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The efficacy and safety of Acetaminophen for pain relief
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  • Hayder M. Al-kuraishy,
  • Ali Al-Gareeb,
  • Ali Albuhadily,
  • Eman Abdelmaksoud,
  • Athanasios Alexiou,
  • Marios Papadakis,
  • Gaber Batiha
Hayder M. Al-kuraishy
Professor in department of clinical pharmacology and medicine, college of medicine, ALmustansiriyia University, M.B.Ch.B, FRCP; P.O. Box 14132 Iraq
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Ali Al-Gareeb
Department of Clinical pharmacology and Medicine, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University
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Ali Albuhadily
Department of Clinical pharmacology and Medicine, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University
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Eman Abdelmaksoud
Alexandria University
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Athanasios Alexiou
5Department of Science and Engineering, Novel Global Community Educational Foundation, Hebersham, NSW 2770, Australia
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Marios Papadakis
Universit├Ąt Witten/Herdecke

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Gaber Batiha
Damanhour University
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Abstract

Acetaminophen is a non-narcotic analgesic used as an analgesic and antipyretic. Acetaminophen is used for mild to moderate pain; its efficacy is low as analgesic as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as it has no any anti-inflammatory effect. Despite of its well-known use and safely, however; the precise mechanism of acetaminophen still enigmatic. Findings from preclinical studies suggest that the main mechanism of acetaminophen is related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase 3 (COX-3) which is variant of COX-1 expressed in the brain. However, the profound analgesic antinociceptive effects of acetaminophen cannot depend merely on this pathway. Further findings from preclinical and clinical studies confirmed that acetaminophen and its metabolites can modulate different signaling pain pathways other than COX pathway. Thus, this review revises the potential mechanistic pathways of acetaminophen in relation to its clinical applications.