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A 2.72 µ s row conversion time 11-bit column parallel single slope ADC with differential-clocks-assisted TDC interpolation for CMOS image sensor
  • Hao Duan,
  • Kaiming Nie,
  • Jiangtao Xu
Hao Duan
Tianjin University School of Microelectronics
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Kaiming Nie
Tianjin University School of Microelectronics

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Jiangtao Xu
Tianjin University School of Microelectronics
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Abstract

This paper proposes a readout scheme that utilizes a pair of differential-clocks-assisted time-to-digital converter (DCA-TDC) in CMOS image sensors (CISs). The DCA-TDC utilizes only half the number of ordinary TDC delay chain units by employing a binary-weighted search algorithm to determine the most significant bit (MSB) for fine quantization of a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (SSADC). The layout area and dynamic power introduced by the improved DCA-TDC delay chain are reduced by half compared to an ordinary TDC delay chain. The proposed SS ADC is designed and simulated using the 0.11 µm standard CMOS process. In the design environment with an analog voltage of 3.3 V, a digital voltage of 1.5 V, a clock frequency of 62.5 MHz, and a temporal resolution of 500 ps, this design is an 11-bit ADC with column-level power consumption of 65.4 µW, a row conversion time of 2.72 µs. Furthermore, it achieves an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 10.75 and a figure-of-merit (FoM) of 103.3 fJ/step. By interpolating a DCA-TDC, the quantization speed is faster than a traditional SS ADC. This scheme offers an effective solution for implementing high-frame-rate CISs.