Warming climates provide many species the opportunity to colonise newly-suitable regions at higher latitudes and elevations. Despite becoming warmer, higher latitudes and elevations nevertheless offer novel climatic challenges, such as greater thermal variability and altered frequency of weather events, and these challenges exert selection on expanding populations. However, high gene flow and genetic drift during the expansion phase may limit the degree to which species can adapt to novel climatic conditions at the range front. Here we examine how landscape topographic complexity influences the opportunity for local adaptation to novel conditions during a range shift. Using RAD-seq data, we investigated whether elevation, latitude, climatic niche differentiation, and gene flow across a complex landscape were associated with signatures of adaptation during recent range expansion of the damselfly Ischnura elegans in Northeast Scotland. Our data revealed two distinct routes of colonisation, with admixture between these routes resulting in increased heterozygosity and population density. Expansion rates, assessed as directional rates of gene flow, were greater between more climatically similar sites than between climatically divergent sites. Significant genetic structure and allelic turnover was found to emerge near the range front at sites characterised by high elevation, low directional gene flow, and high spatial differentiation in climate regimes. This predictive combination of factors suggests that landscape complexity may be a prerequisite for promoting differentiation of populations, and providing opportunities for local adaptation, during rapid or contemporary range shifts
A novel integrated rotary reactor for NOx reduction by CO and air preheating (iNA reactor) was proposed. NOx removal performance was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor, which was used to simulate the working conditions change in iNA reactor. Lab-synthesized Cu/FeCeOx were used as catalyst. Two different modes were tested with iNA reactor: short cycles and long cycles. Excellent NOx removal efficiencies of over 95% and 90% for short cycles and long cycles were observed in iNA reactor. Moreover, compared with the constant-temperature rotary reactor, better H2O and SO2 resistances were also found in iNA reactor. The reaction mechanism was proposed based on in-situ DRIFT study. NOx was stored as nitrates in the adsorption zone, and then decomposed rapidly by both high temperatures and CO, leading to the deep catalyst regeneration. Therefore, temperature swinging and the feed of CO were key to having high iNA reactor performance for NOx removal.
Atopic eczema (AE) is an inflammatory skin disease with involvement of genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. One hallmark of AE is a skin barrier disruption on multiple, highly interconnected levels: filaggrin mutations, increased skin pH, and a microbiome dysbiosis towards Staphylococcus aureus overgrowth are observed in addition to an abnormal type 2 immune response. Extrinsic factors seem to play a major role in the development of AE. As AE is a first step in the atopic march, its prevention and appropriate treatment is essential. Although standard therapy remains topical treatment, powerful systemic treatment options emerged in the last years. However, thorough endotyping of the individual patients is still required for ideal precision medicine approaches in the future. Therefore, novel microbial and immunological biomarkers were described recently for the prediction of disease development and treatment response. This review summarizes the current state of the art in AE research.
Background: Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (ChC) is an important complication among patients receiving anthracyclines. Biomarkers and imaging parameters have been studied for their ability to identify patients at risk of developing this complication. Left ventricle global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) has been described as a sensitive parameter for detecting systolic dysfunction, even in the presence of preserved left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). Objective: to evaluate the role of the LV-GLS as a predictor of ChC. Methods: This study is a post-hoc analysis of CECCY trial (Carvedilol for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Related Cardiotoxicity) that evaluated the primary prevention of cardiotoxicity with carvedilol during doxorubicin chemotherapy in a population with breast cancer. Cardiotoxicity was defined as a reduction >10% in LVEF. LV-GLS was obtained before chemotherapy in patients with no prior cardiovascular disease or echocardiogram abnormalities. Results: Thirty-one patients who had a complete echocardiography study including measurement of LV-GLS before chemotherapy were included in this analysis. An absolute LV-GLS <16.9% before chemotherapy showed 100% sensitivity and 73% specificity for predicting cardiotoxicity (AUC=0.85; 95%CI 0.680 – 0.959, p<0.001). In this population, LVEF values before chemotherapy did not predict ChC (95%CI 0.478 to -0.842, p=0.17). The association of low LV-GLS (<17%) and BNP serum levels (>17 pg/mL) two months after chemotherapy increased the accuracy for detecting early onset ChC (100% sensitivity, 88% specificity, AUC=0.94; 95%CI 0.781 – 0.995, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Our data suggest that LV-GLS is a potential predictor of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. Larger studies are needed to confirm the relevance of this echocardiographic parameter in this clinical setting.
The ulnar nerve compressed in the cubital tunnel is called Cubital tunnel syndrome in the clinic.we also found that there are cysts compress the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel through preoperative ultrasonograhy. This case report is the description of heterotopic cysts that compress the ulnar nerve in our clinical practice.
Background: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) remains a leading cause of morbidity and sudden death. Improvements in catheter ablation have significantly advanced this option as a treatment method for refractory VT. Despite advances, use and impact of inotrope and vasodepressor medicines as part of intraprodcedural management during VT ablation have been understudied. Methods: We conducted a exploratory, retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing VT ablation. Patient, intra and peri-procedural data, focusing on pressor use and hemodynamics through ablation, and procedural endpoint data were collected. Results: From 2014-2017, 149 patients underwent VT ablation of which 67% exhibited cardiomyopathy (53% ischemic). Most procedures (71%) were conducted under general anesthesia. In those with cardiomyopathy, steady-state use of dobutamine and dopamine was more common though substantial use of phenylephrine was noted. In adjusted analyses, (1) dobutamine was associated with increased procedure time (402.5±18.8 vs 347.2±14.0 min, p = 0.03), (2) dopamine was associated with increased number of distinct VTs (2.8 vs. 2.2, p<0.001) while both dopamine and dobutamined resulted in increased intra-procedural cardioversions (1.3 vs. 0.6, p<0.001 and 1.34 vs. 0.66, p=0.001, respectively) and (3) dobutamine dose exhibited a linear correlation with post-ablation length of stay. Conclusions: In this exploratory work, we sought to understand effects of hemodynamic drug use on short-term, procedural outcomes of VT ablation. Salient findings include: (1) arrhythmogenic nature of inotropes resulting in an increase in intraprocedural cardioversions, (2) greater propensity for induction of non-clinical VTs with use of intraprocedural dopamine and (3) substantial use of phenylephrine in those with underlying cardiomyopathy.
Introduction: Early recognition of critical patients is crucial in emergency departments. Many scoring systems are used for it. This study aim determining the prognostic values of these scoring systems for Covid 19 patients. Method: This retrospective study was performed between March 2020 -May 2020. 212 patient who have Covid 19 pneumonia were enrolled the study. National Early Warning Score (NEWS), Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) and quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) scores were calculated according to patients’ admission data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the diagnostic values of scores and the optimum cut-off values were determined by using Youden Index.Results: 23 (10.8%) of 212 patients died and 34 (16%) were admitted to ICU. The AUC values of MEWS, NEWS, and qSOFA for predicting mortality in < 65 years old were 0.852 (95% confidence interval 0.708-0.997), 0.882(0.741-1.000) and 0.879(0.768-0.990) and >65 years old 0.854(0.720-0.987), 0.931(0.853-1.000), 0.776(0.609-0.944) respectively. For ICU admission AUC values of MEWS, NEWS and qSOFA in <65 years old followed as; 0.882(0.783-0.981), 0.914(0.817-1.000), 0.868(0.764-0.973) and 0.845(0.725-0.965), 0.926(0.854-0.998), 0.815(0.676-0.954) in ≥ 65 years old. MEWS and qSOFA’s optimal cut-off values for mortality were ≥2 with %90.0 sensitivity %74.7 specificity and ≥1 with %90.0 sensitivity %74.7 specificity for <65 years, NEWS optimal cut-off is ≥6 with 91.7% sensitivity and 76.7% specificity for ≥ 65 years old.Conclusion: These scores have good predictive value for mortality and ICU admission, but NEWS is better especially in ≥ 65 years old patient with Covid 19 pneumonia.Keywords: Early warning scores, NEWS, MEWS, qSOFA, Covid 19 pneumonia, mortality
Aim To evaluate consecutive measurements of the biometric parameters, age, and refraction error in a Turkish population at primary school age. Materials and Methods A total of 197 children aged between 7-12 years were included. The data of three consecutive measurements of children, who were examined at least once a year for three years using both cycloplegic auto-refractometry and optical biometry, were used in this retrospective study. Spherical equivalent <-0.50D was considered to be myopic; >+0.75D was considered to be hypermetropic. Age, gender, body mass index, spherical equivalent, axial length, anterior chamber depth, central corneal thickness, keratometry, and lens thickness were analyzed. The onset data obtained in 2013 whereas, the final data were from 2015. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed (p<0.05). Results The mean of the onset and the final spherical equivalents were 0.19D (0.56), and 0.08D (0.80), respectively. The myopia prevalence was increased among refractive errors in observation periods (univariable analysis p=0.029; multivariable analysis p=0.017). The onset axial length (HR:4.55, 95%CI:2.87-7.24, p<0.001), keratometry (HR:2.04, 95%CI:1.55-2.67, p<0.001) and age (HR:0.73, 95%CI: 0.57-0.92, p=0.009) correlated myopia progression. To calculate the estimated spherical equivalent, the onset data were included in the logistic regression model. The onset data of spherical equivalent (β=0.916, p<0.001), axial length (β=-0.451, p<0.001), anterior chamber depth (β=0.430, p=0.005) and keratometry (β=-0.172, p<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with the mean SE at the final data. Conclusions To calculate the estimated spherical equivalent following three years, an equation was proposed. The estimated refractive error of children can be calculated by using the proposed equation with the associated onset optical parameters.
Aim: Higher elevation habitats contribute substantially to global biodiversity. Nevertheless, we know comparatively little about how diversity patterns differ among alpine and montane communities across different mountain ranges. Here, we characterized the realized niche space of American seed plants to ask whether or not montane or alpine community compositions define climatically distinct species pools at this regional scale. Location: Americas. Time Period: Contemporary. Major taxa studied: Seed plants. Methods: We assembled a niche model dataset of 72,372 American seed plants based on digitized and georeferenced specimen records. We used this dataset to quantify occupied abiotic niche space with regards to temperature, precipitation, and elevation. This approach further permitted differentiation of higher-elevation specialists (i.e., ranges centered at high elevations) from generalists (i.e., ranges centered at lower elevations but extending into mountain areas). Results: Montane communities did not differ from the regional species pool in terms of richness patterns, occupied climatic niche space, or niche breadth. In contrast, alpine communities were characterized by a bimodal latitudinal diversity gradient, drastically reduced climatic niche space, and broader temperature but narrower precipitation niche breadth. Alpine generalists further showed statistically significant differences in temperature, but not precipitation, niche breadth from both alpine specialists and lowland taxa. We also highlight non-alpine species whose climatic niche space otherwise overlapped with that of alpine plants. These species were geographically concentrated in the southern US and Mexico, tended to have a greater fraction of their ranges in frost-exposed mountain foothills, and less of their range in lowland, frost-free, areas, compared to other non-alpine species. Main conclusions: These results suggest that ecological and physiological barriers, rather than dispersal limitation might better explain alpine community assembly and that alpine, but not montane, communities form a climatically distinct species pool in the Americas.
In order to measure the interfacial Strain Energy Release Rate (SERR) of adhesively bonded joints with metallic substrates, an alternative to the Tapered Double Cantilever Beam (TDCB) specimen is used here. In particular, the dimensions of one of the two substrates were reduced to create an Asymmetric Tapered Double Cantilever Beam (ATDCB) specimen. The ATDCB specimen has been introduced in the past by other research teams to study the mode I+II cohesive fracture properties of structural adhesives. It is shown the geometric dissymmetry of the ATDCB specimen affects the crack propagation path towards the interface with the smaller (less stiff) substrate. However, this substrate plasticises during the fracture test; hence, a strategy is also presented to evaluate the amount of potential energy spent for this phenomenon and subtract it from the total potential energy induced in the system during the fracture test. After this operation, the SERR of the adhesive under investigation was calculated by means of the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) theory before and after water ageing. The results showed a large decrease of the SERR with the increase of the ageing time.
Propylene oxide is an important chemical raw material. In this paper, Density Functional Theory (DFT) was used to calculate the epoxidation of propylene on the dimer MoOx by Gaussian 09 software. Firstly, we established the structure of the dimer MoOx/SiO2 and analyzed it, and then calculated the dehydrogenation process of propylene and the formation process of PO. It was found that the activity of O in Mo-O-Si was higher, which was beneficial to the AHS process of C3H6, but the reaction activity of different O substances to the formation of PO was very low. In order to solve this problem, we established a dimer MoOx model with defect sites, and found that the defect sites in the dimer could effectively activate O2 (O2- 2), and the activated material O had high PO selectivity. Compared with process of AHS and the process of PO formation, the energy barrier of PO formation path was very low, which was the main product. At the same time, we also established the MoOx model of Fe doped dimer and the MoOx model of Fe doped defect dimer. It was found that the MoOx clusters were more active due to Fe doping, and the energy barriers of both AHS process and PO formation path were greatly reduced compared with those before doping. The presence of Fe made it easier for the dimer MoOx to form defect sites, which made it easier to activate O2 (O- 2) and reduced the energy barriers of both AHS and PO formation processes.
To study the thermal cracking characteristics and mechanism of sandstone after high-temperature treatment, the pore size distribution and micromorphology of sandstone were observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy. Then, based on the Weibull distribution theory, a thermal elastic mechanical model of random heterogeneous rock was established for the rock unit, the thermal stress distribution characteristics of sandstone were analysed, and the thermal fracture mechanism of rock was discussed. The results show that the porosities of the samples increased with increasing temperature, and the proportion of large pores increased significantly when exceeded 400 °C. Particularly when reached 1000 °C, thermal cracking was distributed in a complex network. Additionally, different rock units are in different thermal stress states, which leads to the regional differences in the distribution of rock thermal fracture. When exceeded 400 °C, there were obvious thermal cracks near the outer edge that weakened the mechanical properties of rock.
Ultra-light Mg-Li alloy is a promising alloy in aerospace since it is known to the lightest structural alloy at present, but its fatigue behaviors remain to be explored. This work focuses on very-high cycle fatigue (VHCF) strength and small crack initiation behaviors of an extruded dual-phase Mg-Li alloy (LZ91). The fatigue strength of the LZ91 alloy at 109 cycles is about 78 MPa, and the fatigue ratio is approximately 0.46. Microstructure characterization demonstrates that fatigue crack tends to initiate from the β-Li phase-enriched region. The α-Mg phase, presenting <10−10 > fiber texture with the basal plane, deforms hardly along the extrusion direction and acts as an enhanced phase compared with the β-Li phase. The deformation discrepancy localizes cyclic plasticity at the Li phase and finally leads to the fatigue crack initiation.
Cu-Ni-Si alloys have been widely applied in electronic and electrical industries.The effect of precipitation on the microstructure and properties of the alloys are still not well understood. In this study, Cu-Ni-Si alloys were prepared by hot-pressed sintering and elemental copper powders, nickel powders and silicon powders as raw materials. The results show that, there were no Ni-Si intermetallic compounds except the δ-Ni2Si phase in the microstructure by hot-pressed sintered preparation of Cu-Ni-Si alloys. And the distribution of the δ-Ni2Si phase in the alloy was more uniform and smaller. After aging treatment, when the mass ratio of Ni and Si were 2:1 and 3:1, the precipitation of δ-Ni2Si phase was significantly less, and when the mass ratio of Ni and Si were 4:1 and 5:1, the precipitation of δ-Ni2Si phase particles increased significantly.The test results by electrical conductivity and vickers hardness show that after ageing treatment, both the electrical conductivity and vickers hardness of the alloys were greatly improved. When the electrical conductivity was 39.33%IACS, the vickers hardness was 230.95HV, and the Cu-Ni-Si alloy had the best comprehensive performance.
Background: Data directly comparing trends in the use of different oral anticoagulants (OACs) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) from different countries are limited. We addressed this using a large-scale network cohort study in the United States (US), Belgium, France, Germany and United Kingdom (UK). Methods: We used nine databases (claims or electronic health records) that had been converted into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model with analysis performed using open-source analytical tools. We identified adults with AF and a first OAC prescription, either vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) from 2010–2017. We described time-trends in use, continuation and switching. Results: In 2010, 87.5%–99.8% of patients started on a VKA. By 2017, the majority started on a DOAC: 87.0% (US), 88.3% (Belgium), 93.1% (France), 88.4% (Germany), 86.1%–86.7% (UK). In the UK, DOACs became the most common starting OAC in 2015, 2–3 years later than elsewhere. Apixaban was the most common starting OAC by 2017: 50.2%–57.8% (US), 31.4% (Belgium), 45.9% (France), 39.5% (Germany), 49.8%– 50.5% (UK), followed by rivaroxaban; 24.8%–32.5% (US), 25.7% (Belgium), 38.4% (France), 24.9% (Germany), 30.2%– 31.2% (UK). Long-term treatment was less common in the US than in Europe, especially the UK. A minority of patients switched from their index OAC, both in the short- and long-term. Conclusions: From 2010–2017, VKA use had significantly declined and DOAC use had significantly increased in the US and Europe; apixaban was the most prescribed OAC in 2017 followed by rivaroxaban.
We investigated the electronic and mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different tube diameters using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, respectively. The carbon nanotubes’ electronic properties were derived from the index number ( n 1 , n 2 ), lattice vectors, and the rolled graphene sheet orientation. For (6,1) SWCNT, ( n 1 - n 2 )/3 is a non-integer, so the expected characteristic is semiconducting. We have considered (6,1) Chiral SWCNT with different diameters ‘d’ (4.68 Å, 4.90 Å, 5.14 Å, 5.32 Å, 5.53 Å) corresponds to respective bond-lengths ‘ δ ’(1.32 Å, 1.36 Å, 1.45 Å, 1.50 Å and 1.56 Å) and then analyze the electronic properties from the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) based on DFT. We have used both the DFT-1/2 and GGA exchange energy correlation approximations for our calculation and compared the results. In both cases, the energy band gap is decreasing order with the increase in bond lengths. The lowest value of formation energy was obtained at the bond length δ = 1.45 Å ( d = 5.14 Å). For the mechanical properties, we have calculated Young’s Modulus using Molecular Dynamic simulations. From our calculation, we have found that the (6,1) SWCNT with bond length 1.45 Å ( d = 5.14 Å) has Young’s modulus value of 1.553 TPa.