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CRISPR Cas System: a Strategic Approach in Detection of Nucleic Acids
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  • Funmilayo Fapohunda,
  • Dong Huang,
  • Songlin Qiu,
  • Sen Qiao,
  • Ye Pan,
  • Shenyan Shi,
  • Huiying Wang,
  • Peng Lu
Funmilayo Fapohunda
Jiangsu University
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Dong Huang
Jiangsu University
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Songlin Qiu
Jiangsu University
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Sen Qiao
Jiangsu University
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Ye Pan
Jiangsu University
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Shenyan Shi
Jiangsu University
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Huiying Wang
Jiangsu Well Biotechnology Co., Ltd, Changzhou
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Peng Lu
Jiangsu University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Abstract

Over the decades, rapid nucleic acid detection has been difficult to scientists, especially to those in the field of microbiology, biotechnology and immunology. Most principles are finite in sensitivity, specificity or both. Recently, better technologies and immunoassays are being developed using specific antibodies in order to improve accurate detection in diagnostics approaches. CRISPR systems, which are natively inhabitant of prokaryotes, provides adaptive immunity to bacteriophages and transformation of plasmid, advanced in modern technologies for diagnostics and treatments, applied in therapeutic areas and has helped tremendously in, base editing, , transcriptional regulation, gene editing, epigenome editing and especially in detecting nucleic acid that is vital to human health. These modern approaches are combined or paired with other methods like SHERLOCK, DETECTR, HUDSON, and so on to detect viruses and other pathogenic agents directly from patient samples. CRISPR Cas proteins, Cas9 system majorly, is a very significant and effective tool used in editing gene based on the adaptive immune defense mechanism of Bacteria and Achaea against foreign DNA invasion. Cas 13 and Cas 12 has collateral cleavage activity that has been utilized for applications in diagnostics and detection of nucleic acids such as SHERLOCK. Also, Cas 13 can process its CRISPR array and release individual CRISPR RNA also known as CrRNAs. Conclusively, rapid, sensitive, accurate and advanced molecular techniques will be increased since they can be applied in both diagnostics and treatments.