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Exploring Monkeypox Virus Treatment: Potential Therapeutic Approaches, and Addressing Current Gaps
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  • Rakesh Kumar,
  • Vandana R,
  • Palwinder Kaur,
  • Palakurthi Yanadaiah,
  • Manish Pal Singh,
  • Bharat Goel,
  • Vivek Raj
Rakesh Kumar
Lovely Professional University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Vandana R
Indus University Institute of Management Studies
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Palwinder Kaur
Lovely Professional University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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Palakurthi Yanadaiah
Lovely Professional University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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Manish Pal Singh
Agra Public Pharmacy College
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Bharat Goel
University of Missouri Christopher S Bond Life Sciences Center
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Vivek Raj
Patna Women's College
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Abstract

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus that poses a significant threat to public health due to its potential for human-to-human transmission and the absence of a specific antiviral therapy. Monkeypox is caused by the Variola virus, which also causes smallpox, the symptoms of Monkeypox are milder but fatal. The genomic architecture of MPXV is elucidated, focusing on key genetic elements responsible for viral replication, host interaction, and immunomodulation. The poxvirus mutates much less frequently because of the stability of double-stranded DNA and the DNA polymerase’s high 3′-5′ exonuclease activity. Current treatment approaches for MPXV infection are discussed, highlighting the progress in vaccine development (JYNNEOS, ACAM2000, Aventis Pasteur smallpox vaccine (APSV)) and the efficacy of existing small-molecule antiviral agents (Tecovirimat Brincidofovir). The limitations of these treatments are acknowledged, emphasizing the need for continued research and development efforts. The potential role of herbal remedies in MPXV management is explored, drawing on traditional knowledge and recent scientific studies. Compounds with demonstrated antiviral properties are highlighted, offering a promising avenue for further investigation. An overview of ongoing clinical trials investigating novel therapeutic interventions for MPXV is presented. These include gaps in epidemiological surveillance, limited clinical data on MPXV in humans, and the necessity for targeted research on host-pathogen interactions to inform therapeutic development. This review provides a comprehensive overview of MPXV, addressing key aspects from genomics to treatment options. It underscores the urgent need for further research efforts to bridge existing knowledge gaps and develop more effective interventions against this emerging infectious disease.