This paper presents a low noise figure (NF) variable-gain low noise amplifier (VG-LNA) for the Long-Range (LoRa) Application. In the proposed circuit, a gain-cascaded branch is utilized to provide a rail-to-rail control voltage to vary the gain of LNA in a wide range and improve the dynamic range of the front-end LoRa receiver block. Besides, the proposed LNA’s gain is amplified using a current reused technique. The functionality of the suggested VG-LNA is assessed by the post-layout simulation results provided by TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology with a 1.2 V supply voltage. The simulation results demonstrate that the circuit’s gain is varied linearly from 7dB to 21dB by changing the control voltage from rail-to-rail. Besides, the proposed VG-LNA has an NF of less than 1.8 dB and S11 of better than -14 dB in a wide temperature range, while the power consumption is 6.8 mW @ 900 MHz. Also, the occupied area of the VG-LNA is 0.819 mm2 ( 910 µm× 900µm).
The six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) adaptive finite-time control for spacecraft with unknown uncertainties and disturbances approaching to a non-cooperative target is investigated in this study. The system of the spacecraft with coupled relative translation and relative rotation are modeled. Considering the unknown mass and inertia uncertainties and the state-dependent disturbances, a coupled 6-DOF adaptive finite-time tracking control law with a self-adjustment function is developed to achieve high precision proximity operations between chaser and non-cooperative target. The convergence performance is improved by the designed self-adjustment function. The unknown mass, inertia and disturbance are estimated by adaptive update laws. The properties of the proposed control law are discussed through the comparison of simulation results.
：Vegetation blanket restoration techniques of different materials in mine drainage field provide different environments for plant growth, but effects of vegetation blanket cover on soil microbial community structure and their diversity characteristics were not well known， especially in arid areas. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used on the study site, located at Dafeng Mine, the Helan Mountains, Ningxia, China. Soil microbial communities were analyzed under four different treatments: Straw, Straw-Coir, Coir vegetation blanket types, and a bare soil control. The results showed that the contents of soil total nitrogen, available potassium, urease, and catalase were significantly increased in different types of vegetation blankets. High-throughput sequencing showed that the straw vegetation blanket increased bacterial diversity while the coir vegetation blanket increased fungal diversity. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi, whose main influencing factors were total nitrogen, catalase, urease, and protease. The dominant fungal phylum was Ascomycota, whose main influencing factors were alkaline phosphatase, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and electrical conductance. These results indicate that vegetation blanket cover can improve the physicochemical properties of soil, increase the diversity and richness of soil microorganisms, and improve the structural composition of the community, thus improving the soil environment in the mining areas in arid regions, while laying a good foundation for further restoration measures.
Separating hydrocarbons from refinery dry gas is a fundamental demand in petrochemical industry. Metal-Organic Frameworks are a class of promising advanced adsorbents, yet better moisture stability and higher adsorptive selectivity are still needed to meet the requirement of petrochemical industry. Herein, a multifunctional adsorbent urea@Cu-BTC was prepared from cheap building blocks at room temperature, which exhibits generally enhanced adsorptive separation performance towards CO2/CH4, CO2/N2, C3H6/C3H8, C2H4/C2H6, CH4/N2 separation. More interestingly, urea@Cu-BTC shows significantly enhanced stability against moisture. Combining structural characterization and molecular simulation, the improved adsorptive separation performance was ascribed to the enhanced confinement from the creation of ultra-micro porosity due to the presence of urea molecule in the microporous channel of Cu-BTC. The major components in refinery dry gas can be well separated using a column filled with urea@Cu-BTC, which demonstrates that micro-regulating the channel of MOFs is a feasible strategy for preparing high performance petrochemical adsorbents.
High-temperature damage characteristics related to the deformation behavior of Sanicro25 alloy were investigated under cyclic loading. The results show that the high mean stress can lead to creep-like deformation behavior. The increase of mean stress increased the strain rate and weakened the life. Comparatively, the increase in stress amplitude only accelerated the third-regime strain rate, leading to a decrease in life and fracture strain. Under different stress amplitudes, microcrack initiation at Z phase interfaces can be certified by observing micropore and high geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density around Z phase. Subsequently, the increase in stress amplitude can significantly affect crack propagation. Under constant loading ( σ a =0MPa ), the recrystallization of the transgranular crack tip at the grain boundary can change the tendency of crack propagation, making crack propagation along the grain boundaries. Conversely, transgranular cracks can continue to propagate, assisted by intragranular dislocation accumulation at higher stress amplitude ( σ a =130MPa ).
Sakuranetin is a plant-natural product, which has increasingly been utilized in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for its extensive anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects. Sakuranetin was mostly produced via extraction technology from plants, which is limited to natural conditions and biomass supply. In this study, a novel strategy to produce sakuranetin via de novo synthesis from glucose by engineering S. cerevisiae was introduced . After a series of heterogenous genes integration, a biosynthetic pathway of sakuranetin from glucose was successfully constructed in S. cerevisiae which sakuranetin yield reached only 4.28 mg/L. Then, a multi-module metabolic engineering strategy was applied for improving sakuranetin yield in S. cerevisiae: (1) adjusting the copy number of sakuranetin synthesis genes; (2) removing the rate-limiting factor of aromatic amino pathway and optimizing the synthetic pathway of aromatic amino acids to enhance the supply of carbon flux for sakuranetin; (3) introducing acetyl-CoA carboxylase mutants ACC1S659A, S1157A, and knocking-out YPL062W to strengthen the supply of malonyl-CoA which is another synthetic precursor of sakuranetin. The resultant mutant S. cerevisiae exhibited a more than 10-fold increase of sakuranetin titer (50.62 mg/L) in shaking flasks. Furthermore, the sakuranetin titer increased to 158.65 mg/L in a 1-L bioreactor, which is the highest sakuranetin titer among all publications reported yield of the engineered microbial cell.
Biodiversity may increase ecosystem resilience. However, we have limited understanding if this holds true for ecosystems that respond to gradual environmental change with abrupt shifts to an alternative state. We used a mathematical model of anoxic-oxic regime shifts and explored how trait diversity in three groups of bacteria influences resilience. We found that trait diversity did not always increase resilience: greater diversity in two of the groups increased but in one group decreased resilience of their preferred ecosystem state. We also found that simultaneous trait diversity in multiple groups often led to reduced or erased diversity effects. Overall, our results suggest that higher diversity can increase resilience but can also promote collapse when diversity occurs in a functional group that negatively influences the state it occurs in. We propose this mechanism as a potential management approach to facilitate the recovery of a desired ecosystem state.
Visual attention is mainly goal-directed and allocated based on the upcoming action to be performed. However, it is unclear how far this feature of gaze behavior generalizes in more naturalistic settings. The present study investigates active inference processes revealed by eye movements during interaction with familiar and novel tools with two levels of realism of the action affordance. In a between-subject design, a cohort of participants interacted with a VR controller in a low realism environment; another performed the task with an interaction setup that allowed differentiated hand and finger movements in a high-realism environment. We investigated the differences in odds of fixations and their eccentricity towards the tool parts before action initiation. The results show that participants fixate more on the tool’s effector part before action initiation when asked to use the tool and during interaction with unfamiliar tools. The spatial viewing bias on the tool reveals early fixations are influenced by the task and the familiarity of the tools. Our findings suggest that fixations are made in a task-oriented way to plan the intended action well before action initiation. With more realistic action affordances, more fixations were allocated toward the tool handle. We hypothesize that these fixations are made towards the proximal goal of planning the grasp even though the perceived action on the tools is identical for both experimental setups. Taken together, proximal and distal goal-oriented planning is contextualized to the realism of action/interaction afforded by an environment.
CLINICAL AND PARACLINICAL FINDINGS IN A PATIENT CONFIRMING THE DIAGNOSIS OF GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II AND MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY TYPE 1: CASE REPORTLina P. Guerrero-Cardozo, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Physician. Universidad de La Sabana. Chía, Colombia. Carolina Rivera-Nieto, Human Genetics. Head of Medical Genetics. Pediatric Hospital. Fundación Cardioinfantil-laCardio. Bogotá, Colombia Iván M. González-Zambrano, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Physician. Physical Medicine and Clinical rehabilitation service, Clínica Universidad de La Sabana. Chía, Colombia. Liliana M. García Gutierrez, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Physician. Physical Medicine and Clinical rehabilitation service, Clínica Universidad de La Sabana. Chía, Colombia. Catalina Gómez-Guevara, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Physician. Physical Medicine and Clinical rehabilitation service, Clínica Universidad de La Sabana. Chía, Colombia.Number of words in abstract: N/A, Number of words in manuscript: 843Name/address and email address of the corresponding author: Lina Paola Guerrero Cardozo,email@example.comThis case report was presented at the AANEM Annual Meeting in Aurora, CO in October, 13–16, 2021.Written informed consent was obtained from the patient to publish this report in accordance with the journal’s patient consent policy
This article proposes an adaptive fixed-time attitude stabilization control scheme for quadrotor UAVs in the presence of multiple disturbances and uncertainties. Firstly, a novel nonsingular fixed-time terminal sliding mode (NNFTSM) surface is proposed. The dynamic surface guarantees non-singularity and fixed-time convergence so that the setting time is independent of the initial states. Secondly, using the proposed NNFTSM surface and adaptive technique, an adaptive nonsingular fixed-time terminal sliding mode controller (ANFTSMC) is designed for UAVs attitude stabilization. It yields exponential convergence of the attitude tracking errors to zero without requiring a priori knowledge of the upper bounds of the multiple disturbances and uncertainties. Then, the stability of the closed-loop control system is validated by the candidate Lyapunov function, and the upper bound of the convergence time is given. Finally, the parameter design criteria and the convergence time comparison are analyzed in detail. Comparative performances for quadrotor UAV attitude stabilization are presented, and the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controller are illustrated over the existing method.
In the wave of the Internet era created by computer and communication technology, flexible sensors play an important role in accurately collecting information owing to their excellent flexibility, ductility, freeform bending or folding, and versatile structural shapes. By endowing elastomeric polymers with conductivity, researchers have recently devoted extensive efforts toward developing high-performance flexible sensors based on elastomeric conductive layers and exploring their potential applications in diverse fields ranging from project manufacturing to daily life. This review reports the recent advancements in elastomeric polymers used to make conductive layers, as well as the relationships between elastomeric polymers and the performance and application of flexible sensors are comprehensively summarized. First, the principles and methods for using elastomeric polymers to construct conductive layers are provided. Then, the fundamental design, unique properties, and underlying mechanisms in different flexible sensors (pressure/strain, temperature, humidity) and their related applications are revealed. Finally, this review concludes with a perspective on the challenges and future directions of high-performance flexible sensors.
Background/Objectives Little is known about the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children with cancer, who may be more vulnerable to the pandemic’s effects. This paper examined: (1) associations between COVID-19 exposure and impact on QoL in children with cancer, and 2) potential moderation based on child’s cancer status (i.e., time since diagnosis, on/off treatment). Design/Methods Parents of children with cancer in the US were recruited February-April 2021 via Facebook and Momcology. Parents completed the Covid Exposure and Family Impact Scale a child quality of life measure. Controlling for parent age, income, child age, and child sex, we examined the indirect effect of COVID impact on the association between COVID exposure and child QoL, as well as the moderating role of cancer status. Results Children had lower QoL scores ( M=59.74) than previous reports of QoL in children with cancer ( t(735)=-6.98, p<0.001). Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect (95%CI[-0.47,-0.13]): higher exposure was associated with higher impact ( a=0.47, p<0.001), which was then related to lower QoL ( b=-0.56, p<0.001). Treatment status did not affect this indirect path; however, the association between impact and QoL was stronger as time since diagnosis increased (95%CI[-0.08,-0.001]). Conclusions Parents who report greater COVID impact may also report lower QoL in their children with cancer, especially further from diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware of the negative impact of the pandemic on parents and screen for COVID-related distress. Additionally, results highlight the importance of long-term, family-centered care, regardless of children being on or off treatment.
Water isotope analyses can be used as tracers in water resource sustainability, forensics (e.g. human, ecological, food authenticity and provenance) and climate research, however, limited research has been conducted on water in Mexico. This first national-level tap water survey of coupled H-O isotope ratios is reported from over 50 cities and towns across Mexico. Tap water across the country records a range of 82.4‰ for δ2H and 12.0‰ for δ18O, analyzed using a Picarro L2130-i analyzer. The isotopic values show strong relationships (r > 0.5) with the geography as well as some social and socioeconomic parameters. A Geographic Information System approach is used to develop maps of predicted tap water isotope ratios (isoscapes) for Mexico. These isoscapes will be useful to researchers interested in human-hydrological systems as well as forensic scientists establishing the region of origin or the travel history recorded by human remains.
Texas horned lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum) have disappeared from many areas in Texas, especially from urbanized areas, probably in large part due to loss of suitable habitat. Our previous studies have found that horned lizards persist and occur at high densities in some small towns in southern Texas. Nevertheless, this species has continued to decline and disappear from these towns. Long-term data from Kenedy and Karnes City indicate that when study sites experienced significant shrub and vegetation removal horned lizards declined by 79%. We hypothesize this may in part be due to the degradation of the thermal landscape for these lizards. We determined the preferred temperature range (Tset25 −Tset75) of lizards at our study sites and took field measurements of body temperature (Tb). Temperature loggers were also placed in three microhabitats across our study sites. Shrubs and vegetation provided the highest quality thermal environment, especially for about 5 hours midday when temperatures in the open and buried under the surface exceeded the lizards’ critical maximum temperature (CTmax) or were above their preferred temperature range. Horned lizard density was positively related to the thermal quality of the habitat across our sites. Texas horned lizards in these towns require a heterogenous mix of closely spaced microhabitats and especially thermal refugia, such as shrubs and vegetation along fence lines and in open fields. Maintaining thermal refugia is one of the most important and practical conservation actions that can be taken to help small ectotherms persist in human modified landscapes and cope with increasing temperatures due to climate change.
Mucormycosis is a serious and relatively rare invasive fungal infection. The rhino-orbito-cerebral localization is the most frequent. Mucormycosis of external ear with facial palsy is extremely rare. We describe a case of auricular mucormycosis complicated by parotid abscess and facial palsy in a diabetic patient.
Objective: To investigate the association between the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in human follicular fluid (hFF) and age, ovarian function, in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Design: Study on the correlation of non-intervention. Setting: Reproductive Medicine Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. Sample: hFF of 139 women who received IVF simply because of their husband’s factors from January 2021 to February 2022. Methods: The correlation between age and RAS in hFF was analyzed by simple linear regression, and multivariate linear regression was used to further analyze the correlation between the RAS and IVF outcome. Main Outcome Measures: The levels of RAS components in hFF were measured, including Renin, ACE, ACE2, AngⅡ and Ang(1-7). Results: ①The influence of age on ACE-AngⅡ-AT1/2R axis was more significant than that on ACE2-Ang(1-7)-MAS axis in hFF; ②Provides evidence that gonadotropins mediate RAS activation of local ovarian follicles; ③It is still impossible to prove the effect of RAS on steroid hormone production, at least in ovarian follicles RAS cannot affect steroid hormones in the systemic circulation; ④Age and the level of RAS components in hFF have certain clinical value in predicting the number of oocyte retrieval and the rate of MⅡ maturation. Conclusions: The local RAS in ovarian follicles is affected by age and correlated with ovarian function and IVF outcome.
Background: Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a rare familial ion channelopathy that may result in syncope, cardiac arrest and sudden death. Ion channel gene variants have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), however the link between LQTS and NDDs in children is not well characterized. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included patients diagnosed with LQTS at <19 years of age with an NDD diagnosis, prospectively enrolled in an inherited arrhythmia registry at a tertiary hospital between April 2015- June 2021. Patients with hypoxic ischemic injury were excluded. Demographics, genetics, therapy and outcomes were evaluated. Results: Among 106 LQTS patients in the registry, we identified 15 (14%) with NDDs. Eleven (73%) of 15 patients were male compared with 4 (27%) females (p=0.02). Thirteen (87%) were KCNQ1-positive, with mean age at LQTS diagnosis of 6.6 years (SD: 4.3) and baseline QTc of 446ms (SD: 24). Eight (53%) patients had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, followed by 4 (27%) with learning/communication disorder, 3 (20%) with autism spectrum disorder and 2 (13%) with motor disorder. Nine of 15 (60%) patients received an NDD diagnosis 4.4 (SD: 2.1) years post-LQTS diagnosis; 4 (27%) pre-LQTS diagnosis, and 2 (13%) were unknown. Thirteen (87%) patients were treated with Nadolol monotherapy, 1 (7%) with flecainide and 1 (7%) with lifestyle modifications only. Five (33%) patients were taking a concomitant psychostimulant for their NDD, and none experienced arrhythmic events on therapy. LQTS-related event was experienced by 1 (7%) patient over a mean follow-up of 5.7 (SD: 3.9) years. Conclusion: The prevalence of NDD in LQTS patients (14%) was higher compared to the general population (4.5-9%). Larger studies investigating the link between KCNQ1, other LQTS-related genes and NDDs are warranted.
In this paper, stabilization and control of linear time-invariant systems with two unstable poles and time delay are looked at. It is well known that time delays make it harder to analyze stability and come up with good control strategies. Because of this, suggest a simple control strategy based on “dynamic optimization” to stabilize this type of system. In this work, dynamic optimization (DO) to figure out the PID controller parameters for a process that is unstable in second order plus time delay (SOPTD). In particular, the process model is used to figure out the controller parameters so that integral performance criteria and controller variations are kept to a minimum (such as ISE, IAE and TV). The controller responses looked at both the set-point following the load disturbance rejection. Robustness studies have been carried out for uncertainties in the process parameters. Lastly, some examples are given to demonstrate the controller performance and robustness.