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EFFICACY OF FUNGICIDES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF POWDERY MILDEW ( Leveillula taurica ) AND EPIDEMICS ON YIELD PERFORMANCE OF HOT PEPPER VARIETIES
  • Getachew Gebermicheal,
  • Degife Assefa,
  • Berhanu Lemma
Getachew Gebermicheal
Arba Minch University

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Degife Assefa
Arba Minch University
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Berhanu Lemma
Arba Minch University
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Abstract

Hot pepper is one of the most important spices, and vegetable cash crops cultivated during rainy and dry seasons. Powdery mildew caused by the fungus Leveillula taurica is becoming a serious threat to pepper production in South Ethiopia. The fungus causes significant damage to pepper production in irrigated fields during dry seasons. Three fungicides and five varieties had been studied in Arba Minch which is a highly prone area, The five varieties (C.annuum and C.frutescens) of pepper were sprayed with fungicides to evaluate for resistance and effectiveness of fungicides. Plots were sprayed every 7 days starting from the dates of first symptom appearance five times. The disease started at an early stage on older leaves and continues on young leaves. The mean disease severity significantly increased over time from the 7th to the 35th day. A significant (P<0.05) variation had been observed among fungicides on disease severity index(DSI), Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), and rate of disease progress(r) of which the fungicide triadimefon significantly P< (0.05%) reduced AUDPC, rate of infection, and DSI, and showed 3.8% days; 0.039units/day; and 13% resp. and thus to minimize epidemic duration and rate of infection efficiently by 53% days and 33units/day resp. compared to Mancozeb. Among the varieties, Capsicum frutescens (Melkashote) significantly decreased AUDPC, rate of infection, and DSI revealing 3% days, 0.03units/day, and 5% resp., and reduced epidemic duration effectively by 70% and 57% days of AUDPC; and 57% and 40% units /day infection rate against (C. annuum: Alaba and Marekofana respectively). Pathogen reaction and grouping based on the level of DSI placed a variety Melkashote(5%) and Melkazala(10%) as moderately resistant; Melkaawaze(12%), and Marekofana(15%) to be moderately susceptible while the variety Alaba(22%) found distinctly susceptible. The C.annuum; Alaba and Marekofana varieties, showed the highest severity, DSI, AUDPC, and rate of infection, however, they significantly provided the highest pod yield of 1806 and 1794gm/plot respectively. Among the fungicides, triadimefon was effective to reduce the epidemics, and the varieties C. frutescens; Melkashote, and Melkazala were moderately resistant and retarded the disease efficiently.