In this paper, we consider a predator-prey model with Cosner type functional response and combined harvesting. First, we explore the existence and stability of the equilibria. Then using the center manifold theorem and normal form theory, we investigate codimension one and codimension two bifurcations of the model. The analysis shows that the system has a variety of bifurcation phenomena including transcritical bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation and homoclinic bifurcation. Our findings indicate that the dynamics with harvesting are significantly richer than the system without harvesting. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to support the analytical results.
Drug resistance, a major challenge in cancer therapy, is typically attributed to mutations and genetic heterogeneity. On the other hand, emerging evidence suggests that dynamic cellular interactions and group behavior also contribute to drug resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we present a new mathematical approach with game theoretical underpinnings that we developed to model real-time growth data of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and discern patterns in response to treatment 68 with cisplatin. We show that the cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-tolerant NSCLC cells when co69 cultured in the absence or presence of the drug, display dynamic group behavior strategies. Tolerant cells exhibit a ‘persister-like’ behavior and are attenuated by sensitive cells; they also appear to ‘educate’ sensitive cells to evade chemotherapy. Further, tolerant cells can switch phenotypes to become sensitive, especially at low cisplatin concentrations. Finally, switching treatment from continuous to an intermittent regimen can attenuate the emergence of tolerant cells, suggesting that intermittent chemotherapy may improve outcomes in lung cancer.
Background: In addition to the elimination diet, dietary composition may influence disease severity in patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) through modulation of the immune response. Aim: To explore the immunomodulatory role of nutrition before and during elimination diet in adult EoE patients. Methods: Nutritional intake was assessed in 39 Dutch adult EoE patients participating in the Supplemental Elemental Trial (SET) using 3-day food diaries. In this randomized controlled trial, diagnosed patients received either a four-food elimination diet alone (FFED) or FFED with addition of an amino acid-based formula for six weeks. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the intake of nutrients and food groups per 1000 kCal and peak eosinophil count/High Power Field (PEC), both at baseline and after six weeks. Results: At baseline, we found a statistically significant negative (thus favorable) relationship between the intake of protein, total fat, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin B12, folate and milk products and PEC (p<0.05), while calcium (p=0.058) and full fat cheese/curd (p=0.056) were borderline (favorably) significant. In contrast, total carbohydrates, prepacked fruit juice and white bread were significantly positively related to PEC (p<0.05) (unfavorable), while ultra-processed meals (p=0.059) were borderline (unfavorably) significant. After dietary intervention, coffee/tea were significantly negatively (favorably) related to PEC, hummus/legumes were significantly positively (unfavorably) related with PEC, while peanuts were borderline significantly positively related (p=0.058). Conclusion: Dietary composition may be related to inflammation in adult EoE patients. High quality and anti-inflammatory diets may be a promising adjuvant therapy in the dietary management of EoE.
This systematic literature review scrutinizes the implementation and analysis of zk-SNARK, zk-STARK, and Bulletproof non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (NIZKP) protocols in privacy-preserving applications across diverse sectors. Examining 43 research works published from 2015 to April 2023, we categorized findings into financial, medical, business, general, and other domains. Our analysis highlights significant variations in real-world performance across implementations utilizing NIZKP protocols. However, divergent methodologies in security analyses hindered conclusive comparisons. Addressing research gaps, our future endeavors aim to establish a real-world benchmark for these protocols.
The Additively-Manufactured, System-Integrated Tip (AMSIT) project is leveraging the flexibility of 3D printing to integrate several technologies in a wind turbine blade tip, while reducing the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) produced. The design integration is demonstrated for a 200 kilowatt-scale turbine with 13-meter blades, with the outer 15% of the blade replaced with a 3D-printed design. Aerodynamic performance is enhanced through inclusion of a winglet and surface texturing, both challenging for traditional manufacturing. Longevity and durability is improved through integrated lightning and leading edge erosion protection. Increased power, reduced repair frequency, and ease of repair through blade modularity all contribute to reduced LCOE. Cost models are are extended to modern megawatt-scale designs to estimate the impact of the technology at scale, demonstrating the potential to reduce LCOE very significantly for modern onshore turbines, with even higher potential savings offshore.
3-Idolenone is a key intermediate in the synthesis of many drugs and plays an important role in synthetic chemistry and biochemi-stry. A new method for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated 3-indolenones by carbonylation reaction catalyzed by Pd (0) is de-scribed. In the absence of an additive, 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-propylene (a cheap ozone-friendly CF3 structural unit) reacts with indole and carbon monoxide to synthesize trifluoromethylatedindolenone, good yield, Regioselectivity and Chemoselectivity, and strong resistance to basal functional groups such as alkynes, aldehydes and esters. It is worth mentioning that not only indole compounds can be well transformed into the corresponding products, pyrrole, hetero-indole also can be well completed the cor-responding chemical transformation. This late construction of trifluoromethylated indole/pyrrole 3-ketene provides a scientific method.
The development of efficient and sustainable methods to obtain spirocyclic compounds is of significance as these structures are widely found in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Herein, we disclose an electrochemical dearomative spirocyclization of N-acyl sulfonamides in a continuous-flow cell. The reaction is simple and efficient without external catalysts or supporting electrolytes, in-cluding a decagram-scale synthesis.
A new species of Ixora (Rubiaceae), Ixora fernandoi C.B. Moran, from Dinagat Island, Philippines is formally described and illustrated. This species is easily recognized from other known Ixora species by its infloresceence that are erect to drooping, articulate throughout, flower bud with rounded apex, calyx tube not more than 2 mm long; corolla tube 6–8 mm long; corolla lobes elliptic oblong.
Sea-level fluctuations in the marginal seas of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the Pleistonene have profoundly influenced the genetic structure of marine organisms. Previous phylogeographic studies have mainly focused on fish and molluscs; other taxonomic groups have been poorly studied, which restricts a comprehensive understanding of the geogenetic patterns of marine species in this area. To precisely understand how environmental factors and historical events shape the population structure of the sea pen Cavernularia obesa in the East China Sea, we determined partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in 71 individuals from five sites. Results of population Genetic and demographic analyses revealed a low genetic diversity within each population. Moreover, the historical population size change showed that the populations experienced bottlenecks during the Pleistonene. The sea level of the East China Sea decreased by >100 m when the glacial advanced during the Pleistonene, which caused the shrinking of habitats for marine species and eventually resulted in low genetic diversity within the populations in this area.
Polymer mechanochemistry on reactive species has attracted more and more attentions over the past 20 years, as the mechanochemical generation of reactive species has a great potential in developing different polymeric materials for various proposes, such as stress detection, self-healing, self-strengthening, controllable degradation and release of small molecules. In this review, we first discuss the recent progress on polymer mechanochemistry of the reactive species that are generated from the mechanochemical reactions of mechanophores. Five types of reactive species, including radical, zwitterion, ionic, carbene and neutral intermediates, and their applications were reviewed in detail. Since mechanochemical reactions are sensitive to the mechanophore structure and polymer framework, we then discuss how mechanophore isomerism, polymer structure, polymer attachment point, and polymer architecture influence the mechanophore activation. At last, we provide our perspectives on the polymer mechanochemistry of reactive species.
Background: autoimmune diseases (ADS) are associated with sepsis. This study aims to investigate the causalities between ADs and sepsis using Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods: we extracted single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) closely associated with 10 ADs, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), celiac disease (CD), psoriasis (PsO), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and ulcerative colitis (UC) from the GWAS. Two-sample MR analysis was conducted using GWAS data from the UK Biobank to assess the association between the liability of each ad and sepsis and sepsis-related 28-day mortality. The inverse variance-weighted (IVW) method was used as the primary analysis. If sig-nificant causal relationships are found (considering multiple comparisons) in the univariate MR analysis, multivariate MR (MVMR) analysis is performed to adjust for body mass index (BMI) and smoking. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to validate the robustness of the results. Results: after adjusting for multiple testing, MR analysis revealed that PSC patients are responsible for increased susceptibility to sepsis using the IVW method (OR:1.033, 95%CI:1.007-1.060, PFDR = 0.020). Further sensitivity analyses validated the robustness of the above association. Even after adjusting for BMI and smoking, the MVMR-IVW still displayed a positive correlation（OR:1.043, 95%CI:1.022-1.064, P-value for IVW = 3.32E-05） between PSC patients and susceptibility to sepsis. However, no significant causal relationship was observed between SLE, RA, T1D, MS, IBD, CD, PsO, PBC, and UC with susceptibility to sepsis or short-term death risk. Conclusions: our MR analysis revealed a genetic susceptibility of PSC to sepsis. However, no causal relationship was observed between SLE, RA, T1D, MS, IBD, CD, PsO, PBC, and UC with suscep-tibility to sepsis or short-term death risk. Keywords: autoimmune diseases; sepsis; primary sclerosing cholangitis; Mendelian randomization
There are few accurate prognostic indications of the illness’s development and severity for COVID-19, despite certain biomarkers having been investigated. The unexpected nature of COVID-19’s course, which can quickly progress from asymptomatic to severe disease, lies at the heart of the disease’s intricacy. Predicting SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity through laboratory biomarkers and as such, identifying the patients’ illness severity at the time of initial admission would be crucial in aiding patient care. In this study, we sought to evaluate hematological, biochemical and inflammatory biomarkers in COVID-19 patients. This was a cross-sectional research with 48 COVID-19 patients (16 asymptomatic/mild, 16 moderate, and 16 severe) and 48 age-sex matched COVID-19-negative clients from Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya. On admission, demographic information, symptoms, and laboratory test results were collected. Significantly, COVID-19 severity was associated with hemoglobin (p<0.0001), white blood cells (p=0.0022), hematocrit (p<0.0001), blood urea nitrogen (p=0.01), blood sodium (p=0.0002), potassium (p=0.0483), C-reactive protein (p=0.0002), and Lactate Dehydrogenase (p<0.0001). CRP showed a high positive connection (0.5433; p=0.0006) with COVID-19 severity, but LDH showed a mild positive correlation (0.2484; p<0.0001). When comparing asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 to severe COVID-19, discriminative accuracy for CRP and LDH was greatest (AUC:0.8867, 95% CI:0.7532-1.000) and (AUC:1.000, 95% CI:1.000-1.000), respectively. Inflammatory biomarkers, hematological and biochemical indices have the potential to complement SARS-CoV-2 testing and predict the course of COVID-19. This will be useful in designing appropriate care for COVID-19 patients through targeted therapy.
Organic difluoroboron complexes is a kind of potential platforms for a wide range of applications owing to their excellent photo-physical properties. Herein, we have explored a simple and direct synthesis methodologies for a library of N,O-Bidentate difluoroboron complexes from quinoxalin-2(1H)-ones and ketones in one shot. The photophysical properties of the generated com-plexes were evaluated and the application potential of these compound on subcellular was also explored.
A disposable monolithic column mass spectrometry kit was developed based on monolithic column for microsampling, purification, storage, transportation and direct MS analysis of whole blood. The kit mainly consists of a capillary for quantitative microsampling of very small amount of blood (2 μL), a cation exchange monolithic column for purification and storage, and a syringe for loading sample. The cost of the kit is estimated to only one dollar. This MS kit is very friendly to various users that one can easily siphon small amount blood in the kit followed by rapid sample clean-up in 30s. We established a rapid quantitative method using the kit with a limit detection as low as 0.33 nM, achieved more than five orders of magnitude enhancement in MS analysis sensitivity compared to nanoelectrospray ionization MS analysis. The kit can avoid analyte exposure to oxygen, moisture and sunlight, which helps the storage of the sample. The relative standard deviation within 10 days were less than 10%. This method has been successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of procainamide hydrochloride in 2 μL rat blood. These results indicate that this kit does have the potential to achieve low-cost, highly sensitive quantitative MS analysis of biological sample.
Primulina guarouba, a new species from the limestone area of northern Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated. According to the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analysis, it nests in a strongly supported clade (BP = 99%) that includes P. cordifolia, P. repanda and P. huangii. Of these, P. guarouba is similar to the P. cordifolia in morphology, but it is easily distinguished from the latter by some of the distinct characters in leaf blade, peduncles, bracts, calyx, corolla, pistil.
Stability against oxygen is an important factor affecting the performance of organic semiconductor devices. Improving photooxidation stability can prolong the service life of the device and maintain the mechanical and photoelectric properties of the device. Generally, various encapsulation methods from molecular structure to macroscopic device level are used to improve photooxidation stability. Here, we adopted a crystallization strategy to allow 14H-spiro[dibenzo[c,h]a-cridine-7,9′-uorene] (SFDBA) to pack tightly to resist fluo-rescence decay caused by oxidation. In this case, the inert group of SFDBA acts as a “steric armor”, protecting the photosensitive group from being attacked by oxygen. Therefore, compared with the fluorescence quenching of SFDBA powder under two hours of sunlight, SFDBA crystal can maintain its fluorescence emission for more than eight hours under the same conditions. Furthermore, the photolu-minescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of the crystalline film is 327.37 % higher than that of the amorphous film. It shows that the crystal-lization strategy is an effective method to resist oxidation.
The SARS-CoV-2 immune response is crucial for disease management, although diminishing immunity raises the possibility of reinfection. In matched samples collected at one month and six to eight months after infection, we examined the immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 in a group of convalescent critically ill COVID-19 patients. The PBMCs were isolated from enrolled study participants and flow cytometry analysis was done to assess the lymphocyte subsets of naive, effector, central memory, and effector memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in COVID-19 patients at one month and six to eight months after infection. Immunophenotypic characterization of immune cell subsets was performed on individuals who were followed longitudinally for one month (n=44) and up to 6-8 months (n=25) after recovery from COVID infection. We observed that CD4+ T cells in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients tended to decrease, whereas CD8+ T cells steadily recovered after one month, while there was a sustained increase in the population of effector T cells and effector memory T cells. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients showed persistently low B cells and a small increase in the NK cell population. In conclusion, our findings show that T cell responses were maintained at 6-8 months after infection. This opens new pathways for further research into the long-term effects in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.
Condition monitoring and evaluation of wind turbine drivetrain hold great importance. However, the implementation of real-time monitoring often faces challenges in efficiency and accuracy, as the drivetrain typically operates under harsh conditions. In order to resolve this, this paper proposes a vibration-based damage monitoring digital twin (VBDM-DT) that enables the online intelligent evaluation of wind turbine drivetrain. The VBDM-DT integrates a random wind load model, a high-fidelity dynamics model, and a fatigue damage model. The random wind load model takes the wind speed from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) as input to estimate the input torque of the drivetrain in real time. Simultaneously, VBDM-DT uses the vibration signals from the condition monitoring system (CMS) to intelligently calibrate the dynamics model, allowing it to be continuously adjusted and optimized in response to actual vibrations. And the fatigue damage model takes the real-time dynamic load estimated by the high-fidelity dynamics model as input to realize real-time fatigue damage monitoring of key components of the drivetrain. The VBDM-DT model is applied to a 2 MW wind turbine drivetrain to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, a visualization platform is developed to vividly and intuitively display the real-time operating information, dynamic loads, and damage levels of the key components of wind turbine.