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The organic structure of human mind
Azeezia Institute of Medical Sciences & Research

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The structural theory of mind by Sigmund Freud stated of id, ego, and superego. The ‘triune brain theory’ put forward by MacLean simply describes the functional levels of the brain: ‘reptilian brain’, ‘paleomammalian brain’, and ‘neomammalian brain’. The neocortex gave the capacities for higher mental functions. The aim of the study is to formulate a model for the human mind based on the current knowledge of neuroanatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. The anatomic substrates for consciousness, perception, memory, language, emotions, abstraction, social judgement and self-awareness are analysed. The consciousness is mediated by the ascending reticular activating system. The multiple perceptions are analysed by the association cortices. The hippocampal- entorhinal circuitry is the site for memory processing. In the model for language, there is a ventral infratemporal stream for semantic comprehension, and a dorsal stream for phonological processing. The limbic system is the neural substrate for emotions. The abstraction is by the hippocampal-prefrontal circuitry. The prefrontal cortex is essential for social cognition. The association fibres and the commissural fibres connect the areas. The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus is the pacemaker of the biological clock. The neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid are involved in the modulation of all these.The ascending arousal system, limbic system, memory and language circuits, association areas, and the prefrontal cortex constitute the basic structural substrate for the human psyche. The functions are dependent on the balance between the excitatory and inhibitory activities of the neurotransmitters.