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Hematological Parameters to Predict Post-COVID-19 Immune Response, and the Development of On-Reaching Herd Immunity. A cross-sectional study
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  • Qaisar Ali Khan,
  • Tahira Atta,
  • Tamara Tango,
  • Arif Mumtaz,
  • Priyadharshini Saravanan,
  • Sree Harshitha Vallabhaneni,
  • Ismail Khan Shinwari,
  • Bhavana Vattikuti,
  • Christopher Farkouh,
  • Rukhsar Jan,
  • Matthew Farkouh,
  • Parsa Abdi,
  • Natalia Santiago,
  • Ravina Verma
Qaisar Ali Khan
Khyber Teaching Hospital MTI KTH
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Tahira Atta
KMU Institute of Medical Sciences Kohat
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Tamara Tango
Universitas Indonesia
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Arif Mumtaz
KMU Institute of Medical Sciences Kohat
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Priyadharshini Saravanan
Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences
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Sree Harshitha Vallabhaneni
Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research
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Ismail Khan Shinwari
DHQ and Teaching Hospital KDA Kohat
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Bhavana Vattikuti
Cebu Doctors' University College of Medicine
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Christopher Farkouh
Rush University Rush Medical College
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Rukhsar Jan
DHQ and Teaching Hospital KDA Kohat
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Matthew Farkouh
Ponce Health Sciences University
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Parsa Abdi
Memorial University of Newfoundland Faculty of Medicine
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Natalia Santiago
Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara - Facultad de Medicina
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Ravina Verma
St George's University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Background: Here we conducted this study to find the changes in the hematological parameters of healthy individuals that can predict their immune status, also this study aims to find out whether herd immunity against COVID-19 is developing or not in the Pakistani population. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study of 210 healthy individuals was conducted. All individuals were divided into three groups i.e IgG positive, IgG negative, and IgG and IgM both positive based on ELISA results. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 25 for windows. Results: A statistically significant effect was found among the three groups in terms of mean hemoglobin level, mean hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean red blood cells count, RDW-CV, mean lymphocyte, mean neutrophil, mean eosinophils, and mean basophil. The study also showed that 52.8% (n=74) had neither taken vaccination nor had any history of previous covid infection but still their antibodies were positive. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant difference among hematological parameters between immune and nonimmune groups and can predict the covid immune status also the study predicted that herd immunity against COVID-19 is developing in Pakistan.
27 Feb 2023Submitted to Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
01 Mar 2023Assigned to Editor
01 Mar 2023Submission Checks Completed
28 Aug 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
31 Aug 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
20 Sep 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Major
09 Oct 20231st Revision Received