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Pore Structure Manipulation Enhanced Sodium Storage of Calcium-lignosulfonate-based Hard Carbon
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  • Yunfei Gou,
  • Lixin Bai,
  • Yandong Ma,
  • Yuruo Qi,
  • Maowen Xu,
  • Lingbin Kong
Yunfei Gou
Yibin Academy of Southwest University
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Lixin Bai
Yibin Academy of Southwest University
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Yandong Ma
Yibin Academy of Southwest University
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Yuruo Qi
Yibin Academy of Southwest University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Maowen Xu
Yibin Academy of Southwest University
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Lingbin Kong
Lanzhou University of Technology
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Abstract

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted a lot of attention owing to the low cost, as well as similar working mechanism and manufacturing technique with Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the practical application of SIBs is severely hindered by limited electrode materials. Disordered carbons are reported to be promising as anode materials for SIBs. Here, for the first time, calcium lignosulfonate (LSCa), one papermaking waste, is explored as a novel low-cost precursor for carbon materials of SIBs. The optimized LSCa-derived carbon delivers a high reversible capacity of 317 mA h g -1 at 30 mA g -1 with ~ 60% plateau capacity and it retains a capacity of 170 mA h g -1 even at 3000 mA g -1. These achievements are ascribed to the larger d 002 value, smaller defects and more closed pores, compared to the original sample from the direct carbonization of LSCa.