Genetic diversity is the basis for population adaptation and long-term survival, yet rarely considered in biodiversity monitoring. One key issue is the need for useful and straightforward indicators of genetic diversity. To test newly proposed indicators, we monitored genetic diversity over 40 years (1970-2010) in metapopulations of brown trout inhabiting 27 small mountain lakes representing 10 water systems in central Sweden. Three of the indicators were previously proposed for broad, international use for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) context, while three others were recently elaborated for national use by a Swedish science-management effort and applied for the first time here. The Swedish indicators use molecular genetic data to monitor genetic diversity within and between populations and assess the effective population size (Ne). We used a panel of 96 SNPs and identified 29 discrete populations retained over time. Over 40 percent of the lakes harbored more than one population indicating that brown trout biodiversity hidden as cryptic, sympatric populations are more common than recognized. The Ne indicator showed values below the threshold (Ne≤500) in 20 populations with five showing Ne<100. Although statistically significant genetic diversity reductions occurred in several populations, they were mostly within proposed threshold limits. Metapopulation structure appears to buffer against diversity loss; when applying the indicators to metapopulations most indicators suggest an acceptable genetic status in all but one system. The CBD indicators agreed with the national ones but provided less detail. We propose that all indicators applied here are appropriate for monitoring genetic diversity within species.
At present, the development of high-performance protein imprinted materials is still a research hotspot in the field of protein imprinting. Herein, anti-protein adsorption segment (CBMA)-assisted self-driven BSA surface imprinted fibers MTCFs@SIP@CBMA with high recognition selectivity are pioneered using the strategies of combining magnetic nanomaterial surface imprinting technique with amino-Michael addition. The special structure of the carrier MTCFs endows MTCFs@SIP@CBMA with magnetic performance and self-driven adsorption performance, which simplifies the separation process while improving the adsorption capacity and accelerating the adsorption rate. The adsorption capacity for BSA reached 395.26 mg/g within 30 min. The introduction of CBMA segments on the surface after imprinting by amino-Michael addition makes its polymer chain length and position controllable. Under the strongest anti-nonspecific adsorption effect, MTCFs@SIP@CBMA exhibit excellent specific identification to BSA from mixed proteins. Additionally, MTCFs@SIP@CBMA show considerable reusability. Therefore, MTCFs@SIP@CBMA are expected to be applied in efficient separation of proteins in biological samples.
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that can carry biomolecules of varying sizes across the cell membrane into the cytoplasm. Correctly identifying CPPs is the basis for studying their functions and mechanisms. Here, we propose a novel CPP predictor that is able to predict CPPs and their uptake efficiency. In our method, five feature descriptors are applied to encode the sequence and compose a hybrid feature vector. Afterward, the wrapper + random forest algorithm is employed, which combines feature selection with the prediction process to find features that are crucial for identifying CPPs. The jackknife cross validation result shows that our predictor is comparable to state-of-the-art CPP predictors, and our method reduces the feature dimension, which improves computational efficiency and avoids overfitting, allowing our predictor to be adopted to identify large-scale CPP data.
intrauterine rarely fail which results in pregnancy. Meanwhile, these devices can perforate uterine and migrate through abdomen. Our case experienced IUD failure and perforation simultaneously and the device was embedded in omentum and shifted rapidly which made it hard to localize and could only be removed using ultrasonography guidance
Fetal bone retention is a rare but under-diagnosed complication after abortion. If left untreated, it can cause menstrual dysfunction and secondary infertility. We present a case of a 39 year old woman who undergone abortion 20 years ago but suffered with secondary infertility due to retained fetal bone.
The Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) has a large distribution spanning much of the eastern United States. Because temperature, habitat type, prey composition and abundance, and a variety of other factors may dictate reptile behavior, populations of conspecific species may exhibit behavioral differences across latitudinal and elevational gradients. Using radio telemetry, we tracked 10 adult Timber Rattlesnakes (7 males, 3 females) from May 2016 to June 2017 in southeastern Louisiana to examine the spatial ecology of male and non-gravid female snakes. Mean annual and seasonal home ranges of non-gravid female Timber Rattlesnakes were not statistically different from that of males. Mean seasonal home range sizes and average distances travelled of both sexes was smallest in winter, and had a general increasing trend beginning in spring with a peak in fall. These increases seemed to coincide with the breeding season, taking place from early July until the end of November. Comparison of this study with other studies throughout its distribution could have implications towards future management of conservation for other southern populations of Timber Rattlesnakes.
Quantifying habitat quality is dependent on measuring a site’s relative contribution to population growth rate. This is challenging for studies of waterbirds, whose high mobility can decouple demographic rates from local habitat conditions and make sustained monitoring of individuals near-impossible. To overcome these challenges, biologists have used many direct and indirect proxies of waterbird habitat quality. However, consensus on what methods are most appropriate for a given scenario is lacking. We undertook a structured literature review of the methods used to quantify waterbird habitat quality, and provide a synthesis of the context-dependent strengths and limitations of those methods. Our structured search of the Web of Science database returned a sample of 398 studies, upon which our review was based. The reviewed studies assessed habitat quality by either measuring habitat attributes (e.g., food abundance, water quality, vegetation structure), or measuring attributes of the waterbirds themselves (e.g., demographic parameters, body condition, behaviour, distribution). Measuring habitat attributes, although they are only indirectly related to demographic rates, has the advantage of being unaffected by waterbird behavioural stochasticity. Conversely, waterbird-derived measures (e.g., body condition, peck rates) may be more directly related to demographic rates than habitat variables, but may be subject to greater stochastic variation (e.g., behavioural change due to presence of conspecifics). Therefore, caution is needed to ensure that the measured variable does influence waterbird demographic rates. This assumption was usually based on ecological theory rather than empirical evidence. Our review highlighted that there is no single best, universally applicable method to quantify waterbird habitat quality. Individual project specifics (e.g., time frame, spatial scale, funding) will influence the choice of variables measured. Where possible, practitioners should measure variables most directly related to demographic rates. Generally, measuring multiple variables yields a better chance of accurately capturing the relationship between habitat characteristics and demographic rates.
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are known for their low toxicity, strong fluorescence, high surface area, large solubility and tunable band gaps. However, the change in their properties depends on the preparation processes of GQDs. Thus, certain types of preparation lead to certain defects, such as surface defect, edge defects, Stone-Wales defect. These structural defects are responsible for hindering GQDs to possess their regular shape that affects the morphological properties of GQDs. Thus, the optical and electrical properties get affected. The GQDs, which are synthesized via acidic methods are generally more vulnerable to defects compared to those synthesized using eco-friendly methods. Thereby, the aim of this review is to discuss the causes of structural defects. Moreover, it focuses on how they affect the properties of GQDs and to what extent they affect them. The processes of regulating defects have been elucidated so that more efficient applications can be designed using GQDs with controlled amounts of defects.
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias are a group of heterogeneous early-onset progressive disorders that some of them are treatable. We performed 4-year-follow up for 25 patients that considered as treatable ataxia in the literature. According to our study, patients would benefit from early detection of treatable ataxia, close observation, and follow-up.
Rationale, aim and objectives: Medication error is common and the most common form of administration error is omission. Implementation of Electronic Medication Management systems (eMMS) has been hypothesized to decrease the rate of omitted doses due to the creation of a number of forcing functions and decision support tools however there is limited evidence currently available in the literature to support this assumption. This study therefore aims to ascertain if implementation of eMMS at 2 acute metropolitan hospitals reduces the rate of omitted doses Method: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken pre and post implementation of eMMS. Patients meeting eligibility criteria had all medication charts from their admission reviewed and an omitted dose rate calculated. For each omitted dose identified; medication name, imprest availability, dispensing history, administration time and frequency were recorded. Results: 386 patients met eligibility criteria for this study (11,796 opportunities for omission). The implementation of eMMS was associated with a significant reduction in omitted doses (3.6% vs 1.8% p<0.01). Benefit was not consistent among subgroups. eMMS implementation at the hospital with the higher baseline omitted dose rate was associated with a significant reduction in omitted doses (5.8% vs 0.9% p<0.01) but not at the hospital with a lower baseline rate (2.7% vs 2.4% p=0.3). The most common times for an omitted dose to occur were 0800 (33%) and 2000 (18%). The most common frequencies for an omitted dose were daily (35%) and twice daily (32%). Conclusion: The introduction of eMMS was associated with a decrease rate of omitted doses. Greatest benefit is likely to occur in areas with a high baseline rate of omission.
Toxoplasma infection in intermediate host species closely associates with inflammation. This association has led to suggestions that the behavioural changes associated with infection may be indirectly driven by the resulting sustained inflammation rather than a direct behavioural manipulation by the parasite. If this is correct, sustained inflammation in chronically infected rodents should present as widespread changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota due to the dependency between the composition of these microbiota and sustained inflammation. We conducted a randomized controlled experiment in rats that were assigned to a Toxoplasma-treatment, placebo-treatment or negative control group. We sacrificed rats during the chronic phase of infection, collected their cecal stool samples and sequenced the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterise the bacterial community in these samples. Toxoplasma infection did not induce widespread changes in the bacterial community composition of the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Rather, we found sex differences in the bacterial community composition and only minor changes in Toxoplasma infected rats. We conclude that it is unlikely that sustained inflammation is the mechanism driving the highly specific behavioural changes observed in Toxoplasma-positive rats.
Performance Measurement (PM) is a thoughtful demand of every sector for a sustainable growth. There are intangible factors known as economic growth drivers, where Research and Development (R&D), is a vital indicator. As per Global Innovation Index–2020, India ranks 48th among the 131 economies for its education, software exports, R&D and market value. Every year, a massive amount is invested in research labs but the output generated is much lower as compared to world average. Measurement of Scientific Productivity (SP) is a genesis of this though. Earlier, Publications and Patents were considered as means to identify growth but there exists a need holistic measurement of innovative potential. In this study, Technical Efficiency (TEs) of Indian Scientific Laboratories (CSIR) was measured using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with few more parameters – Scientific Performance Indicators (SPIs). This study concluded with demarcation of efficient and lesser efficient laboratories during a specific period. This study would contribute towards an introspection by policy makers and government to re-evaluate the organizational outputs as per their mandates. Such studies are envisaged to assess the strength and weakness and furthermore, plan to contribute efficiently to increase in productivity of organization and national economy as well.
Evaluating the food and feeding habits of fish is fundamental in fisheries and conservation biology research. In this study, the diet of exotic Oreochromis niloticus was compared with the 2 most abundant and aquaculture preferred native cichlids of native species (Orochromis macrochir and Coptodon rendalli) in the upper Kabompo River, Zambia. We hypothesized that exotic and native cichlids would show no dietary niche overlap. We analyzed the stomach contents of 114 specimens of the fishes sampled. Fishes were grouped into 3 major feeding groups: microphages, macrophages and carnivores, and omnivores. They were also grouped into size classes of <50, 51−100, 101−150, and 151−302 mm total length (TL). O. niloticus had a larger dietary niche than two native species (71% and 22%, respectively). The dietary niche overlap between O. niloticus and native C. rendalli species in size classes <50 was significant (F (2, 45) = 0.084, p < 0.05). Dietary niche overlap between the native O. macrochir species in size class <50 mm was low (F (2, 33) = 2.13, p > 0.05), while as in size classes 51−100 mm and 101−150 mm was high (F (2, 35) = 0.27, p < 0.05) for C. rendalli. There was no clear evidence of ontogenetic diet shift of native cichlids, with the exception of O. macrochir, which showed ontogenetic diet shifts within the 51−100 mm size class. The dietary overlap results indicate interspecific competition between exotic O. niloticus and native O. macrochir, which may have major impacts on food web structure in the upper Kabompo River and may explain population decreases of some native species.
We present two cases of nine and twenty-seven years old girls with recurrence of immature teratoma after an incomplete surgical staging. In both cases, there were huge abdominopelvic masses despite decrease in tumor markers with chemotherapy. Complete surgical resection of these masses was done, and histopathology showed only mature teratoma.
The primary sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water are carbonate materials and CO2 produced during the biological processing of organic matter. The application of carbon isotope techniques to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems can accurately elucidate carbon fluxes and other carbon cycle processes in these systems. Lake ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are fragile and sensitive to changes in climate and environment. This study explored the relationship between the carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of the DIC (δ13CDIC) in the Genggahai Lake, the lake environment, and the climate of the watershed based on the observed physicochemical parameters of water in areas with different types of submerged macrophyte communities, combined with changes in the temperature and precipitation during the same period. Overall, the δ13CDIC of the Genggahai Basin exhibited a large range of values, with an average δ13CDIC for inflowing spring water (δ13CDIC-I) of –11.1 ‰, which was the most negative, followed by an average δ13CDIC value of –10.8 ‰ for that from the Shazhuyu River (δ13CDIC-R) and an averageδ13CDIC value of –6.91 ‰ for lake water (δ13CDIC-L). Variations in the photosynthetic activity intensity of different aquatic plants yield significantly changing δ13CDIC-L values in areas with varied aquatic plant communities. Hydrochemical observations revealed that δ13CDIC-I and aquatic plant photosynthesis primarily affected the differences in the δ13CDIC-L values of the Genggahai Lake, thereby identifying them as the key components of the lake carbon cycle.
In semiarid to arid regions of the western U. S., the availability and variability of river flow are highly subject to shifts in snow accumulation and ablation in alpine watersheds. This study aims to examine how shifts in snowmelt rate (SMR) and snow continuity, an indicator of the consistent existence of snow on the ground, affect snow-driven streamflow dynamics in three alpine watersheds in the U.S. Great Basin. To achieve this end, the coupled hydro-ecological simulation system (CHESS) is used to simulate river flow dynamics and multiple snow metrics are calculated to quantify the variation of snowmelt rate and snow continuity, the latter of which is measured, respectively, by snow persistence (SP), snow residence time (SRT) and snow season length (SSL). Then, a new approach is proposed to partition streamflow into snow-driven and rain-driven streamflow. The statistical analyses indicate that the three alpine watersheds experienced a downward trend in SP, SRT, SSL and SMR during the study period of 1990-2016 due to regional warming. As a result, the decrease in SMR and the decline in snow continuity shifted the day of 25% and 50% of the snow-driven cumulative discharge as well as peak discharge toward an earlier occurrence. Besides, the magnitudes of snow-driven annual streamflow, summer baseflow and peak discharge also decreased due to the declined snow continuity and the reduced snowmelt rate. Overall, by using multiple snow and flow metrics as well as by partitioning streamflow into snow-driven and rain-driven flow via the newly proposed approach, we found that snowmelt rate and snow continuity determine the streamflow hydrographs and magnitudes in the three alpine watersheds. This has important implications for water resource management in the snow-dominated region facing future climate warming given that warming can significantly affect snow dynamics in alpine watersheds in semiarid to arid regions.
Lateral saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks,l, is the soil property governing subsurface water transfer in hillslopes, and the key parameter in many numerical models simulating hydrological processes both at the hillslope and catchment scales. Likewise, the hydrological connectivity of lateral flow paths plays a significant role in determining the intensity of the subsurface flow at various spatial scales. The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between Ks,l and hydraulic connectivity at the hillslope spatial scale. Ks,l was determined by the subsurface flow rates intercepted by drains, and by water table depths observed in a well network. Hydraulic connectivity of the lateral flow paths was evaluated by the synchronicity among piezometric peaks, and between the latter and the peaks of drained flow. Soil moisture and precipitation data were used to investigate the influence of the transient hydrological soil condition on connectivity and Ks,l. It was found that the higher was the synchronicity of the water table response between wells, the lower was the time lag between the peaks of water levels and those of the drained subsurface flow. Moreover, the most synchronic water table rises determined the highest drainage rates. The relationships between Ks,l and water table depths were highly non-linear, with a sharp increase of the values for water table levels close to the soil surface. Estimated Ks,l values for the full saturated soil were in the order of thousands of mm h-1, suggesting the activation of macropores in the root zone. The Ks,l values determined at the peak of the drainage events were correlated with the indicators of synchronicity. The sum of the antecedent soil moisture and of the precipitation was correlated with the indicators of connectivity and with Ks,l. We suggest that, for simulating realistic processes at the hillslope scale, the hydraulic connectivity could be implicitly considered in hydrological modelling through an evaluation of Ks,l at the same spatial scale.