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Assessment of the Effectiveness of National Park Policies and Laws in Promoting Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Sustainability in Pakistan
  • Banafsha Javed,
  • Qamer Ridwan,
  • Delin Huang
Banafsha Javed
China University of Geosciences
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Qamer Ridwan
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Delin Huang
China University of Geosciences

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Ecological sustainability and biodiversity conservation have become crucial focal points for researchers and governments worldwide. In response, Pakistan has implemented various laws and policies aimed at enhancing forest sustainability and preserving its rich biodiversity. Despite these efforts, little investigation has been conducted to assess the effectiveness of these policies. The present study aimed to analyze the impact of national park policies and laws on various factors, including biodiversity conservation, water resource protection, consumptive and non-consumptive benefits, research and education, and the promotion of recreation and tourism in 19 National Parks of Pakistan. A mixed-mode research design was utilized, combining both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Data was gathered from 300 participants through a close-ended questionnaire employing a Likert scale. Analysis of the collected data was conducted using the SMART PLS 4 software. The findings demonstrate that the existing policies and laws have significantly contributed to the preservation of forest sustainability in Pakistan. However, the study also revealed certain limitations and gaps in the current policies, highlighting the need for periodic re-evaluation and reform of ecological regulations. To foster a performance-oriented and change-conscious public sector in the country, there is a pressing demand for a more dynamic approach to ecological policy-making. Continuous evaluation and adaptation of policies will be essential in creating an environment conducive to sustainable development, meeting the aspirations of stakeholders, and conserving Pakistan's valuable natural resources.