An 84 year old male presented to the Emergency Department with an acutely painful inguinoscrotal swelling. CT revealed complete herniation of the bladder and prostate and urinary retention. He was catheterised and discharged home. He re-presented with upper tract obstruction and urosepsis. Nephrostomies were inserted and emergency hernia repair performed.
The relationship of host and symbionts is complex and dynamic. Symbionts can significantly impact host phenotypes and parasite epidemics may be influenced by interactions among symbionts. Aphids are well known for their symbiotic associations with bacteria. However, few studies have examined the offsprings of parasitized host and the ecological implications of a dynamic microbiome longitudinaly. In the present study, we surveyed the microbiota in non-parasitized aphids and parasitized aphids its offspring for over four consecutive generations by using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Across hosts, parasite strongly altered symbiont composition of parasitized aphids offspring, especially in the fourth generation. Moreover, parasitism reduced weight and reproductive capacity of the parasitized offspring and influenced parasite epidemics. Taken together, these results indicate that parasitoids can influence host-microbiome interactions by altering the symbionts composition in the host offspring. Our findings further supports the importance host-parasite-microbiome tirad interactions, which can create intense reciprocal selection resulting in coevolution between species.
Clonal selection and vegetative propagation determine low genetic variability in grapevine cultivars, although it is common to observe diverse phenotypes. Environmental signals may induce epigenetic changes altering gene expression and phenotype. The range of phenotypes that a genotype expresses in different environments is known as phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic mechanism, but only few works evaluated this novel source of variability in grapevines. In the present study, we analyzed the effects on phenotypic traits and epigenome of three Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec clones cultivated in two contrasting vineyards of Mendoza, Argentina. Anonymous genome regions were analyzed using Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) markers. Clone-dependent phenotypic and epigenetic variability between vineyards were found. The clone that presented the clearer MSAP differentiation between vineyards was selected and analyzed through Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing. Twenty-nine differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between vineyards were identified and associated to genes and/or promoters. We discuss about a group of genes related to hormones homeostasis and sensing that could provide a hint of the epigenetic role in the determination of the different phenotypes observed between vineyards and conclude that DNA methylation has an important role in the phenotypic plasticity and that epigenetic modulation is clone-dependent.
Hybridization has fascinated biologists in recent centuries for its evolutionary importance, especially in plants. Hybrid zones are commonly located in regions across environmental gradients due to more opportunities to contact and ecological heterogeneity. For aquatic taxa, intrazonal character makes broad overlapping regions in intermediate environments between related species. However, we have limited information on the hybridization pattern of aquatic taxa across an altitudinal gradient. In this study, we aimed to test the hypotheses that niche overlap and hybridization might be extensive in related aquatic plants in alpines. We evaluated the niche overlap in three related species pairs on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and assessed the spatial pattern of hybrid populations. Obvious niche overlap and common hybridization were revealed in all three pairs of related aquatic plants. The plateau edge and river basins were broad areas for the sympatry of divergent taxa, where a large proportion of hybrid populations occurred. Hybrids are also discretely distributed in diverse habitats on the plateau. Differences in the extent of niche overlap, genetic incompatibility and phylogeographic history might lead to inconsistences in hybridization patterns among the three species pairs. Our results suggested that plateau areas are a hotspot for ecologically divergent aquatic species to contact and mate and implied that hybridization may be important for the freshwater biodiversity of highlands.
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major problem in agriculture, thus identifying factors affecting plant’s ability to reutilize previously assimilated P is a prerequisite for improving the P homeostasis in crops grown with P deficient soil. Here, we report the involvement of a NAC (No apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF] and Cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC]) transcription factor in P deficiency resistance in Arabidopsis. Compared to the wild type (WT, Col-0) plants, the anac044 mutant displayed P deficiency resistant phenotype, together with the increasing root length, root and shoot biomass under P deficiency. ANAC044 was frequently expressed, including roots and shoots. Upon P deficient treatment even within 1 d, ANAC044 transcript accumulation was strongly up-regulated. Further analysis revealed that, under P-deficient condition, the cell wall, particularly the pectin of anac044, released more P than that of WT, accompanied by an increment of ethylene production, as a result, more soluble P was available in anac044 root and shoot. Thus, the study here uncovers the role of ANAC044 in maintenance of P homeostasis through ethylene signaling.
Ferroptosis is a recently characterized form of regulated necrosis with the iron-dependent accumulation of (phospho)lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH). It has attracted considerable attention for its putative involvement in diverse pathophysiological processes, such as cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Here we describe the discovery of tetrahydroquinoxaline, a novel scaffold of ferroptosis inhibitors based on quantum chemistry methods. Tetrahydroquinoxaline deviates showed very good inhibition of ferroptosis, while being non cytotoxic for human cancer cells. And, the advantage of them is their small molecular weight (MW. = 148 Da) that can be coupled with other drugs to form multi-target drugs to better meet the treatment of complicated diseases.
Facultative, heritable endosymbionts are found at intermediate prevalence within most insect species, playing frequent roles in their hosts’ defense against environmental pressures. Focusing on Hamiltonella defensa, a common bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, we tested the hypothesis that such pressures impose seasonal balancing selection, shaping a widespread infection polymorphism. In our studied pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) population, Hamiltonella infection frequencies ranged from 23.2% to 68.1% across a six-month longitudinal survey. Rapid spikes and declines were consistent across fields, and we estimated that selection coefficients, for Hamiltonella-infected aphids, changed sign within this single season. Prior laboratory research suggested anti-parasitoid defense as the major Hamiltonella benefit, and costs under parasitoid absence. While a prior field study supported these forces as counter-weights in a regime of seasonal balancing selection, our present survey showed no significant relationship between parasitoid wasps and Hamiltonella. Field cage experiments provided some explanation: parasitoids drove ~10% boosts to Hamiltonella frequencies that would be hard to detect under less controlled conditions. They also showed that Hamiltonella was not always costly under parasitoid exclusion, contradicting another long-held prediction. Instead, our longitudinal survey – and two overwintering studies - showed temperature to be the strongest predictor of Hamiltonella infection, matching some lab discoveries, and suggesting thermally sensitive costs and benefits, unrelated to parasitism, can shape this symbiont’s prevalence. These results add to a growing body of evidence arguing for rapid, seasonal adaptation in multivoltine organisms. For many insects, such adaptation may be mediated through the diverse impacts of heritable symbionts on host phenotypes.
Introduction: The creation of the “open cavity” to clear cholesteatoma results in significant morbidity in over a third of patients. Various biological and non-biological materials have been used to reduce or obliterated these mastoid cavities. Materials and Methods: This study reports the technique and results of using hydroxyapatite granules with a pericranial flap to obliterate troublesome cavities. Results: 50 mastoid obliterations were performed in 48 patients. 94% no longer required water precautions 2 months post-operatively and may use conventional hearing aids. Discussion: This technique improves patients’ quality of life and can enable discharge of patients previously reliant on ENT services.
Global warming is already affecting plant phenology, growth and reproduction. A wide range of evidence indicates warming effects on reproductive and vegetative traits, as well as phenology, but seldom do studies assess these traits in concert and across the whole of a plant's life cycle, particularly in wild species. Further, while there is evidence that these effects vary between species little is known about the extent of within-species variation for plant persistence under future warming scenarios. We assessed trait variation in response to warming in Oreomyrrhis eriopoda, an Australian native montane herb, in which within-species variation in germination strategy and growth characteristics has been demonstrated. We quantified associations between developmental trajectories and population-level variation in germination timing and examined whether the next-generation traits are altered by maternal growth conditions. Warming effects were expressed in different traits during different developmental stages. The effect of warming varied as a function of germination strategy, but germination strategy itself was conserved across generations. Thus, we conclude that understand the response of wild species to warming takes a whole-of-life perspective and attention to ecologically significant patterns of within species variation.
Background: Successful active surveillance for infectious disease leads to increased case detection and better management outcomes. Because of that, the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP), Ghana introduced Symptoms-Based Screening (SBS) Tool for TB case finding. Despite these efforts, Ghana has not achieved the 10% target of TB screening in all out-patient departments attendees as recommended by the NTP. Therefore, this study determined the challenges and limitations of the SBS Tool used for active tuberculosis case finding in Ghana. Methods: This study targeted presumptive TB patients resident in Ho Municipality, Ghana. Presumptive TB patients, recruited from Ho Teaching and Ho Municipal Hospitals, were screened with the SBS tool and presumed TB patients tested for M. tuberculosis using microscopy and positive samples confirmed by geneXpert technique. Also health personnel were interviewed to assess the user-friendliness, challenges and limitations associated with the SBS tool. Chi square association of categorical data was done by STATA version 14.1. P-values <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From both hospitals, 636 presumptive patients and 24 health workers participated in this study. Of the total patients screened, 1.73% had active tuberculosis. Coughing for > 2 weeks (x2=24.8; p<0.05); chest pains (x2=28.3; p<0.01) and night sweat (x2=34.8; p<0.05) associated significantly with M. tuberculosis infection status. The main challenge associated with the SBS tool was its unfriendliness for administration while lack of enough indicators to identify other vulnerable individuals to TB (diabetics, cigarette smokers, alcoholics, immunocompromised and malnourished individuals) limited the sensitivity of the tool. Conclusion: The SBS tool was found not to be sensitive enough to identify infected cases. Inclusion of signs and symptoms of diabetes, immuno-suppression and malnutrition in the current tool and subsequent training of all relevant health personnel on the use of the tool could contribute to increase the sensitivity of the tool.
Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have shown great promise in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Recently, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-derived EVs have been considered for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, we evaluated the osteogenic capability of placental stem cell (PSC)-derived EVs and compared them to the well-characterized BMSC-derived EVs. EVs were extracted from three designated time points (0, 7, and 21 days) after osteogenic differentiation. The results showed that the PSC-derived EVs had much higher protein and lipid concentrations than EVs derived from BMSCs. The extracted EVs were characterized by observing their morphology and size distribution before utilizing next-generation sequencing to determine their miRNA profiles. It was identified that 306 miRNAs within the EVs, of which 64 were significantly expressed in PSC-derived EVs that related to osteogenic differentiation. In vitro osteogenic differentiation study indicated that the late-stage (21-day extracted) derived EVs higher osteogenic enhancing capability when compared to the early-stage derived EVs. We demonstrated that EVs derived from PSCs could be a new source of EVs for bone tissue engineering applications.
Background and Purpose. Since the onset of COVID-19 many clinical trials of drugs and/or vaccines are continuing and new ones are introduce daily. Yet the international research process failed to develop a preventative vaccine or potent therapeutic drugs for relieving the severity of the disease. Therefore, at present the best recommendation to people to slow the spread of the disease is; please stay at home and maintain social distancing! Experimental approach. Many aspects of pharmacotherapeutic mechanism of action of some previously approved drugs with anti-inflammatory effects, such as colchicine, in various disorders is not fully understood. Therefore, many potential therapeutic uses for these drugs and its analogues can be imagined. In this hypothesis article, an attempt has been made to evaluate some potential therapeutic effects of colchicine that may be benefit against COVID-19. Key Results. Prophylactic therapy with colchicine regulates the innate inflammatory response by blocking intracellular signaling pathways. This can inhibit respiratory alveolar destruction following COVID-19 pneumonia, which is the main cause of ARDS and death in these patients. Conclusion and Implications Since the macrophage and granulocytes are the main pro-inflammatory mediators in the lung, it seems application of therapeutic doses of colchicine, before the onset of respiratory problems, will protect the lung against severe damages and respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients. Obviously, many clinical trials are required to prove the validity of this claim.
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is an important and complex crops trait and its improvement represents a strategy to maintain high yield reducing N-supply. We report the genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of four eggplants contrasting for NUE to identify key genes related to the NUE pathway, after short- and long-term low-N exposure, in both root and shoot. Co-expression Gene Networks (CGN) analysis permitted to identify up-regulated differential expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the light reaction pathway, the biological processes response to inorganic substance, abiotic stimulus and cellular response to nitrogen starvation in high NUE genotypes. Some transcription factor (TF) were up-regulated in the N-use efficient genotypes, in particular, WRKY33 showed a significant up-regulation triggering the higher expression of 21 genes cluster including other TFs, many of which associated to N-metabolism. To validate our results, an independent de novo experiment including two other NUE-contrasting genotypes, at both low and high N supply, was carried out. Interestingly, the high significant WRKY33 expression and its cluster were confirmed in the high NUE genotypes at low-N supply. Moreover, the WRKY33 role was confirmed in Arabidopsis as the 35S::AtWRKY33 over expressing line showed a more competitive root system able to uptake more efficiently N from the soil.
We argue the advantages of field-based learning experiences for undergraduates, the societal imperative for training the next generation of field biologists, and the opportunity to increase the reach of field education dictate that we must meet the challenges of delivering field experiences in the context of a distanced educational environment. We report on our experiences as faculty and students in a spring 2020 Field Ornithology course adapted for remote delivery with an example of a student-centered framework for supporting independent field study. Feedback from students and instructors in this course indicate that remote field instruction is both possible and desirable. We suggest that an instruction model involving guided, independent field study can yield strong learning outcomes and promote self-directed inquiry. Based on reflections of the challenges and successes of our experiences, we provide an prompts for a for assessing the feasibility and desirability of proceeding with field-based education in a distanced environment with an emphasis on supporting student success.
Rational, Aims and Objectives: Prolonged symptoms after a mTBI, known as Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS), remains a challenging area of rehabilitation. Evidence shows that an active approach can improve prognosis, however PCS is a multifaceted condition with many comorbidities and large variety in patient response. This study investigated the use of submaximal aerobic exercise and body awareness therapy, and the influence on symptoms in PCS cases, viewed through the lens of evidence-based practice (EBP). Method: Four cases were separated into two case studies. Cases in Study A received an aerobic exercise protocol consisting of 8 individual sessions distributed twice a week over 4 weeks, with additional cervical endurance training. Cases in Study B received a body awareness therapy protocol consisting of 6 guided practices distributed twice a week over 3 weeks. Using method triangulation, both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through the use of the Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire (RPQ) and semi-structured interviews, as well as the Craniocervical Flexion Test (CCFT) in Study A, and the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36) questionnaire in study B. Lastly, research evidence on PCS was included to contextualize cases. Results: Both cases in Study A showed marked improvements in their RPQ scores, but only one showed improvement in the CCFT. In Study B, one case improved in RPQ score and in the mental component of SF-36v2, while the other case did not experience any significant change. All cases expressed positive associations with the interventions during the interviews. Conclusion: These results illustrate how an active and individualized approach can represent important qualities that can be applied to further and larger studies. Based on the results and discussion of this paper, relevant findings and suggestions are summarized in a modified EBP model, which may be of help to practitioners in dealing with PCS patients in the clinical practice.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the least common but most lethal of thyroid cancers despite various therapeutic options with limited efficacy. Some prognostic factors were identified in patients with ATC and a few patients survive for a relatively long time after modern intensive treatment. In order to help therapeutic decision-making, the purpose of this study was to develop a new prognostic score providing survival estimates in patients with ATC. METHODS Based on a multivariate analysis of 149 retrospectively analyzed patients diagnosed with ATC from 1968 to 2017 at a referral center, a propensity score was developed. A model was generated providing survival probability at 6 months and median overall survival estimates. RESULTS The median survival was 96 days. The overall survival rate was 35% at 6 months, 20% at 1 year and 13% at 2 years. Most of the patients (86%) died within 17 month, 17% died within the first month, 35% lived for 1–6 months and 47 % of the patients lived longer than 6 months after the initial consultation. The stepwise Cox regression revealed that the most appropriate death prediction model included metastatic spread, tumor size and age class as explanatory variables. This model made it possible to define three categories of patients with survival profiles which seems different: patients with no pejorative prognostic factor which had a survival probability at 6 months = 0,84 (95% CI: 0,69-1), patients with one or two pejoratives prognostics factors which have a survival probability at 6 months = 0,32 (95% CI: 0,22-0,46), and those with three pejoratives prognostics factors which had a survival probability at 6 months = 0,11 (95% CI: 0,018 - 0,71). CONCLUSION Distant metastasis, age and primary tumor size are strong independent factors that affect prognosis in patients with ATC. Using these significant pretreatment factors, we developed a score to predict survival in these poor prognosis patients in order to provide easy-to-use tools for clinical practice. External validation in an additional dataset is needed for further outlooks.
CAD/CAM complete dentures have shown to improve the fit and material strength than conventionally fabricated dentures, however there are no clinical protocols described for extreme residual ridge resorption. This report describes a combined workflow of conventional and novel techniques for CAD/CAM complete dentures fabrication for atrophic alveolar ridges.