The CRISPR-Cas system of Prokaryotes is an adaptive immune defense mechanism to protect themselves from invading genetic elements (e.g. phages and plasmids). Studies that describe the genetic organization of these prokaryotic systems have mainly reported on the Enterobacteriaceae family (now reorganized within the order Enterobacteriales). For some genera, data on CRISPR-Cas systems remain poor, as in the case of Serratia (now part of the Yersiniaceae family) where data are limited to a few genomes of the species marcescens. This study describes the detection, in silico, of CRISPR loci in 146 Serratia complete genomes and 336 high-quality assemblies available for the species ficaria, fonticola, grimesii, inhibens, liquefaciens, marcescens, nematodiphila, odorifera, oryzae, plymuthica, proteomaculans, quinivorans, rubidaea, symbiotic, and ureilytica. Apart from subtypes I-E and I-F1, which had previously been identified in marcescens, we report that of I-C and the variants I-ES1, I-ES2 and I-F1S1. Analysis of the genomic contexts for CRISPR loci revealed mdtN-phnP as the region mostly shared (grimesii, inhibens, marcescens, nematodiphila, plymuthica, rubidaea, and Serratia sp.). Three new contexts detected in genomes of rubidaea and fonticola (puu genes-mnmA) and rubidaea (osmE-soxG and ampC-yebZ) were also found. Plasmid and/or phage origin of spacers was also established.
Brucella, a zoonotic agent is a rare pathogen of the lung. This intracellular organism can involve pleura in sub-acute and chronic course of the disease, and it should be considered in endemic area of brucellosis. Here, we present an extremely rare case of brucella pleurisy that referred with chest pain.
Background There is evidence gastrointestinal (GI) motility may play a role in the development of GI cancers. Weak opioids (codeine and dihydrocodeine) decrease GI motility, but their effect on GI cancer risk has not been assessed. Aim To assess the association between weak opioids and cancers of the GI tract. Methods A series of nested case-control studies was conducted using Scottish general practice records from the Primary Care Clinical Informatics Unit Research database. Oesophageal (n=2,432), gastric (n=1,443), and colorectal cancer (n=8,750) cases, diagnosed between 1999 and 2011, were identified and matched with up to five controls. Weak opioid use was identified from prescribing records. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant comorbidities and medication use. Results There was no association between weak opioids and colorectal cancer (adjusted OR=0.96, CI 0.90, 1.02, p=0.15). There was an increased risk of oesophageal (adjusted OR=1.16, CI 1.04, 1.29, p=0.01) and gastric cancer (adjusted OR=1.26, CI 1.10, 1.45, p=0.001). The associations for oesophageal cancer, but not gastric cancer, were attenuated when weak opioid users were compared with users of another analgesic (adjusted OR=1.03 CI 0.86, 1.22, p=0.76 and adjusted OR=1.29 CI 1.02, 1.64, p=0.04 respectively). Conclusion In this large population-based study, there was no consistent evidence of an association between weak opioids and oesophageal or colorectal cancer risk, but a small increased risk of gastric cancer. Further investigation is required to determine whether this association is causal or reflects residual confounding or confounding by indication.
Spherical particle catalysts (PILs-XSS) were synthesized by suspension polymerization, which was characterized by SEM-EDS, FT-IR, TG, and BET-BJH. The characterization results showed that PILs-XSS had a specific core structure, a certain pore size (14.3nm), and surface area size (71.5m2/g), and remained stable at 293.4 °C. The catalyst performance was evaluated by a one-pot synthesis of dimethyl carbonate. The process conditions were optimized in detail. The optimal reaction conditions were as follows: the dosage of PILs-XSS was 2.5 wt %, the CO2 pressure was 1.5 MPa, the reaction temperature was 100 °C, the reaction time was 4 h, the molar ratio of methanol to propylene oxide （PO）was 3: 1, and the dosage of cocatalyst Na2CO3 was 3 wt %. Under the optimum conditions, the conversion of PO was up to 98.8 % and the yield of DMC reached 53.7 %.
Background: Whether Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used for pathogenic diagnosis is still controversial. This was conducted to test the accuracy and reliability of ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia and to clarify whether ultrasound has diagnostic value for the etiology. Methods: A total of 135 neonatal pneumonia patients with an identified pathogen and 50 newborns with normal lungs in the newborn intensive care unit of 10 tertiary hospitals in China were enrolled. The study ran from November 2020 to December 2021. The infants were divided into various groups according to pathogens, the time of infection, the gestational age, the severity of the disease. The distribution of pleural line abnormalities, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary consolidation, as well as the incidence of air bronchogram and pleural effusion based on LUS, were compared between the above groups and between the pneumonia and healthy control groups. Results: There were significant differences in pulmonary consolidation. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of severe pneumonia based on the extent of pulmonary consolidation were 83.3% and 85.2%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the identification of mild or severe pneumonia based on the distribution of pulmonary consolidation was 0.776. Conclusion: Lung ultrasound has good performance in differentiating the severity of neonatal pneumonia, but cannot be used for pathogenic diagnosis.
Objective: To investigate the regulatory role of microRNA-34a-5p on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the course of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Methods: Build the SD rats BPD model. 10 rats were randomly selected on postnatal days 1, 7, 14 and 21 to observe the morphological changes of rat lung tissue. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technique detection of miR-34a-5p and VEGF mRNA expression. Elisa was used to detect VEGF expression levels in lung tissues. RLE-6TN cells were divided into the miR-34a-5p-mimic group, miR-34a-5p-inhibitor group, NC group, and inhibitor-NC group. QRT-PCR technique was used to detect the expression of miR-34a-5p and VEGF mRNA levels, and Western blot was used to detect VEGF protein expression levels. Results: As the number of days increased, the lung tissues of rats in the experimental group showed pathological changes of “new BPD”. The expression levels of miR-34a-5p in experimental group were significantly higher than those in control group on day 14 and day 21, and the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein in experimental group were significantly lower than those in control group from day 14 onwards. The differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05). In the cell model, the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein levels in miR-34a-5p-mimic group decreased compared to the NC group, while the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein levels in miR-34a-5p-inhibitor group increased compared to inhibitor-NC group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: MiR-34a-5p may be involved in the pathogenesis of “new BPD” through the regulation of VEGF.
A 48-year-old woman was diagnosed with right-sided Grade 2 invasive breast carcinoma. Prior to initiation of chemotherapy, transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) demonstrated normal systolic function with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 64% and global longitudinal strain (GLS) 21%. Following adjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of anthracycline, twelve cycles of Paclitaxel, and two cycles of Trastuzamab chemotherapies, TTE demonstrated reduction in LVEF to 56% and GLS of -18% (14% relative reduction compared to baseline). Further investigation revealed recent symptomatic COVID-19 infection coinciding with functional impairment and decision was made to continue Trastuzumab therapy without cardioprotective agents. Subsequent TTE demonstrated improved systolic function, indicating the importance of taking history of significant viral infections during chemotherapy standard of care.
Introduction: The InPOG-HL-15-01, a multi-centric prospective study used a risk-stratified and response-based approach with a doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) backbone to treat children with newly diagnosed Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) and reduce the use of radiation therapy (RT). Children/adolescents with bulky disease or inadequate response at early response assessment (ERA) after 2 cycles of chemotherapy were assigned to receive RT. For ERA, positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) was recommended but not mandatory in view of limited access. This study aimed to compare the impact of using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) vs PET-CT on treatment decisions and outcomes. Methodology: 396 patients were enrolled and 382 had an ERA at the assigned time point. Results: At ERA, satisfactory response was documented in 277/382 (72.5%) participants and this was significantly higher in PET-CT (151/186, 81.2%) as compared to CECT (126/196, 64.3%) respectively (p value<0.001). Amongst the 203 patients with non-bulky disease (wherein the indication for RT was entirely dependent on ERA), 96/114 (84.2%) and 61/89 (68.5%) patients achieved a satisfactory response according to the PET-CT and CECT (p value=0.008) respectively and hence a lesser proportion of patients in the PET-CT arm received RT. Despite a lower usage of RT the 5 year overall survival (OS) of both groups- ERA based on CECT (91.8%) vs PET-CT (94.1%) was comparable (p value=0.391) and so was the 5 year event free survival (EFS) (86.7 vs 85.5%, p value=0.724). Conclusion: Use of PET-CT as the modality for ERA is more likely to indicate a satisfactory response as compared to CECT and thereby decreases the need for RT in response-based treatment algorithm for HL afflicted children. The reduction in the application of RT did not impact the overall outcome and plausibly would lower the risk of delayed toxic effects.
1. Recent empirical studies have quantified correlation between survival and recovery by estimating these parameters as correlated random effects with Bayesian multivariate mixed effects models fit to tag-recovery data. In these applications, increasingly negative correlation between survival and recovery indicates increasingly additive harvest mortality. The power of mixed effects models to detect non-zero correlations has rarely been evaluated and these few studies have not focused on a common data type in the form of tag recoveries. 2. We assessed the power of multivariate mixed effects models to estimate negative correlation between annual survival and recovery. Using three priors for multivariate normal distributions, we fit mixed effects models to a mallard (Anas platyrhychos) tag-recovery dataset and to simulated data with sample sizes corresponding to different levels of monitoring intensity. We also demonstrate a method of calculating effective sample size for capture-recapture data. 3) Different priors lead to different inference about additive harvest when we fit our models to the mallard data. Our power analysis of simulated data indicated most prior distribution and sample size combinations resulted in correlation estimates with substantial bias and imprecision. Many correlation estimates spanned the available parameter space (–1,1) and were biased towards zero. Only one prior combined with our most intensive monitoring scenario allowed our models to consistently recover negative correlation without bias. Underestimating the magnitude of correlation coincided with overestimating the variability of annual survival, but not annual recovery. 4) The inadequacy of prior distributions and sample size combinations typically assumed adequate for robust inference represents a concern in the application of Bayesian mixed effects models for the purpose of informing harvest management. Our analysis approach provides a means for examining prior influence and sample size on mixed-effects models fit to capture-recapture data while emphasizing transferability of results between empirical and simulation studies.
• The carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea is native to North America, but has been introduced into Europe, where it is now widespread. We have little understanding of how this species functions in its non-native range. Such understanding will provide insight into S. purpurea ecology and support its use as a model system for investigating food webs. We measured pitcher morphology and prey capture by S. purpurea in Britain and Ireland. • Pitchers were removed from different plants at each of six bogs covering the species rage in the UK and Ireland (n = 10 pitchers per site). For each pitcher we counted and identified every prey item and took measurements of morphology. We also compiled prey capture data for existing studies in Europe and North America. • Prey capture characteristics varied between sites in the UK and Ireland. The amount of prey captured varied 2-fold between sites and was partially explained by differences in pitcher size; larger pitchers caught more prey. The primary prey was Formicidae, Diptera and Coleoptera. At the rank of order, prey composition varied between bogs, some contained mainly Formicidae, some mainly Diptera and some a mix. Plants were more specialised in prey capture at some bogs compared to others. There was no overall difference in prey capture (composition or degree of specialism) at the rank of order between plants in Europe compared to those in North America. At the rank of species, prey capture varied between populations even within the same order. • This study demonstrates a large amount of variability between sites in prey capture characteristics. This may reflect different site characteristics and/or plant strategies, will likely impact plant function, and may impact on the inquiline community. In terms of prey capture at the rank of order S. purpurea functions identically in its non-native range. This supports its use as a natural experiment for understanding food webs
Aim: Selection within natural communities has mainly been studied along large abiotic gradient, while the selection of individuals within population should occur locally under the play of biotic filter. To better seize the role of the latter, we postulated that the hierarchal nature of environmental selection and the multiple dimension of species trait space needed to be accounted for. Methods: We replicated a natural species richness gradient (from 2 to 16 species) within four contrasted wetlands (bog, fen, meadow, marsh), sampling functional traits from random individuals in communities. Developing a hierarchical distributional modelling, we analyzed the variation of the mean and dispersion of functional trait space at the ecosystem, community and species levels. Key results: We found that the abiotic differences between wetlands, which shaped a plant productivity gradient, selected species in regards with their leaf nutrient conservation / acquisition strategy. Within ecosystems, plant species richness was a strong driver of trait variation among both communities and species. Among communities, it shaped the selection of individuals according to their space occupation and leaf adaptations to light conditions. Demographically, some species used intraspecific trait variation to maintain equally dense populations, while others used it to become dominant in favorable conditions. Main Conclusions: Within ecosystems, variation in biotic conditions selects individuals along functional dimensions that are independent to the ones selected across ecosystems. Because intraspecific variations of light-related traits are related to demographic responses, it offers a way to link the study of species richness and eco-evolutionary dynamics.
Abstract Pangolin species are notoriously difficult to detect and monitor in the wild and, as a result, commonly used survey techniques fall short in gathering sufficient data to draw confident conclusions on pangolin populations, conservation status, and natural history. The white-bellied pangolin is a semi-arboreal species which is poorly detected in general mammal surveys, even with modern techniques such as camera trapping. As a result, population status information is often derived from hunting, market and trafficking data. There is therefore a crucial need to improve camera trap technology or survey methods to reliably detect this species in its natural environment. Here, we test the influence of camera-trap placement strategy to investigate a new monitoring approach comparing detectability of the white-bellied pangolin obtained from targeted ground-viewing camera-trapping and a log-viewing placement strategy adapted from local hunters’ knowledge. Our results suggest that (1) deploying camera-traps to target logs is an effective strategy for recording several forest species, including the white-bellied pangolin and (2) that camera-traps targeting logs are more efficient at detecting white-bellied pangolins than camera-traps viewing the ground. We also found that there was only a weak relationship between the white-bellied pangolin occurrence and environmental variables such as elevation and distance to rivers. Our results provide an effective new monitoring approach allowing consistent detection of the white-bellied pangolin with moderate survey effort.
A 25 year old presented to the emergency department with a one day history of mildly painful and erythematous swelling of her right upper eyelid that she believed to be a stye. The clinical team noted vesicular lesions located exclusively on the upper eyelid, diagnosed zoster and initiated valacyclovir.
Abstract Objectives: Total laryngectomy (TL) patients are good models in which to evaluate the effects of nasal airflow cessation on the sinonasal tract. Here, we evaluated changes in sinonasal structures and association with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), in the computed tomography (CT) images three-year post-TL. Design: Retrospective medical chart review. Setting: Tertiary referral medical center, teaching hospital setting. Participants: Data from patients that underwent TL from 2005–2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with a final follow-up CT taken less than 3 years after TL, tracheo-esophageal puncture, inadequate CT image, or history of sinonasal surgery were excluded. The control group included partial laryngectomy or hypopharyngectomy patients. Altogether, 45 TL patients and 38 controls were selected. Main outcome measurements: The volume of all four paranasal sinuses, inferior turbinate mucosal volume (ITMV), maxillary sinus natural ostium (MSNO) mucosal width, and Lund-Mackay scores (LMS) were measured on preoperative and postoperative CT scans. Results: The mean duration between surgery and the final CT scan was 6.3±2.4 and 5.5±2.3 years for the TL and control groups, respectively. Neither group showed significant changes in four paranasal sinuses volume or MSNO mucosa width. The ITMV decreased significantly, from 4.6±1.3ml to 2.8±1.1ml (p<0.001), in the TL group, whereas the control group showed no significant changes. Postoperative LMS changes in both groups were insignificant. The number of patients with LMS aggravation or alleviation was the same in both groups, regardless of preoperative CRS. Conclusions: Paranasal sinus structures and CRS are not affected significantly by nasal airflow cessation; however, the inferior turbinate mucosa is affected by long-term discontinuation of nasal airflow.
Patterns of intra- and interspecific variation based on environmental conditions in which populations live may reflect adaptive responses to their habitat. This is particularly relevant in a lake habitat where closely related species occur sympatrically. This study was aimed at determining consistency in morphological traits in head and body shapes in two haplochromine species (Haplochromis insidiae and Haplochromis kamiranzovu) in littoral and/ pelagic zones and to estimate the extent to which the habitats affect variations between the species. Specimens of both species were taken from littoral and pelagic zones, in the northern and southern parts of Lake Kivu. Morphometrics and landmark-characteristics were recorded and compared within and between habitats. The results showed that differences were found among the two species, among the two zones and for both. The most prominent difference was in the head; including the relative size of the jaws, head length and position of the pectoral fin insertion. Variation in head morphology is normally related to feeding. Changes in body shape can be linked to differences in environment and food availability between the two habitats which could have enabled the species to co-exist. This capacity is important in lakes like Kivu which have low habitat diversity compared to other African Great lakes like Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria and provide some explanation in the differences in the number of haplochromine species in these lakes. The genetic basis of these phenotypic changes should be examined in future research.
A 40-year-old patient with a known case of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism was admitted secondary to acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and thyroid storm. Acute medical therapy was started followed by a coronary angiogram because he developed signs of heart failure. There were no complications, and he was discharged in stable condition.