chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD), two critical areas in need of innovative treatment options. Pain control remains a significant clinical challenge, particularly for individuals with OUD and those who receive long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) who develop marked tolerance to opioid-induced analgesia. Despite the magnitude of this problem, there is a scarcity of controlled studies investigating pain management alternatives for these populations. Drawing from preclinical and human evidence, we highlight the potential of psychedelics to act on shared neurobiological substrates of chronic pain and opioid use disorder, potentially reversing pain- and opioid-induced neuroadaptations, such as central sensitization. We elaborate on the multifaceted dimensions of the pain experience (sensory, affective, and cognitive) and their intersections that overlap with opioid-related phenomena (opioid craving and withdrawal), hypothesizing how these processes can be modulated by psychedelics. After summarizing the available clinical research, we propose mechanistic insights and methodological considerations for the design of future translational studies and clinical trials, building on a shared clinical and neurobiological understanding of chronic pain and OUD. Our intention is to provide timely perspectives that accelerate the development and exploration of novel therapeutics for chronic pain and OUD amidst the escalating opioid crisis.
The progression of tumors is heavily influenced by mechanical properties of their microenvironment. In this work, we designed micropatterned models with varying distances and shapes to investigate the differences between metastatic breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and non-metastatic MCF-7 in reconfiguring the extracellular matrix to promote cell migration induced by long-distance cell mechanics. Both cancer cells were able to rearrange type I collagen fibres to form collagen threads, in which MDA-MB-231 consistently migrated more rapidly than MCF-7, ranging from matrix model with differently arrayed spacings to complex polygonal models. MDA-MB-231 displayed higher capability of reorganizing fibre bundles at longer distance (800 μm). Further looking for differences in cellular mechanical mechanisms, siRNA knockdown inhibiting either integrin β1 or Piezo1 decreased fibre assembly. Metastatic MDA-MB-231 showed inhibited migration with integrin knockdown, whereas scattered migration with Piezo1 knockdown indicating cells losing distant mechanosensation. MCF-7 with reduced E-cadherin by siRNA transfection showed less significant differences in migration compared to MDA-MB-231 that didn’t express E-cadherin. MDA-MB-231 expressed little E-cadherin mRNA indicating mutagenetic change in genome. In summary this work has explored the differences between malignant and benign breast cancer cells, particularly in terms of fibre matrix remodelling and cell migrations, along with significant differences in E-cadherin expressions, of which had an important effect on cell migration. The results of this study provide new research approaches for therapeutic advances in breast cancer.