loading page

The role of child gender and age in teacher-child relationship, self-regulation, social emotions and academic achievement in preschool: A multi-group structural equation modeling approach
  • Barry Bai,
  • Jing Li,
  • Yongjia Yu
Barry Bai
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Author Profile
Jing Li
The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile
Yongjia Yu
The University of Hong Kong
Author Profile


This study explored the relationships among teacher-child relationship (TCR), self-regulation (SR), social emotions (SE), and children’s learning of mathematics and vocabulary while considering the influence of gender and age. Two hundred seventy children (boys = 154, girls = 116) aged 3-6 years (Mage = 59.44 months) participated across 18 classes in three preschools. The results from multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed significant gender differences of TCR when predicting SR and SE. However, no significant gender differences were observed when SR predicted mathematics and vocabulary, or SE predicted these two. SR emerged as the most potent predictor of mathematics for all children. Furthermore, significant age variations were identified in TCR when predicting SR and SE and when SR and SE predicted mathematics and vocabulary. Finally, the research discusses implications for teachers, emphasizing the importance of tailored support for children of different genders and age groups to enhance TCR, SR, and SE.
05 Feb 2024Submitted to Infant and Child Development: prenatal, childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood
05 Feb 2024Assigned to Editor
05 Feb 2024Submission Checks Completed
20 Feb 2024Reviewer(s) Assigned
05 Mar 2024Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending