Trichoderma is a fungal genus comprising species used as biocontrol agents in crop plant protection and with high value for industry. The beneficial effects of these species are supported by the secondary metabolites they produced. Terpenoid compounds are key players in the interaction of Trichoderma spp. with the environment and with their fungal and plant hosts, however most of the terpene synthase (TS) genes involved in their biosynthesis have yet not been characterized. Here, we combined comparative genomics of TSs of 21 strains belonging to 17 Trichoderma spp., and gene expression studies on TSs using T. gamsii T6085 as a model. An overview of the diversity within the TS-gene family and the regulation of TS genes is provided. We identified 15 groups of TSs, and the presence of clade-specific enzymes revealed a variety of terpenoid chemotypes evolved to cover different ecological demands. We propose that functional differentiation of gene family members is the driver for the high number of TS genes found in the genomes of Trichoderma. Expression studies provide a picture in which different TS genes are regulated in many ways, a strong indication of different biological functions.
Aim: To assess effect of high-dose vitamin C on cardiac injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The study was designed based on the severe and critically ill COVID-19 with cardiac injury. Demographics and baseline clinical characteristics were collected and analyzed in addition to laboratory examinations including inflammatory markers on admission and at 14 days after treatment from the electronic medical records. Participants were followed-up for 14 days after treatment with high-dose vitamin C in addition to conventional therapy. Result: The patients (n = 113) were categorized into the improved cardiac injury (ICI) group (n = 70) and the non-improved cardiac injury (NICI) group (n = 43). Overall, 51 (45.1%) patients were administrated with high-dose vitamin C, the percentages of patients treated with high-dose vitamin C were higher in the ICI group than that in the NICI group (52.8% vs 32.5%, P = 0.035). Further analysis showed that concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6 and IL-8 significantly decreased at 14 days after treatment in patients treated with high-dose vitamin C compared with those in patients administrated without high-dose vitamin C. Meanwhile, similar results were also observed regarding changes in inflammatory markers from baseline to 14 days after treatment in patients receiving high-dose vitamin C. Conclusion: High-dose vitamin C can improve cardiac injury through preventing hyper-inflammatory response in severe and critically ill COVID-19.
Senna didymobotrya is invasive native flowering shrubs mainly grow in Africa. Climate change thought to facilitates the introduction and spread of invasive alien species. The present study aimed at examining the present and future invasion of S. didymobotrya under the changing climatic using species distribution modeling. The mean AUC and TSS value of the model was (95%) and (81%), respectively, which put the model under an excellent category. Our result showed under the current climatic conditions 18.11% of the continent is suitable for S. didymobotrya invasion. Eastern African countries are found the most suitable habitat for S. didymobotrya invasion followed by southern African countries. The total highly suitable area for the species is 3.4% and 3.17% in 2050s under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. In the 2070s, the highly suitable area is predicted as 3.18 % and 2.73% in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. An area with the category of low to moderate suitability under RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5 in the 2050s is projected as 17.4 % and 20.5 % and this area is increased in the 2070s to19.11% and 22.82 for the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively. The results of this study showed a substantial contraction in the high suitability areas, but a large increase in the low and moderately suitable habitat. Despite the contraction in highly suitable areas, countries which are found suitable in the present climatic condition remains suitable for S. didymobotrya establishment. Our ensemble predicted a significant increase in the vulnerability of habitat for invasion under the future climatic scenarios. Our study suggests the future biodiversity conservation strategy and policy direction should focus on the means and strategy of limiting the rate of expansion of invasion and distribution in different ecosystem types, hence reduce the expected harm in the ecosystem services.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease affecting small ruminants. It has been targeted by the global community for eradication within the next 10 years. Implementing eradication requires significant financial efforts, human resources, coordination among actors, and individual commitments. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of PPR at household level, thereby providing economic information about the potential benefits for small ruminant keepers of PPR control and management strategies. Fifteen Sub-Saharan countries are included in this study, for which publicly available household level data assembled by FAO were used. We built a bioeconomic model to estimate the impact of PPR for a standardized theoretical area where each household raises an average herd comprising either 6 goats or 3 sheep and their offspring. We then used the outputs of the model to estimate the income loss due to PPR at household level. We constructed different income scenarios to account for the variability of small ruminant income in total annual income. The household income losses ranged from 0.6 to 44.8 percent of the total annual income. The percentages vary depending on the income scenario and on the gross annual economic impact of PPR on small ruminant production, which ranges from 25 to 80 percent based on the results of the bioeconomic model. Regardless of the income scenario, households in lower income quintiles are relatively more affected by PPR than households in upper quintiles. As expected, the more small ruminant production contributes to household income the greater the impact. We provide here estimates that may help, from a policy perspective, identifying the most relevant strategies and tailoring them at regional level to mitigate PPR impacts.
Production of specialty chemicals increasingly makes use of enzyme catalysts, and Novozym 435 (N435) is among most often applied. However, its polymeric skeleton is unstable in many solvents. In this context, we report results of a systematic study of the biocatalysts, fabricated using highly porous siliceous pellets/enzyme (MH), grafted with octyl (-O), amino (-A) and octyl and amino (-OA) groups, deployed in a rotating bed reactor and tested in hydrolysis and esterification reactions. N435 appeared the most active in both reactions, when activity was related to the catalyst’s mass, mainly owing to very large enzyme load. But its structure degraded in many typical solvents, whereas no such effect was detected in MH-O- and MH-OA-catalysts. MH-O showed the highest specific activity, however, a significant enzyme leaching was observed in a hydrolytic reaction, in contrast to MH-OA. In esterification reaction the MH-O-bound lipase was not only most active but also quite stable.
Structural, electronic, topological, vibrational and molecular docking studies have been performed for both enantiomeric S(-) and R(+) forms of potential antiviral to COVID-19 chloroquine (CQ) combining DFT calculations with SQMFF methodology. Hybrid B3LYP/6-311++G** calculations in gas phase and aqueous solution predict few energy differences between both forms. Solvation energies of S(-) and R(+) form are predicted in -55.07 and 59.91 kJ/mol, respectively. Low solvation energies of both forms are justified by the presence of only four donor and acceptor H bonds groups, as compared with other antiviral agents. MK charges on the Cl1, N2, N3 and N4 atoms and AIM calculations could support the high stability of R(+) form in solution according to the higher reactivity predicted for the S(-) form in this medium. Antiviral to COVID-19 niclosamide shows higher reactivity than both forms of CQ. Complete vibrational assignments of 153 vibration modes for both forms and scaled force constants have been reported here. Reasonable concordances were found between predicted and available 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV-Vis spectra. Additionally, NMR and UV-visible spectra suggest the presence of two forms of CQ in solution. A molecular docking study was performed to identify the potency of inhibition of Chloroquine molecule against COVID-19 virus
Antheraea proylei J, is an economically important silkworm of North Eastern region of India reared for the production of the tasar silk. The silkworm is often exposed to various microbial diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. The disease causes significant damage to larvae and elicit pupal mortality, thus posing a serious threat to the linked economic activities. The gut microbiome of silkworms play an important role, in nutrient acquisition and immunity. In this study, we have reported molecular characterization and histopathological assessment of gut associated bacteria of healthy and diseased tasar silkworms. As compared to healthy silkworms, diseased infected silk glands shows loss of turbidity, secretory layer not distinguishable to tunica propria and lumen distorted. Both secretory and absorptive cells were found to be hypertrophied. Body fat becomes vacuolated and soft when compared to the healthy silkworms. Bacterial profile of healthy and diseased silkworm respectively was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. Bacillus toyonensis and Bacillus thuringiensis were commonly found in healthy larvae whereas Bacillus aryabhattai and Bacillus megaterium were found in diseased larvae. The family Bacillus of phylum Firmicutes was dominant in both healthy and diseased silkworms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to study A. proylei midgut microbiota from a biodiversity hotspot in North Eastern India. The present study might be helpful in disease prognosis and further comprehensive analysis on midgut microflora may lead towards the development of effective strategies for management of these economic silkworms.
Flux experiments and fluorescence microscopy were combined and optimized to visualize the membrane surface during biofouling of two mixed cellulose ester membranes. Using flux measurements, the fouling by bovine serum albumin (BSA) was measured in the presence of 1 to 12% labeled BSA. By fitting the relative flux decays to an exponential decay for statistical analysis, the dye in this range of labeled protein was found to not affect the fouling nature of the protein. A 2.5% or 5% labeled protein sample was determined to be the best percent labeled protein for fluorescence imaging the membrane because the beginning of cake formation was observed within 25 min of experimental time. Finally, by fitting the flux data to four different biofouling mechanism equations, we conclude that both membranes, though at different rates, have BSA depositing inside the membrane pores restricting the flow eventually leading to cake formation. The combination of the two techniques allows for further insight into the biofouling mechanism of BSA, and this method can be applied to other biological molecules.
Pine wilt disease (PWD), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is an extremely threatening invasion forest disease throughout the world, especially in Asia. B. xylophilus is spread in Asia by vector beetles of Monochamus alternatus, which has long no effective control method. Understanding of landscape effects on the dispersal and outbreaks of forest pests is crucial to establishing effective ecological control strategies. Here, we analyzed the samples of M. alternatus collected at landscapes in order to estimate the effects of landscape types on the genetic structure and dispersal of M. alternatus. The landscapes included the geographical scales, forest types and land uses. The individuals of M. alternatus were genotyped by using whole-genome resequencing. Population genetic structures were clearly differentiated at the intermediate scale, suggesting the intermediate scale is an effective barrier against natural dispersal of M. alternatus. We used the least-coat distances, least-cost transect analysis, and distance-based redundancy analysis to estimate the effects of forest types and land uses within the fine scales. The results showed that the gene flow and genetic diversity were positively correlated with host and mixed forests, whereas negatively with non-host forests. Among land-use landscapes, the roads had the positive effect on gene flow and genetic diversity but farmland and urban uses had negative effects. This highlights that human-mediated transport via roads was likely to be the main factor leading to the long-distance invasion of M. alternatus, whereas non-host landscapes could suppress the spread of this species. These findings may be useful to control the PWD dispersed by M. alternatus.
With the intensification of global warming, rice production is facing new challenges. Field evidence indicates increased temperature during rice grain-filling lead to a further deterioration of grain quality. Clarifying the potential regulation mechanism of elevated temperature on rice development and quality formation will be contributed to develop suitable cultivation measures to better cope with climate warming in the future. In this study, open field warming and DIA mass spectrometry were conducted to explore the regulatory effects of high temperature on pathways related to grain development and material accumulation during the formation of rice quality. 840 differentially expressed proteins (fold change > 2, p-value < 0.05) were identified when exposed to high temperature. Among these, prolamin PPROL 14E, PSB28, granule-bound starch synthase 1 and 26.7 kDa heat shock protein were the most significantly regulated, and that ultimately affected the main substances accumulation of starch and protein in the kernel, and further degraded rice quality under high temperature. In addition, the results provided novel targets involved in regulating the metabolism of storage compounds under warming environment, and that will help us to better understand the regulation mechanism of global warming on the formation of rice quality.
We have constructed a new bioreactor with reciprocal mixing that is better suited for the cultivation of delicate animal cells. In-silico simulation (computational fluid dynamics) suggested both maximum and average shear stresses in the bioreactor with reciprocal mixing to be remarkably lower than in conventional bioreactor with rotary mixing. Although we could not find any difference in growth speed and cell density between the bioreactors with reciprocal and rotary mixing, we did find cell viability in reciprocal-mixing bioreactor to be retained longer than in rotary-paddle bioreactor. This implied that cell culture in a bioreactor with reciprocal mixing could be prolonged for the production of target proteins. Leakage of lactate dehydrogenase activity into the culture medium was suppressed much more in the reciprocal-mixing bioreactor than in the rotary-paddle one. Production of human tissue plasminogen activator in the former was also observed to be much more than in the latter. Therefore, bioreactor with reciprocal mixing was concluded to be better suited for the cultivation of animal cells and efficient production of proteins, such as antibody drugs and various growth factors.
Background: Patients with cardiovascular disease are more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and have worse outcomes when infected. This study reports the largest and most comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation of patients with severe COVID-19 at a quaternary care hospital in the second most affected state in the US, New Jersey. Methods: Clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic features of consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 undergoing echocardiography were studied. Clinical outcome data including length of stay, requirement of mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality were collected. Results: 987 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were treated at our institution of which 146 consecutive patients (15%) underwent echocardiographic evaluation. Median age was 63 years ;37% were females, 21% had known CAD and 20% had CKD. 57% of patients required mechanical ventilation and 50% required vasopressors . 31% of patients died during the index hospitalization. There was a high prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities including right ventricular dilation (33%) or dysfunction (21%), left ventricular dysfunction (20%), and pericardial effusion (13%). Multiple biomarkers including troponin T, pro BNP, dimer and CRP were strongly associated with echocardiographic abnormalities and in-hospital mortality. On Cox regression analysis, age (HR 1.04/year) and CAD (HR 2.4) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Severe COVID-19 infection is accompanied by a significant burden of echocardiographic abnormalities that are strongly correlated with higher degrees of inflammation and biomarker elevation. Additional investigation is warranted in assessing the role of a biomarker-guided approach for early cardiac surveillance using echocardiography in further risk stratifying patients and tailoring adjunctive therapy.
Background, aims and objectives: With ageing global populations, hospitals need to adapt to ensure high quality hospital care for older inpatients. Older person friendly hospital (OPFH) principles and practices to improve care for older people are recognised, but many remain poorly implemented in practice. The aim of this study was to understand barriers and enablers to achieving OPFH from the perspective of key informants within an academic health system. Methods: Interpretive phenonomenological study, using open-ended interviews conducted by a single researcher with experienced clinicians, managers, academics and consumers who had peer-recognised interest in care of older people. Initial coding was guided by the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. Coding and charting was cross checked by three researchers, and themes validated by an expert reference group. Reporting was guided by COREQ guidelines. Results: Twenty interviews were completed (8 clinicians, 7 academics, 4 clinical managers, 1 consumer). Key elements of OPFH were: older people and their families are recognized and respected; skilled compassionate staff work in effective teams; and care models and environments support older people across the system. Valuing care of older people underpinned three other key enablers: empowering local leadership, investing in implementation and monitoring, and training and supporting a skilled workforce. Conclusions: Progress towards OPFH will require genuine partnerships between clinicians, consumers, health system managers, policy makers and academic organisations, and reframing the value of caring for older people in hospital.
Pneumopericardium is a rare entity in adults. We present a case of non-iatrogenic pneumopericardium that manifested after a pericardiocentesis procedure for pericardial effusion, resulting from an underlying tracheopericardial fistula. We discuss our patient's presentation and management of this unique entity.
Purpose: Tophi can cause several severe complications. However, the predictors of tophi formation are not intensively researched. The aim of the study is to develop and validate a new prediction model for tophi formation amongst patients with gout. Methods: A prediction model was developed using data collected from 158 gout patients treated in the inpatient department of The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University from May 2018 to May 2020. For the establishment and validation of the prediction nomogram, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model and the multivariable logistic regression analysis were conducted to determine the predictors. C-index, calibration plot and decision curve analysis were utilised to evaluate discrimination, calibration and clinical effectiveness of the predicting nomogram. Then, the nomogram was internally validated using a bootstrap procedure. Results: Nine predictors – hospitalisation frequency, disease duration, number of joints involved in gouty arthritis, gout flares frequency, smoking, and whether combined with atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and kidney dysfunction – were determined from the prediction nomogram. The C-index of the nomogram was 0.854 (95% confidence interval: 0.772-0.936), and was confirmed to be 0.810 when tested through a bootstrap validation, suggesting the model’s good discrimination and prediction capability. Conclusion: A new model with nine predictors was developed to predict the risks of tophi formation amongst gout patients. The included predictors were practical and easy to obtain, whilst the nomogram was proved to predict the risks of tophi formation effectively and accurately. Keywords：tophi formation, gout, predictors, nomogram
Paravalvular leak (PVL) after mitral valve replacement is the most common type of nonstructural prosthetic valve dysfunction. While most patients with only mild-moderate PVL are asymptomatic, those with severe PVL can present with heart failure and hemolysis, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Surgical correction has remained the gold standard therapy for symptomatic PVL; however, for high surgical risk patients, percutaneous approaches have emerged as an alternative management. With the emergence of transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve techniques for failed bioprosthesis and rings, valve-in-valve PVL is being encountered more frequently and is identified as a challenging entity. We present a case of a symptomatic patient with a moderate – severe valve-in-valve PVL after two mitral valve replacements who then underwent a transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve-in-valve implantation with a 29mm Edwards® SAPIEN3 valve via transseptal approach. This unique case highlights the complexity of this clinical entity and recognizes three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool to guide valve-in-valve PVL closures.
Rationale, aims, and objectives: The coronavirus pandemic has disrupted normal activities across the world, from economy to socialization, and claiming hundreds of thousands of lives. The activities in radiopharmacy laboratories across the globe have been affected significantly. This survey was conducted to assess the effect of COVID-19 on radiopharmacy and activities going on in the laboratories around the world. This was meant to undertake a preliminary record of the continuing survey. Methods: A three-sectioned questionnaire with 12 questions was distributed to the professional working on radiopharmacy laboratories. The sections included demographic information, the effect of the pandemic on the regular operation on a radiopharmacy, and the measures taken to prevent the spread of the virus among the laboratory staff. Random sampling approach was used to select 100 respondents, including staff and radiochemists, across different parts of the world. Results: The survey demonstrated that the pandemic hugely impacted activities in a radiopharmacy laboratory. 98% of the respondents reported major disruptions in the normal schedule in the laboratory. Even though some laboratories continued working normally, strict measures were put in place to prevent the spread of the virus among the staff. In many radiopharmacy laboratories, diagnostic procedures and tests quantitatively decreased. The survey reported positron emission radiopharmaceutical fluorodeoxyglucose F-18 (F18-FDG) as the frequently organ imaging radiopharmaceutical during the pandemic. Conclusions: The survey showed that COVID-19 has negatively impacted activities in a radiopharmacy laboratory, consequently affecting research activities.
Multiple myeloma had been an incurable hematological malignancy, recent advances in novel anti-neoplastic agents, including carfilzomib (CFZ), have improved the prognosis. CFZ has been reported to have cardiotoxic effects. Notably, the incidence of peripheral blood eosinophilia was not described. This is the first report of eosinophilia developing after CFZ.