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Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol on retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma: Focusing on oxidative stress, cellular, and molecular mechanisms
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  • Maryam Golmohammadi,
  • Seyed Arash Aghaei Meibodi,
  • Sulieman Al-Hawary,
  • Jitendra Gupta,
  • Ibrohim B Sapaev,
  • Mazin A.A Najm,
  • Marim Alwave,
  • Mozhgan Nazifi,
  • Mohammadreza Rahmani
Maryam Golmohammadi
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
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Seyed Arash Aghaei Meibodi
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
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Sulieman Al-Hawary
Al al-Bayt University
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Jitendra Gupta
GLS University
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Ibrohim B Sapaev
New Uzbekistan University
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Mazin A.A Najm
Al-Ayen University
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Marim Alwave
Al-Farahidi University
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Mozhgan Nazifi
Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
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Mohammadreza Rahmani
Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences
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Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the major cells that are damaged in glaucoma leading to vision loss and blindness. The damage to RGCs in glaucoma is caused by various mechanisms such as elevated intraocular pressure, oxidative stress, inflammation, and other neurodegenerative processes. As the disease progresses, more and more RGCs are lost, leading to a gradual loss of vision. Therefore, protecting RGCs from damage and promoting their survival is an important goal in the treatment of glaucoma. Resveratrol (RES) exerts anti-oxidant effects and slows down the evolution and progression of glaucoma. This review was prepared using databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Based on the findings of this review, RES has a protective role on RGCs in cases of ischemic injury and hypoxia as well as ErbB2 protein expression in the retina. Additionally, RES has protective effects on RGCs by promoting cell growth, reducing apoptosis, and decreasing oxidative stress in H2O2-exposed RGCs. RES was also found to inhibit oxidative stress damage in RGCs and suppress the activation of MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, RES could alleviate retinal function impairment by suppressing the HIF-1a/VEGF and p38/p53 axis while stimulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. Hence, RES might exert potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of glaucoma by protecting RGCs from damage and promoting their survival.