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A Comprehensive Review of Drivers influencing Flu Vaccine Acceptance in the Middle East: Using Health Belief Model
  • Zahraa Al-Alag,
  • Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili,
  • Fadya Al-Hamadani
Zahraa Al-Alag
Total Life Care Rx Pharmacy (TLCRX) Clinical Team
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Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili
University of Baghdad Bab Al-Moadham Campus College of Pharmacy

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Fadya Al-Hamadani
University of Baghdad Bab Al-Moadham Campus College of Pharmacy
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Rationale, aims and objectives: A review of studies published over the last six years gives update about this hot topic. In the middle of COVID-19 pandemic, this study findings can help understand how population may perceive vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to review the literature covering the perceptions about influenza vaccines and to determine factors influencing the acceptance of vaccination using Health Belief Model (HBM). Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Three keywords were used: Influenza vaccine, perceptions, and Middle East. Empirical studies that dealt with people/ HCW perceptions of influenza vaccine in the Middle East and written in English were included. The search covered articles published between January 2015 and November 2020. Results: A total of 34 cross-sectional studies from of 22 countries were included in this review. The vaccination rates in Middle East varied widely. However, the overall influenza vaccination rates were generally low (<50%) among general population, particularly among pregnant women and children. HCWs had relatively higher vaccination rates compared to general population. Old age, health comorbidities or working in high-risk environments were noted as major motivators to receive the vaccine. Concerns about adverse reactions and the lack of vaccine efficacy were the most predominant reported barriers to receiving the vaccines. Lastly, cues to actions included receiving advice from HCWs, influence of institutional requirement, awareness/ educational pamphlets and influence from the media. Conclusions: The HBM can be helpful in identifying and analyzing motivators and barriers to vaccination. Additionally, by looking at the root causation, this model can help plan campaigns to increase vaccination rates in the region. Finally, we recommend empowering HCWs to proactively advocate for vaccination as part of preventive care.