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Understanding and achieving species  elements in the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework            
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  • Philip JK McGowan,
  • Alison Hutchinson,
  • Thomas M. Brooks,
  • Wendy Elliott,
  • Michael Hoffmann,
  • Louise Mair,
  • Amy McDougall,
  • Domitilla C Raimondo,
  • Stuart H.M. Butchart
Philip JK McGowan

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile
Alison Hutchinson
Thomas M. Brooks
Wendy Elliott
Michael Hoffmann
Louise Mair
Amy McDougall
Domitilla C Raimondo
Stuart H.M. Butchart


The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (KMGBF) was adopted on 15 December 2022 by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Framework states outcomes for species to be achieved by 2050 in Goal A and establishes a range of Targets to reduce pressures on biodiversity and halt biodiversity loss by 2030. Target 4 calls for urgent recovery actions for species where the implementation of other Targets is insufficient to eliminate the risk of extinction. To achieve the Framework’s Goals and Targets, key elements must be understood and the implications for implementation of agreed words and phrases made clear. We analyse the key species elements of Goal A and Target 4 and examine what they mean and what is needed for implementation. We conclude by considering next steps to identify priorities, support access and uptake of resources, and ensure co-operation and capacity development.