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Protection mechanisms of cell and hair follicle for paclitaxel-induced alopecia with scalp cooling in the rat model
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  • Yi Xu,
  • liang chen,
  • Xuhui Ye,
  • Hangyu Dang,
  • Mengdong Cui
Yi Xu
University of Shanghai for Science and Technology

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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liang chen
University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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Xuhui Ye
University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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Hangyu Dang
University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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Mengdong Cui
University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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Abstract

Alopecia is one of the most intolerable side effects of chemotherapy for cancer. Scalp cooling is currently the only way to prevent alopecia due to chemotherapy, but the mechanisms involved in scalp cooling were unclear. The present work reveals a preliminary inhibitory mechanism of scalp cooling on paclitaxel-induced alopecia. Cold stimulation enhanced local vasoconstriction, the vascular diameter presented an oscillating attenuation. The final change rate of blood vessel dimensionless diameter was 0.32 at 22℃. This led to the reduction of chemotherapeutic drugs transported by blood flow and the reduction of drug concentration in scalp. Cooling significantly rescued REK cells with individual chemotherapy drugs, and the lower temperature, the better the protection. Cooling weakened the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC) treatment in some extent. Cells cultured at 22°C resulted in G1 phase arrest. Paclitaxel-treated cells blocked G2 phase and induced cell apoptosis. However, when the cells were treated with paclitaxel at 22°C, the cell cycle returned to normal. The low temperature balanced the effect of paclitaxel on the cell cycle. The cells were treated at 22°C for 2h, the concentration of HSP70 was significantly higher than that of the control group, more than 3 times. Cooling reduced the number of PH3+ and Caspase-3+ cells in the hair follicle, and effectively reduced the cell apoptosis in the hair follicle. These results can be potential to provide a basis for more deeply understanding alopecia prevention with scalp cooling during chemotherapy.