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The IL-15 and IL-8 Axis as a Novel Mechanism for Recurrent Chronic Rhino-Sinusitis with Nasal Polyps
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  • Kai-Min Fang,
  • Yen-Ling Chiu,
  • Ruo-Wei Hong,
  • Ping-Chia Cheng,
  • Po-Wen Cheng,
  • Li-Jen Liao
Kai-Min Fang
Oriental Institute of Technology
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Yen-Ling Chiu
Far Eastern Memorial Hospital
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Ruo-Wei Hong
Far Eastern Memorial Hospital
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Ping-Chia Cheng
Far Eastern Memorial Hospital
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Po-Wen Cheng
Far Eastern Memorial Hospital
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Li-Jen Liao
Far Eastern Memorial Hospital

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Abstract

Background: Prevention of postoperative recurrence after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) relies on targeting specific pathological mechanisms according to individuals’ immunological profiles. However, essential biomarkers and biological characteristics of difficult-to-treat chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients are not well clarified. Objective: To explore the immunologic profiles of subgroups of CRS patients and determine specific cytokines responsible for recalcitrant or recurrent CRS with nasal polyposis (rCRSwNP). Methods: We used 30-cytokine antibody arrays to determine key cytokines related to recurrent polypogenesis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) experiments were conducted to assess levels of these key cytokines in 78 patients. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) isolated from nasal polyps were challenged with specific cytokines to examine levels of enhanced interleukin (IL)-8 production. Finally, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining to check for the presence and distribution of the biomarkers within nasal polyps. Results: A cytokine antibody array revealed that IL-8, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-20 were significantly higher in the recalcitrant CRSwNP group. Subsequent ELISA screening showed a stepwise increase in tissue IL-8 levels in the CHR, CRSsNP and CRSwNP groups. PMNs isolated from 9 CRSwNP cases all demonstrated enhanced IL-8 production after IL-15 treatment. IHC staining labeled concurrent IL-8 and IL-15 expression in areas of prominent neutrophil infiltration. Conclusion: Our results suggest that IL-15 within the sinonasal mucosa plays a crucial role in promoting IL-8 secretion by infiltrating PMNs in recalcitrant nasal polyps. In addition, we propose a novel therapeutic strategy targeting the anti-IL-15/IL-8 axis in treating CRS with nasal polyposis.