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A Transformative Shift Towards Blockchain-based IoT Environments: Consensus, Smart Contracts, and Future Directions
  • +2
  • Chandan Trivedi,
  • Udai Rao,
  • Keyur Parmar,
  • Pronaya Bhattacharya,
  • Sudeep Tanwar
Chandan Trivedi
Nirma University Institute of Technology
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Udai Rao
National Institute of Technology Patna
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Keyur Parmar
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology
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Pronaya Bhattacharya
Nirma University
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Sudeep Tanwar
Nirma University Institute of Technology

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Recently, blockchain-based IoT solutions have been proposed that address trust limitation by maintaining data consistency, immutability, and chronology in IoT environments. However, IoT ecosystems are resource-constrained and have low bandwidth and finite computing power of sensor nodes. Thus, the inclusion of blockchain requires an effective policy design regarding consensus and smart contract environments in heterogeneous IoT applications. Recent studies have presented blockchain as a potential solution in IoT, but an effective view of consensus and smart contract design to meet the end application requirements is an open problem. Motivated by the same, the survey presents the integration of suitable low-powered consensus protocols and smart contract design to assess and validate the blockchain-IoT ecosystems. We discuss the key blockchain concepts and present the scalability and performance issues of consensus protocols to support IoT. Further, we discuss smart contract vulnerabilities and blockchain attacks. Open issues and future directions are presented, supported through a case study of low-powered consensus protocol design in the blockchain- IoT ecosystem. The survey intends to drive novel solutions for future consensus and safe, smart contract designs to support applicative IoT ecosyst
18 Dec 2022Submitted to Security and Privacy
19 Dec 2022Submission Checks Completed
19 Dec 2022Assigned to Editor
20 Dec 2022Reviewer(s) Assigned
08 Jan 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
08 Jan 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Major
26 Jan 20231st Revision Received
27 Jan 2023Submission Checks Completed
27 Jan 2023Assigned to Editor
28 Jan 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
22 Feb 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
24 Feb 2023Editorial Decision: Accept