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Exosomes released from macrophages infected with Talaromyces marneffei activate the innate immune responses and reduce intracellular multiplication
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  • Guangquan Ji,
  • Shan Feng,
  • Wenhao Cheng,
  • Hong Ren,
  • Renqiong Chen
Guangquan Ji
Xuzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital of Lianyungang
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Shan Feng
Xuzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital of Lianyungang
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Wenhao Cheng
Xuzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital of Lianyungang
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Hong Ren
Xuzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital of Lianyungang
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Renqiong Chen
Xuzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital of Lianyungang

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Abstract

Recent studies have shown that exosomes are involved in pathogenesis and in the treatment of various tumors and inflammatory diseases. We examined the impacts of exosomes released from Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei)-infected macrophages on human macrophages to determine whether they play a role in the pathogenesis of T. marneffei infection. Exosomes derived from macrophages were extracted using commercial kits and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and western blot. Further, we examine exosomes that regulate IL-10 and TNF-α production and activation of p42 and p44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and activation of autophagy. We found that exosomes induced activation of ERK1/2 and autophagy, IL-10 and TNF-α production in human macrophages. Furthermore, exosomes decreased the replication of T. marneffei in T. marneffei-infected human macrophages. Interestingly, exosomes isolated from T. marneffei-infected but not from uninfected macrophages can stimulate a proinflammtory response in resting macrophages. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that exosomes isolated from T. marneffei-infected macrophages can induce a proinflammatory response, and we hypothesize that exosomes play significant roles in activation of ERK1/2 and autophagy, the replication of T. marneffei and cytokine release during T. marneffei infection.
10 Jan 2023Submitted to Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
12 Jan 2023Submission Checks Completed
12 Jan 2023Assigned to Editor
12 Jan 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
27 Jan 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
24 Feb 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Major
22 Mar 20231st Revision Received
23 Mar 2023Submission Checks Completed
23 Mar 2023Assigned to Editor
23 Mar 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
24 Mar 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
10 Apr 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
17 Apr 20232nd Revision Received
18 Apr 2023Assigned to Editor
18 Apr 2023Submission Checks Completed
18 Apr 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
23 Apr 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
10 May 2023Editorial Decision: Accept