STEM Design Challenge Question: Can your team design and build a house that the big, bad wolf cannot blow down? Students will engage in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics activities that also connect to reading. Students will team up to build houses for the Three Little Pigs out of index cards and masking tape. After subjecting the constructed houses to a wind test, teams will have the opportunity to reinforce their structures before a second wind test! Grade level: K-2 Time: 60 minutes Learning Objectives: After doing this activity students should be able to... Standards: Standards Met in Common Core State Standards (CCSS) & Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): CCSS- Speaking and Listening K-5: K-5 Comprehension and Collaboration: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL. 1 Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL. 1.a Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL. 1.b Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges. NGSS-Performance Expectation Examples: Physical Science and Engineering Design Students who demonstrate understanding can: K-PS2-1 Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object. K-PS2-2 Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull. 2-PS1-2 Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose. 3-PS2-1 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object. 3-PS2-2 Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion. K-2-ETS1-1 Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. K-2-ETS1-2 Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. K-2-ETS1-3 Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs. 3-5-ETS1-1 Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost. 3-5-ETS1-2 Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. 3-5-ETS1-3 Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved. NGSS-Science and Engineering Practices: The eight practices of science and engineering that are identified as essential for all students to learn and describes in detail are listed below: Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) Developing and using models Planning and carrying out investigations Analyzing and interpreting data Using mathematics and computational thinking Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering) Engaging in argument from evidence Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. The eight practices of science and engineering that are identified as essential for all students to learn and describes in detail are listed below: Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)Developing and using models Planning and carrying out investigations Analyzing and interpreting data Using mathematics and computational thinking Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)Engaging in argument from evidence Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information NGSS-Crosscutting concepts The purpose of Cross Cutting Concepts is to help students deepen their understanding of the disciplinary core ideas and develop a coherent and scientifically based view of the world. The seven crosscutting concepts this lesson supports are as follows: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation. Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. A major activity of science is investigating and explaining causal relationships and the mechanisms by which they are mediated. Such mechanisms can then be tested across given contexts and used to predict and explain events in new contexts.Scale, proportion, and quantity. In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize what is relevant at different measures of size, time, and energy and to recognize how changes in scale, proportion, or quantity affect a system’s structure or performance. Systems and system models. Defining the system under study—specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system—provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering. SHARE (teacher guided- whole class)-: Share the challenge, objectives, rules and time limit. Ask students to identify the problem and purpose for the challenge. Share permitted materials and review safety expectations Brainstorm tips and tricks for how materials might work and fit together. Have students model how to use materials adequately. Ask students questions about building structures that have fallen apart recently and would could have prevented these disasters (read some stories from the news- use google to find them) Materials (described for a maximum of three per team) Colored plastic cups Craft Sticks CardboardPlastic pigs Big Bad Wolf blower SPARK (Teacher guided-whole class)-: Trigger background knowledge by asking students to share what they recall about the story of the three little pigs and the bad wolf. Discuss with students what safety means to them and what critical thinking about the design for the houses for the pigs is. Emphasize learning about creating structures that are firm and made up of good materials. Preparation and Adaptations: Preparation: Engineering Adaptation: Go over the Engineering Design Process (modified for Elementary school students.) The target age for this lesson is Pre-K-2nd grade. Focus on the task of what engineering comprises of- solving a problem and designing the solution. Math Connection/Adaptation: To increase the understanding of how math can be reinforced, students can inventory the supplies used in the house and a cost sheet could be supplied by the instructor (e.g., cost could vary in complexity for the different ages of students). Students can evaluate the final cost of their home and share that as part of presenting their design for testing. Regardless of design success when tested with the big bad wolf, the instructor could challenge students to figure out the cost of improvement to meet success, or to minimize total cost. Standards Adaptation: At the end of the design challenge, get students give an oral presentation of what they would do to optimize their house design. This adaptation supports the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) of “Speaking and Listening,” as well as NGSS Science and Engineering Standard of “Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.” IMAGINE (Student driven-partners or groups)—: Students discuss design ideas with partners or groups. Students plan and sketch initial ideas CREATE/TEST/IMPROVE-: (Student driven-partners or groups)-: Students build and create with materials. Test designs and functions. Also improve models. Students also record results, final plans and reflective questions. Teacher guides, prompts, questions and models as necessary. Procedure Watch “The Three Little Pigs” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtHjB6rRmQc video to the class.After reading, discuss the need to build a good strong house. Divide students or participants into teams of two to three. Introduce students to the “Engineering Design Process” Encourage students to draw or sketch a design idea first. · Note: This step supports the NGSS (Next Generation Science Standard) Science and Engineering Practices of “Planning and carrying out Investigations” and “Developing and using models,” for example. Hand out or have one person from each team gather the appropriate building materials from the Materials Table. Establish a time limit for designing, redesigning, and building and allow teams to start building (e.g., 20 minutes). When time is up, have each team bring their house to the testing zone where they can share their design with other groups. Test all houses. Discuss results as a group (see “Conclusions” section below). Have each team discuss and document what they would do to improve their design. · If time allows, allow for modifications (i.e., re-design) and re-testing. Have students setup a “Student Reflection Page” in their notebooks. Allow students reflection time to evaluate their work and design REFLECT-: Students share and discuss creations with class. Students share successes and challenges they experienced. Students and teachers refer back to STEM processes and skills utilized for challenge. Conclusion: Group discussion or written responses as time and age level allows. · Based on the “Data Table,” what materials appear to withstand the huffing and puffing of the “Big, Bad Wolf” the best? · Why do you think these materials were more effective than others? Was your team able to design and build a house that survived the “Big, Bad, Wolf?” · Even if your house survived, what would you do to improve your design based on other houses that you observed? · Thinking about the real world, can you come up with a list of all the different jobs or people need to build just one house? · How many of these jobs require an understanding of science, technology, engineering, and/or math? Do we need to revise how houses would be built in the future? How and Why?